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Political Scientist at HIIT

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I talk about two themes: 1) a participation system for audiences, and 2) research on social media in the context of politics and elections. The participation system discussed in the first part is a communications tool developed at the Digital Content Communities group of HIIT. For example, during large scale lectures the system empowers the students to take part on the lecture, not to sit back and merely watch the slides. This presentation will focus on the evaluation dimensions and future research we plan to conduct using the system, in addition to a few preliminary results. The second topic examines the use of social media in politics in Finland, and tries to bring a more nordic view to the U.S. dominated research. Preliminary analysis of the parliamentary elections and current work on the municipal elections are discussed.

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Political Scientist at HIIT

  1. 1. Political Scientist at HIIT Matti Nelimarkka matti.nelimarkka@hiit.fi Twitter: @matnel ; IRCNet: matnel
  2. 2. Today I will talk aboutPervasive Social media andparticipation tool politicians•  background •  background•  current system •  parliamentary elections (2011)•  preliminary results •  municipal elections (2012)•  future work
  3. 3. Participation?! Voting E-mailing council members Riots Petitions Consuming Discussing Liking in Facebook Contacting administration Anduiza, et al. (2009). Political participation and the internet. Information, Communication & Society, 12: 6, 860 -878 van Deth (2001). Studying political participation: towards a theory of everything?. Joint Sessions of Workshops of the European Consortium for Political Research
  4. 4. Participation?! Voting Liberal-individualist digital democracy E-mailing council members Riots Petitions Consuming Discussing Deliberative digital democracy Liking in Facebook Contacting administration Graham (2012). Beyond ”Political” Communicative Spaces: Talking Politics on the Wife Swap Discussion Forum. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 9(1), 31–45. Dahlberg (2011). Re-constructing digital democracy: An outline of four “positions”. New Media & Society, 13(6), 855–872.
  5. 5. Hitchhikers guide to Deliberation a b A B
  6. 6. Hitchhikers guide to Deliberation a ? A α à a … B
  7. 7. Hitchhikers guide to Deliberation a’ b > a? a’ α = a’ A b ≈ a’ B
  8. 8. Online world and participation Dahlberg (2001): Extending the public sphere through cyberspace: The case of Minnesota E-Democracy Machintosh et al (2003): ElectronicDemocracy and Young People Jensen (2003):Virtual democratic dialogue? Bringing together citizens and politicians Albrecht (2006): Whose voice is heard in online deliberation? A study ofparticipation and representation in political debates on the Internet. Strandberg (2008): Public deliberation goes on-line? An analysis of citizens’ political discussions on the Internet prior to the Finnish parliamentary elections in 2007 Baek et al (2011): Online versus face-to-face deliberation: Who? Why? What? With what effects?
  9. 9. They have just been building platforms… Whatrecommendations would I give to someone building such system?
  10. 10. They have just been building platforms… What recommendations would I give to someone building such system?“… comparatively testing different forum interfaces tosee how they impact deliberation (and other values)would enhance Saward’s democratic toolkit. …” Wright (2012). Politics as usual? Revolution, normalization and a new agenda for online deliberation. New Media & Society, 14(2), 244–261.
  11. 11. Presemo and work on that
  12. 12. Backchannels and stuff IRC (McCarthy & boyd, 2005) Twitter (Elmer, in press) backchan.nl (Harry et al., 2009) ClassCommons (Du et al., 2012) McCarthy, & boyd (2005): Digital backchannels in shared physical spaces. CHI ’05 Elmer (in press). Live research: Twittering an election debate. New Media & Society Du et al.. (2012):. Augmenting classroom participation through public digital backchannels. GROUP ’12 Harry et al. (2009): backchan.nl. CHI 09
  13. 13. Our Contribution:Support for (study of)control mechanics
  14. 14. My thinking Affordances and FeedbackSocial structure limitations mechanics
  15. 15. My thinking Affordances and FeedbackSocial structure limitations mechanics Anonymity? Message length? Turn taking?
  16. 16. My thinking Affordances and FeedbackSocial structure limitations mechanics Computational analysis? Karma? Social feedback?
  17. 17. Evaluation ‘framework’ Deliberation Experience
