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Industrial Training Report
Master of Technology Page 1
REPORT ON
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
AT
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
(Air...
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION ABOUT HAL
1.1 Brief History
Hindustan Aerona...
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The Company takes up maintenance and overhaul services to cover the...
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 Aircraft Division Bangalore
 Overhaul Division Bangalore
 Aeros...
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 Jaguar
 MIRAGE 2000
Passenger Aircraft
 Dornier 228
 Indian Re...
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Fig.1.1 LCA- Tejas Fig.1.2 ALH- Dhruv
1.4 Aircraft division HAL, Be...
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 SB228 Modification on A300 Aircraft of Indian (Previously Indian ...
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 Sheet Metal Tools (Stretch Forming Blocks)
Aircraft Division is a...
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CHAPTER 2
BASIC FLIGHT THEORY
2.1 How lift is generated?
 Newton’s...
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An airfoil is a surface designed to obtain lift from the air throu...
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 Gravity or weight: the force that pulls the aircraft toward the ...
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CHAPTER 3
Departments visited in Aircraft division
3.1 Customer Se...
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Indian Navy Govt. of Jharkhand
Indian Coast Guard Govt. of Maharsh...
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 This route book contains detailed steps of what processes It con...
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Nom: 25mm diameter steel rod
Size:
inspection Sign
Operation
no/de...
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Stock in stores in polythene bag
Serial no:____ date:_____
3.3 Man...
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The finance department is also responsible for management of the o...
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HAL and Airbus had started the business in 1990 by signing a contr...
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 Radial drilling machines
The various drilling operations carried...
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HAL’s cost-effective and widespread skills are available to the In...
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Doors are directly being delivered to final assembly line at stati...
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Fig.3.1 Airbus forward passenger door
3.7.2 Boeing 777 Uplock Box ...
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 If there is a tire burst in the wheel well, the support box has ...
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3.8 NC shop and NC programing
Numerical control (NC) is the automa...
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Fig.3.3 NC machine
3.9 Maintenance and Safety department
Maintenan...
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 Audiometric tests are conducted periodically for employees to ch...
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Upper, lower, cross beam assembly and edge member of airbus, Leadi...
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Stretch forming occurs in a stretch press, with the Sheet metal se...
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Type of machine: hydraulic rubber press
Capacity : tonnage-1000 to...
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 To increase resistance of metal to wear, heat and corrosion.
 T...
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 Al alloys are heated from 3500
C to 4300
C followed by controlle...
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Aging: the improvement in strength following solution heat treatme...
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 The resultant strength of material would be more than the anneal...
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suited to anodizing, although other non-ferrous metals, such as ma...
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2. Alkaline cleaning tank: Alkaline cleaning agents contain strong...
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Cadmium plating: Cadmium is a soft white metal that, when plated o...
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3. Apply masking material. maskant is applied over areas where don...
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Canopy for cheetah and chetak helicopters and tejas, kiran, jaguar...
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glass cloth is used. But drilling is done directly on stretched ac...
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Penetrant Examination is performed with a dye solution. Once appli...
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Equipment: The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment comprises with ...
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 Lay-up bonding- Layers of polymers such as Kevlar fabric are lai...
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Fig.3.10 A wing leading edge formed from honeycomb material bonded...
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 Assembly jigs
 Drill jigs
 Milling fixtures
 Copy mill fixtur...
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3.18 Hawk machine shop
In this shop machine components of Hawk Mk ...
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Height: 3.98 m
Mach no: 1.2
Service ceiling: 45600 feet
Maximum Ta...
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 Horizontal turret lathe
 Vertical turret lathe
 CNC turret lat...
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 Vertical spindle type with reciprocating table
 Center type cyl...
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thereabouts depending on wing sweep) to the fuselage. The spar car...
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Fig.3.13 Construction of wing
Fig.3.14 Riveting
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Fig.3.15 Wing parts
3.20 Hawk equipping loom shop
In this shop, el...
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 Preassembled seating, galleys and lavatories are moved by hand a...
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Fig.3.16 Cockpit
Fig.3.17 cockpit layout
1. Weather Radar
 Locate...
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 The ADF Consist of a Needle and a Compass Card.
 It consist of ...
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Fig3.18 Weather radar
Fig.3.19 ADF Fig.3.20 Warning and Caution Pa...
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Semimonocoque type fuselage consists of formers, frame assemblies,...
