8. • Shaper is Machine tool which produces
flat surfaces in horizontal, vertical or
inclined planes depending upon the
orientation of the cutting tool.
• Single point cutting tool is used for
machining. Tool is clamped in the tool
post mounted on the ram of the machine.
• The ram reciprocates to and fro, tool cuts
the material in the forward stroke, No
cutting during return stroke.
• Job is held rigidly in a vice.
11. Main parts of a shaping machine
1. BASE 5. CROSS RAIL
2. COLUMN 6. SADDLE
3. RAM 7. TOOL HEAD
4. TABLE 8. CLAPPER BOX
12. PARTS OF SHAPER
BASE made of cast iron. Provides
support for other parts of
COLUMN- box type casting
mounted vertically on top of
• It has 2 guide ways. One
vertical guideway in the front
over which a cross slide moves
up and down.
• 2nd horizontal guide ways on
top over which ram reciprocate.
• The reciprocating mechanism is
housed inside the column
13. CROSS RAIL : It is mounted on the
f ront vertical guide ways.
• The table can be lowered or raised
by adjusting the cross rail
TABLE: mounted on a saddle which
is located above the cross rail. Top
and sides are accurately machined
and have T slots.
RAM: supports tool head on its front.
It reciprocates on accurately
machined guideways on top of
PARTS OF SHAPER TOOL HEAD fitted on the face of
ram. Holds the tool rigidly.
• Provide vertical and angular feeds
for the tool
• Tool head can be positioned at
14. MP II UNIT 3 SHAPER AND PLANER
MECH DEPT KSSEM 2013
15. Classification of shapers
1 Position of ram travel
• Horizontal Shaper- Ram holding the cutting tool moves In
• Vertical Shaper-The cutting tool moves in vertical plane
• Traveling head Shaper-Cutting tool reciprocates & moves
cross wise simultaneously
2 Acc. to Cutting Stroke action
a) Push Type Shaper- Standard Shaper.
• Metal is removed when the ram moves away from column
• Most common type used in practice
• Unless otherwise specified, the term shaper refers to Push
b) Draw Type Shaper
• Metal is removed when the tool is drawn towards the
• Allows heavier cuts to be made
• Less vibration during cutting
16. 3 Acc. to Driving Mechanism:
a) Crank type - Driving mechanism is by crank & gear
b) Geared type - Driven by Rack & Pinion mechanism
c) Hydraulic Shaper - Driven by oil pressure developed by a
pump, which is run by an electric motor
4 Acc. to the Table Design:
a) Standard shaper- Work Table can be moved
1.Vertically & 2. Horizontally
b) Universal Shaper- Table can be moved
1. Horizontally 2. Vertically 3. Swivelled & 4. Tilted
This is mostly used in Tool Rooms
17. SHAPING OPERATIONS
Machining of horizontal surface
The work surface is held securely on the table
and tool is fixed in the tool head with
minimum overhang, as shown in figure. The
table with fixed work piece is raised close to
the tool; the length and position of the stroke
are adjusted. The stroke length is about 20mm
longer than the work and stroke is adjusted
such that the tool starts about 10-15 mm
before work piece and continues about 10 mm
after the end of cut.
Work piece is mounted on the table and the
surface to be machined is set parallel to stroke
axis. A side cutting tool is fitted in the tool head
as shown in figure. The length of stroke is
adjusted. The cutting feed is given by rotating
the down feed screw by hand (0.25 -0.50 mm)
18. Forward stroke is the cutting stroke. Return stroke the tool does not cut,
Double stroke= cutting stroke + return stroke
Stroke starts slightly before the work piece (a) and ends after the work piece (b)
Total stroke length = l+a+b
20. Feed/stroke = f
No. of stroke =n
Now, nxf = w
Forward Cutting Time, Tf =L/vc
Forward Cutting Time, Tr =L/vr
Total Time for single stroke, Tc = (L/vc + L/vr)
Total Cutting Time, T = nx(L/vc + L/vr)
Quick Return ration, r = vc/vr = Tr/Tc
*if approach and overrun is provided into operation,
then add that distance into length itself.