  18. 18. Approaches to studyMaija Matti Minni Mika
  19. 19. The Study Anonymous NicksNew threads 2.2 3.4Responses 3.1 13.8Σ 3.4 13.6 per contributor
  20. 20. ObservationIn the context of boarding school studentspresenting their progress on weekly bases:1.  Anonymous participants and named participants generated circa same amount of new topics2.  Named participants were much more interested in the conversation
  21. 21. Example (with nicks) Mui.   Hello.   mui   hello   rekursiivinen  mui   recursive  hello   mui   hello   rekursio  jatkuu   recursion  connues   tuska,  rekursio  ei  mene   oh  my,  the  recursion  doesn’t  go   tämän  syvemmälle   deeper   asia  on  korja5ava   potkitaan  ma7a   this  must  be  fixed   kayte5avyysongelmasta   let’s  nofy  ma7  about  an  usability   issue  
  22. 22. Example (anonymous) oo5e  kaikki   you’re  all  homoja  t.   gay  t.  anonymous   anonymous   väitän,  e5ä  naisille  oikea   i  claim  that  for  women  the  correct   termi  ois  lesbo   term  is  “lesbian”   väitän  e5ä  lesbo  on   I  claim  that  lesbian”  is  a  spoken   puhekielinen  ilmaus  ja  myös   naispuoliset  homot  ovat   language  term  and  all  female  gays   homoja   are  also  gays   väitän,  e5ä  homo  on   I  claim  that  “gay”  is  a  spoken   puhekielinen  ilmaus  ja   language  term  and  all  gays  and   homot  ja  lesbot  ovat   homoseksuaaleja   lesbians  are  homosexual   to5a!   I  agree  
  23. 23. Future work
  24. 24. Something totally different next!
  25. 25. “These are the social media elections”
  26. 26. Previous work Adamic Glance (2005): The political blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. election: divided they blog. Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Link discovery Lassen Brown (2011): Twitter: The ElectoralConnection. Social Science Computer Review, 29(4) Williams Gulati (in press): Social networks in political campaigns: Facebook andthe congressional elections of 2006 and 2008. New Media Society Schweitzer (2011): Normalization 2.0: A longitudinal analysis of Germanonline campaigns in the national elections 2002-9. European Journal ofCommunication, 26(4) Golbeck et al (2010): Twitter use by the U.S. Congress. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(8) Stromer-Galley, J. (2000). On-line interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication, 50(4)
  27. 27. Parliamentary elections 2011Presence in social media Number of followers in social networks
  28. 28. Parliamentary elections 2011Presence in social media Number of followers in social networks Younger people are more likely to be present in social media and they are also more active
  29. 29. Parliamentary elections 2011 Presence in social media Number of followers in social networks The money spend on the campaing does notincrease the engagement in the media, evenwhile the presence is increased
  30. 30. Parliamentary elections 2011 Presence in social media Number of followers in social networks The importance of the party has no positiveimpact in the presence nor in the engagement.
  31. 31. Parliamentary elections 2011 Presence in social media Number of followers in social networks Personal attributes have no significant impact.
  32. 32. Social media ~ (big) data Status updates Comments Likes Shares Friendships Followership
  33. 33. Social media ~ (big) data Status updates Comments Likes Fancy We have Shares method a clue Friendships Followership
  34. 34. Social media ~ (big) data Status updates Comments Likes Fancy We have Shares method a clue Friendships Followership About what?
  35. 35. Something interesting…Normalization Homogeneity Equality Impact
  36. 36. Data – we have it!{347840141974498: [{timestamp: 1347827862, comments: [], likes: [], text: null, id:347840141974498_347840168641162, user: 347840141974498}, {timestamp: 1347829790,comments: [{id: 5464046, timestamp: 1347965163, likes: [347840141974498], user:100000602647522, text: Kovin on aution nu00e4ku00f6istu00e4 alaosasta,mutta olisiko siinu00e4 1 aika kirkas tu00e4hti !}, {id: 5480710, timestamp: 1348351602, likes: [], user:100000309911166, text: Onko tu00e4mu00e4 jo suurseinu00e4joki?}, {id: 5482478,timestamp: 1348396864, likes: [1098500432], user: 347840141974498, text: Tu00e4ltu00e4 se Seinu00e4joki kokonaisuudessaan nu00e4yttu00e4u00e4. Pisteet kuvaavatKeskustan kuntavaaliehdokkaita. Arvaatte varmasti minun sijaintini tu00e4ssu00e4 kartassa. :)}, ~55 M of Facebook dumps ~25 M of Tweets
  37. 37. Future work
  38. 38. Political Scientist at HIIT Matti Nelimarkka matti.nelimarkka@hiit.fi Twitter: @matnel ; IRCNet: matnel

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