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Fig.3.22 Semi-monocoque fuselage structure of an airplane
3. Empen...
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Rudder: The rudder is a moveable control surface hinged to the tra...
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Fig.3.24 Empennage
Landing gear: Located underneath of the fuselag...
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Fig3.25 Landing gear
Power plant
 Hawk aircraft is powered by an ...
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Dimensions
Fan Diameter: 570 mm
Length: 1,960 mm
Weight
Dry Weight...
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CHAPTER 4
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Flight control surfaces are hing...
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Fig.3.28 Flight control surfaces move the aircraft around the
Thre...
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Fig.3.29 Differential aileron control movement. When one aileron i...
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Conclusion
 Since its inception in 1940, the company has grown in...
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Reference
1. www.hal-india.com
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hi...
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HAL Aircraft Division Internship Report (Bengaluru)

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Industrial Training in HAL Aircraft Division (Bengaluru)

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HAL Aircraft Division Internship Report (Bengaluru)

  1. 1. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 1 REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (Aircraft Division, Bengaluru) SUBMITED BY: MALLIKARJUN G G M.Tech
  2. 2. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT HAL 1.1 Brief History Hindustan Aeronautic Limited [HAL] a premier Aerospace Company in Asia is engaged in design, development and manufacture of military and civil aircraft for over 75 years. The product range covers basic piston engine trainer aircraft to helicopters to sophisticated state of the art deep penetration strike aircraft. Hindustan Aeronautic Limited is an organization where integrated air borne weapons platforms are conceived, developed, manufactured and serviced. It is one of the few corporate giants in Asia whose capabilities span the entire range of activities from product conception to after sale support. HAL is also involved in the manufacture and assembly of structures required for India's space programs. The Company which had its origin as the Hindustan Aircraft Company was incorporated on 23 Dec 1940 at Bangalore by Shri Walchand Hirachand a farsighted visionary in association with the Government of Mysore with an Authorised Capital of Rs.4crores (Paid up capital Rs.40 lakhs) and with the aim of manufacturing aircraft in India. In March 1941, the Government of India became one of the shareholders in the Company holding 1/3 of its paid- up capital and subsequently took over its management in 1942. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. HAL is a fully owned Government of India undertaking under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence, Department of Defence Production. H.A.L is the largest Public Sector Unit (PSU) under the department of Defence production and is a Navaratna Company.
  3. 3. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 3 The Company takes up maintenance and overhaul services to cover the life cycle requirement of all the old and new products. Presently, 13 types of aircraft/ helicopters and 17 types of engines are being overhauled. In addition, facilities exist for repair/ overhaul of various accessories and avionics fitted on aircraft of Russian, Western and Indigenous designs. HAL is currently meeting the requirements of structures for aerospace launch vehicles and satellites of ISRO through its dedicated Aerospace Division. Infrastructure has also been set up to undertake completed assembly of the strap-on L-40 stage booster. Structures for GSLV Mk III have been productionised. HAL has also contributed to Mars mission by supplying riveted structural assemblies and welded propellant tankages for the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C25). Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centers in 7 locations in India. The Company has impressive product track record-12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R&D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured 3550 aircraft (which includes 11 types designed indigenously), 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defence and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects: HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects :  Dhruv- Advanced Light Helicopter – Weapon System Integration (ALH-WSI)  Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)  Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)  Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)  Various military and civil upgrades. 1.2 Divisions of HAL There are several divisions under Hindustan Aeronautical Limited. They are as under: BANGLORE COMPLEX
  4. 4. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 4  Aircraft Division Bangalore  Overhaul Division Bangalore  Aerospace Division Bangalore  Engine Division Bangalore  IGMT Division Bangalore  Aircraft Services Division  Foundry and Forge Division  Facilities Management Division MIG COMPLEX  Aircraft Division Nasik  Engine Division Koraput  Aircraft Overhaul Division Nasik  Sukhoi Engine Division Koraput ACCESSORIES COMPLEX  TAD-Kanpur Division  Accessories Division Lucknow  Avionics Division Hyderabad  Avionics Division Korwa HELICOPTER COMPLEX  Helicopter Division Bangalore  Helicopter MRO Division Bangalore  Barrackpore Division  CMD Division Bangalore 1.3 Products of HAL Fighter aircraft  HF-24 Marut: Mk1 and Mk1T  Tejas: Light Combat Aircraft  Su-30MKI: a derivative of the Sukhoi Su-27, co-developed with Sukhoi Corporation  FGFA: under joint development with Sukhoi Corporation  AMCA: India's indigenous stealth fighter (under development).  Mig series
