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Gestion Social de Informacion. Comunidades Online y Redes Sociales

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Presentacion hecha en CORFO sobre la creacion de comunidades online y administracion de redes sociales. Incluye revision de literatura de comunidades online y redes sociales.

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Gestion Social de Informacion. Comunidades Online y Redes Sociales

  1. 1. Gestión Social de Información: Comunidades Online y Redes Sociales Javier Velasco, Ph.D. CITIAPS Universidad de Santiago javier.velasco@usach.cl @mantruc ! 16 de Octubre de 2014
  2. 2. Temario • Comunidades Online • Redes Sociales • Gestión Social de la Información
  3. 3. Qué es una Comunidad? Problema central al desarrollo de la sociología (Fernback, 2007; Studdert, 2005) La discusión sobre comunidades puede rastrearse hasta el siglo 11 AC (Wellman, 1999)
  4. 4. Un concepto relativo Hay una variedad de usos para el término, se hace difícil definirlo en términos académicos (Wellman, 1999; Preece, 2000; Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004; Studdert, 2005) “La comunidad europea” “La comunidad afro-americana” “La comunidad gay”
  5. 5. ¿Definidas en forma territorial? Varias de las definiciones incorporan el concepto de localidad. El caso ideal es visto como la pequeña villa (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic; Wellman, 1999)
  6. 6. ¿Definidas en forma territorial? Hamman (1999, para 4) define una comunidad como: 1. Un grupo de personas, 2. que comparte interacción social 3. y algunos vínculos entre ellos y otros miembros del grupo, y que comparten un área al menos parte del tiempo.
  7. 7. Identidad y pertenencia La socialización y sentidos de identidad y pertenencia son centrales a la comunidad, algunas veces referida como "el tercer lugar" (Hamman, 1997)
  8. 8. ¿Comunidades en riesgo? Por siglos se ha venido temiendo la pérdida del sentido de comunidad, preocupación que puede ser rastreada por más de 2000 años en la cultura occidental, cubierta por intelectuales destacados (Tonnies, 1974; Wellman, 1999; Evans, 2004)
  9. 9. Comunidad vs. Individuo El dilema social-individual ha sido central en el desarrollo de la sociedad occidental. El individualismo es un factor importante en la debilitación de las comunidades (Willard & Fields, 1991)
  10. 10. !Están en flujo! Las comunidades están cambiando, no desapareciendo (Wellman, 1996; 1999)
  11. 11. Una definición “I define ‘community’ as networks of interpersonal ties that provide sociability, support, information, a sense of belonging and social identity.” (Wellman, 2001, p. 228)
  12. 12. Leonie D, 2008
  13. 13. Comunidades Online Los primeros creadores de redes computacionales imaginaban una vida feliz potenciada por comunidades online basadas en intereses comunes (Licklider & Taylor, 1968)
  14. 14. Comunidades Online The computer as a communication device Licklider & Taylor, 1968 “In a few years, men [and women] will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face” (p. 21). On-line interactive communities: “In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest.” (p. 37).
  15. 15. Comunidades Online The computer as a communication device (Licklider & Taylor, 1968). “…telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that, will be very great- both for the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected by commonality of interests and goals rather than accidents of proximity” (p. 40).
  16. 16. Internet enajena Algunos autores veían la comunicación por internet como una amenaza a la socialización. (Kraut et al, 1996; Homenet Group, 1998)
  17. 17. Online ayuda a local Otros académicos afirman que las comunidades online pueden fortalecer comunidades locales (Blanchard & Horan; Evans, 2004; Hampton, 2007; Xie, 2008)
  18. 18. Apoyo Las comunidades virtuales pueden permitir que la gente se involucre en relaciones positivas y formas de organización que prestan apoyo (Rheingold, 2008)
  19. 19. ...“But because of your guidance, constant companionship and true friendship, I have learned that life is full of choices, life is beautiful that life is all about learning to love what’s there. I’m really thankful to all of you, you brought me reasons to smile, I’ve been seeing myself always smiling, laughing my heart out and alive again.”... Bernardette San Jose, 2009
  20. 20. Definiendo Comunidad Online “A Virtual community is a group of people who may or may not meet one another face to face, and who exchange words and ideas through the mediation of computer bulletin boards and networks.” a certain (loose) social contract certain (eclectic) interests usually a geographically local focus often a connection to a much wider domain (Rheingold, 2008, p3.)
  21. 21. Redes Sociales Online Segunda-generación de comunidades online, aquí las comunidades se forman al rededor de los usuarios. Su foco es la manutención de relaciones offline previas. (Beer, 2008; Boyd & Ellison, 2008; Stefanone & Jang, 2008)
  22. 22. Redes Sociales Una forma de describir la organización social Redes, no comunidades (Wellman, 1996) Teoría de redes Teoría de grados Nodos y arcos
  23. 23. Análisis de redes sociales Fuerza del enlace Densidad de la red Centralidad Grado Cercanía Intermediación Cúpulas (Cliques) Puentes
  24. 24. Amistad vs. Pololeos en Educación Media Mark Newman, Univ of Michingan
  25. 25. Redes Personales Redes ego-céntricas Una persona pertenece a múltiples redes