  5. 5. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 5  Jaguar  MIRAGE 2000 Passenger Aircraft  Dornier 228  Indian Regional Jet Trainer Aircraft  HT-2 - First company design to enter production.  HPT-32 Deepak - Basic trainer in service for more than three decades.  HJT-16 Kiran — Mk1, Mk1A and Mk2 - Turbojet trainers scheduled to be replaced with IJT like HJT-36 Sitara  HTT-34 - Turboprop version of HPT-32 Deepak  HTT-35 - Proposed replacement for HPT-32 basic trainer in early 1990s; not pursued  HJT-36 Sitara — Intermediate jet trainer (under development)  HAL HTT-40 Basic trainer (under development) first prototype flew the first flight on 31May 2016.  Hawk Mk 132- Advanced Jet Trainer Helicopters  Dhruv (ALH)  Cheetah  Chetak Satellite Launch Vehicles  PSLV, GSLV, IRS, INSAT
  6. 6. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 6 Fig.1.1 LCA- Tejas Fig.1.2 ALH- Dhruv 1.4 Aircraft division HAL, Bengaluru I have done my internship training in Aircraft division HAL, Bengaluru. Aircraft Division was established in the year 1940. Since inception, the Division has manufactured a variety of Aircraft both licence as well as indigenously designed and developed. The Division is equipped with modern infrastructure in Plant and Equipment like CAD-CAM Manufacturing Engineering, Quality Assurance and Customer support System with 2179 highly skilled personnel including more than 511 officers working in a covered area of 2,25,000sq.m. The Division has so far manufactured over 2010 aircrafts of various types. With experience and capabilities built over past seven decades, the Aircraft Division is bidding for substantial share in the International Aeronautical market. Apart from 1st of Hawk Mk 132 Aircraft (66 Nos.), the division has signed contract with Indian Air Force and Indian Navy to supply additional 57 Hawk Aircraft (40 Hawk for Indian Airforce and 17 Hawk for Indian Navy). Aircraft Division, Bangalore has carried out Modifications  Modification on Boeing 747/200 Aircraft of Air India at Mumbai
  7. 7. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 7  SB228 Modification on A300 Aircraft of Indian (Previously Indian Airlines)  Cargo conversion modification on FOKKER F27 Aircraft  ' S ' band modification on Boeing 737  Aircraft Division has successfully complied DARIN II modifications on Jaguar Aircraft  After the production of initial Mk. 132 HAWK Aircraft, Aircraft Division has successfully carried out a number of Mods and CSIs as suggested by the OEM. Repairs  Composite Repairs, Structural Repairs, Welding Repairs, Parts Fabrications Manufacture of  Structural sub-assemblies such as Doors, Pylons, Fairings, Drop Tanks, Control Structures, etc.  Precision sheet metal forming (Cold or Hot Forming) of Aircraft components out of Light alloys,  Steel and Titanium  Precision machined components  Honeycomb Sand witch bonded structures, metal-to-metal bonded components, Composite components in Carbon, Kevlar etc  Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic components like Fairings, Ducts, Pipes etc  Aircraft Transparencies like Windshields, Canopies, Helicopters Panel, etc  Electrical Cable Looms (Harnesses)  Landing Gears Design and Manufacture of  Jigs Fixtures and Templates  Press Tools  Composite Moulding Tools  Forming Tools for Transparencies  Acceptance Gauges / Jigs  Tooling Masters except MTG’S  Structural Assembly Jigs  Ground Support Equipment for Aircraft  Weld Jigs  Pressure Test Fixtures
  8. 8. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 8  Sheet Metal Tools (Stretch Forming Blocks) Aircraft Division is an EN / AS9100 certified company. The division also has NADCAP Certification and authorization to perform special processes from International Aerospace Companies such as Airbus, BAE systems, Boeing and Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd., for export of precision aircraft components and assemblies. The Division is now poised for an increased share in the International Aerospace Market. The Division has received the approval CAR-21 from DGCA for manufacture of CIVIL aircraft components. The Division has bagged the prestigious National Safety Award (NSA) for Outstanding performance in industrial safety in 2003 and also in the year 2006 under Scheme-I. The division hold the following approvals: National  Director General of Aeronautical Quality Assurance (DGAQA), India.  Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA), India. International  Airbus, France.  Boeing, USA.  BAE System, UK.  IAI, Bedek Aviation Group, Israel.  IAI, Commercial Aircraft Group, Israel. 1.4.1 Products of Aircraft division  Hawk Mk 132- Advanced Jet Trainer  HJT-Kiran Mk I, Mk II (IJT)  Jaguar  HJT-36 Sitara - Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)  LCA- Tejas
  9. 9. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 9 CHAPTER 2 BASIC FLIGHT THEORY 2.1 How lift is generated?  Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principle are used to explain lift.  Bernoulli – Bernoulli’s Principle states that, as air speeds up, its pressure goes down.  He focused his studies on the curvature of the wing, and the differing air pressure over the top and bottom of the wing.  Newton – Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.  He focused his studies on the deflection of air or fluid on an object and its reaction. (Newton’s 3rd Law)  To explain the lift phenomena we have to understand the meaning of Aerofoil structure 2.2 Airfoil An airfoil is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor or turbine) as seen in cross- section. An aircraft's wings, horizontal, and vertical stabilizers are built with airfoil-shaped cross sections.
  10. 10. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 10 An airfoil is a surface designed to obtain lift from the air through which it moves. Thus, it can be stated that any part of the aircraft that converts air resistance into lift is an airfoil. Fig.2.1 Bernoulli’s Principle. As the air flows over the upper surface of an airfoil, its velocity increases and its pressure decreases; an area of low pressure is formed. There is an area of greater pressure on the lower surface of the airfoil, and this greater pressure tends to move the wing upward. The difference in pressure between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing is called lift. Three-fourths of the total lift of an airfoil is the result of the decrease in pressure over the upper surface. The impact of air on the under surface of an airfoil produces the other one-fourth of the total lift. 2.3 BASIC FLIGHT THEORY An aircraft in flight is acted upon by four forces:
  11. 11. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 11  Gravity or weight: the force that pulls the aircraft toward the earth. Weight is the force of gravity acting downward upon everything that goes into the aircraft, such as the aircraft itself, crew, fuel, and cargo.  Lift: the force that pushes the aircraft upward. Lift acts vertically and counteracts the effects of weight.  Thrust: the force that moves the aircraft forward. Thrust is the forward force produced by the power plant that overcomes the force of drag.  Drag: the force that exerts a braking action to hold the aircraft back. Drag is a backward deterrent force and is caused by the disruption of the airflow by the wings, fuselage, and protruding objects. These four forces are in perfect balance only when the aircraft is in straight-and-level un- accelerated flight. The forces of lift and drag are the direct result of the relationship between the relative wind and the aircraft. The force of lift always acts perpendicular to the relative wind, and the force of drag always acts parallel to and in the same direction as the relative wind. These forces are actually the components that produce a resultant lift force on the wing. Fig.2.2 Forces in action during flight.
  12. 12. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 12 CHAPTER 3 Departments visited in Aircraft division 3.1 Customer Services Department HAL receive the orders from various domestic and international customers. The orders may the Manufacture of aircrafts, modifications of aircraft parts and Repairs, Major Servicing and Supply of Spares. As part of Customer service, Technical and Logistic supports including training are provided. Technical support is rendered to the Customer in the following areas:  Maintenance and Repair of Aircraft  Compliance of Modification and Technical Instructions  Accident and Incident Investigations  Priority demands  Field Representations  Training of Customer's Personnel On the Logistic side, the support is rendered in the following areas:  Supply of spares and Ground Handling and Ground Service Equipment  Supply of items against priority demands like AOG, USR / URR demands  Repair of Rotables  Landing Gears / Retraction Jacks - Repair and Overhaul  Forecasting spares requirement 3.1.1 HAL CUSTOMERS i. Major Domestic Customers DEFENCE & SPACE CIVIL Indian Air Force Border Security Force Indian Army Govt. of Karnataka
  13. 13. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 13 Indian Navy Govt. of Jharkhand Indian Coast Guard Govt. of Maharshtra Indian Space Research Organisation Geological Survey of India Defence Research & Development Organisation Oil & Natural Gas Cooperation of India Ordnance Factory Board Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. ii. Major international Customers  Airbus Industries, France  Boeing, USA  Coast Guard, Mauritius  Ecuadorian Air Force, Ecuador  ELTA, Israel  GE Aviation, USA  Hamilton Sundstrand, USA  Honeywell International, USA  Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel  Mauritius Police Force, Mauritius  Moog Inc. USA  Nepal Army, Nepal  RAC MIG, Russia  Rolls Royce Plc, UK  Royal Air Force, Oman  Royal Malaysian Air Force, Malaysia  Royal Thai Air Force, Thailand  Ruag, Germany  Rosoboronexport, Russia  Turbomeca, France  Vietnam Air Force, Vietnam  Namibian Air Force, Namibia 3.2 Methods and Program engineering Method department engineering department receives the design of each and every part from customers, ARDC, ADA or prepare the design as per customer requirements.  Prepares the design drawings and drawing break down (individual component drawings)  After this, study about each component and make the list of departments into which the components have to be undergone like- machining shop, sheet metal, heat treatment shop, plastics, etc.  As per design, Engineers prepares the root book after communicating with Tool Design and planning, IMM, MSD and by Considering the capacity of the machining equipment and the technology available the methods department.