  26. 26. Análisis de Redes Sociales (SNA) en Comunicación Mediatizada por Computadores (CMC) E-mail IM Web Listservs Web Blogs Eckmann et al, 2004 Ali-Hasan & Adamic, 2007
  27. 27. Redes Sociales Online Especialmente diseñadas para potenciar el flujo de recursos a través de las redes sociales de las personas. Cada usuario tiene una vista única del sistema, basada en sus propias relaciones.
  28. 28. Leyes de Potencia Subscribers x Blog / Bloglines Java et al., 2007 Views x Photo / Flickr van Zwol, 2007
  29. 29. Cada Herramienta tiene su Dinámica Propia OSD (Likely to Share) Intimacy Intimacy Tool Topic Tool (Velasco, 2011)
  30. 30. Construcciones Sociales Online Más que preguntarnos si las comunidades online son verdaderas comunidades, deberíamos enfocarnos en estudiar cómo están generando las personas constructor sociales significativos online (Fernback, 2007)
  31. 31. Mundos Fusionados As the Internet is now embedded in our regular lives, the distinction between online and offline communities dissolves. (Haythonrwaite & Hagaar, 2005; Xie, 2008) ... “it is when technological changes become pervasive, familiar and boring that they affect societies the most”. (Wellman, 2001, p. 228)
  32. 32. Media Multiplexity As relationships become closer, people use a wider variety of media to stay in touch. (Haythornthwaite, 2002)
  33. 33. Gestión Social de Información Gene Smith, noviembre 2006!
  34. 34. Reglas de Participación Discussion list guidelines 1. Respect each other. Diversity in Web development is not only tolerated but encouraged. Argument and debate are fine. Character digs and personal attacks are not. You are responsible for what you write. Those who cannot be civil will be removed from the list of subscribers and will not be permitted to return. 2. Limited off-topic posts are fine; however they must be labelled [OT] in the subject line. Also, we ask that you "pay" for off-topic posts by including a Web tip that you find useful. Example: <tip> Include META tags in all of your pages for better search engine placement. </tip> Please stay consistent with the <tip></tip> tags, so that our Tip Harvester can extract them for the archive. If you want to be extra helpful, your opening tag could be formatted: <tip type="META Tags" author="Your Name"> Include META tags in all of your pages for better search engine placement. </tip> 3. To the best of your ability, keep posts short. 4. Keep your subject lines specific, as many people decide what posts to read from the subject line. "Help!," "What am I doing wrong?," and "Arrraugh" are not acceptable subject lines. If an ongoing discussion drifts from the initial subject, please change the subject line to reflect the new subject. For example, "e-commerce solutions" becomes "problem clients (was: e-commerce solutions)." 5. When responding to a post, delete all information that is not strictly necessary. This includes the evolt.org tag line and .sig files. Delete anything you're not specifically responding to. 6. When responding to a post, please make it clear who you're responding to. Not everyone is going to remember who the original sender was. 7. Don't post urban legends, virus alerts or humorous forwards. Please. 8. Don't post copyrighted material. If you think an article would be helpful to others on the list, provide a link. 9. You must ask permission if you want to forward or otherwise reproduce a post from a member of the list.
  35. 35. Economía de Participación (Morville & Rosenfeld, 2006)
  36. 36. Economía de Participación (Morville & Rosenfeld, 2006)
  37. 37. (Morville & Rosenfeld, 2006)
  38. 38. Economía de Participación (Morville & Rosenfeld, 2006)
  39. 39. Elementos Clave Key elements in a successful online community include (Morville & Rosenfeld, 2006): Cultures and communities don’t just happen; they require careful nurturing. On the other hand, they wither if over-managed. (p. 460) Someone has to play God, setting up the rules and infrastructure that create an environment that becomes self-sustaining, and where people join and participate. (p. 461) Participation requires a balance of give (creating content) and take. (p. 462) It’s not grandiose to claim that each successful online community has its own culture (p. 462)
  40. 40. Moderación de Comentarios Commenting threads: good, bad, or not at all. By Bora Zivkovic http:// blogs.scientificamerican.com/ a-blog-around-the-clock/ 2013/01/28/commenting-threads- good-bad-or-not-at-all/ 1-9-90% Rule
  41. 41. Clasificación Social
  42. 42. ¿Por qué taggear documentos? • Incentivos a los usuarios • Future retrieval • Contribution and sharing • Attract attention • Play and competition • Self presentation • Opinion expression Marlow, C., Naamanm M., Boyd, D., Davis, M., 2006
  43. 43. Juegos Sui Generis
  44. 44. Clasificación Social • Taxonomía • Control • Autoridad • Precisión • Jerarquía, clasificación • Búsqueda • Folksonomía! • Flexibilidad • Simpleza, popularidad • Utilidad • Plano, categorización • Exploración, descubrimiento (serendipia)
  45. 45. Enfoque Combinado
  46. 46. Difusión Viral Video Difusión Viral - George Takei
  47. 47. Conclusiones • Fomentar el desarrollo una cultura • Ofrecer espacios de participación que se ajusten a las necesidades del grupo • Participación activa de un grupo semilla • Apoyar a líderes • Incentivos de participación
  48. 48. Gestión Social de Información: Comunidades Online y Redes Sociales Javier Velasco, Ph.D. CITIAPS Universidad de Santiago javier.velasco@usach.cl @mantruc ! 16 de Octubre de 2014

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