  14. 14. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 14  This route book contains detailed steps of what processes It contains the raw material detail, CAD drawing of parts, processes, sequential operations into which the raw material has to undergo to produce a finished product. Program Engineering  Supervising project engineering related tasks including planning, control & troubleshooting for achieving the planned periodic schedules and process control. Coordinating with the other departments for smooth functioning and accomplishing production as per customer’s requirement & organizational guideline. Functions  It plans the targets on the basis of tasks from customers and finalizes the production plan and involves production control.  Prepares the schedules for sequential operations to produce a finished product.  Loading of raw materials, fabricating the products.  Dispatching- sending the fabricated parts to customers.  Status reporting and problem tracking of parts. 3.2.1 ROUTE CARD Airbus A 320 – Bolt Work order Part number Quantity Department Part name: Bolt Outsource details Next assembly part number 1. 2. Raw material detail Alternate material Manufacturing inspection Metal code: Spec: 35NCD16UTS-1230/1380MPa Batch no-
  15. 15. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 15 Nom: 25mm diameter steel rod Size: inspection Sign Operation no/dept Tool no/Operation description quantity shop inspection Inspect material (35 NCD16 UTS-1230/1380 MPa) HRC: 38.3 – 42.3 Actual hardness HRC: 40 – 41 Caution: material is prone to corrosion, protect with oil between operations Machining operations- Tools Turning, facing, step turning Inspection Grind the shank to required diameter (cadmium plating allowance added on shank diameter) Thread rolling Thread rolling Chamfer for Thread rolling De-burring, remove sharp edges Stress relieve at 1900 ±100 C, 1-3 hrs Date:______ Time in:___ Time out:_____ Inspection Vapour degrease – cadmium palting – De- embrittlement at 1900 C Inspection Magnetic particle inspection and demagnetise Degrease, clean thoroughly, ultrasonic clean Dichromate passivation Inspection and issue tag
  16. 16. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 16 Stock in stores in polythene bag Serial no:____ date:_____ 3.3 Management Services Department Department function responsibility and authority main function:-  To assess the man power and machine required in the various production shops for achieve the planned production targets.  To function as the central agency for controlling of new forms and formats.  To assess and monitor the standard hours required for manufacturing, assembly and testing of various products.  To furnish reports on resources utilization to management as and when necessary.  To co-ordinate and monitor the processing of suggestions received from employees.  To assess the requirement of overtime, monitor and control the booking. Duties and Responsibilities of department head  Productivity monitoring  Management information system  Controlling of allocation time.  Organizing committee of management of aircraft division.  Organizing suggestion committee and coordinating for processing of suggestions. Activities  Production plan, production budget, performance budget, suggestion scheme. 3.4 Information technology & finance department IT management is all about understanding the technology and aligning technology to the business goals which are to be achieved. This involves strategies, tactics and policy creation. IT management creates guidelines for the rest of the department, guidelines which are as rigid or as flexible as the business requires. Finance department
  17. 17. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 17 The finance department is also responsible for management of the organization’s cash flow and ensuring there are enough funds available to meet the day-to-day payments. This area also encompasses the credit and collections policies for the company’s customers, to ensure the organization is paid on time, and that there is a payment policy for the company’s suppliers. 3.5 Store and integrated materials management The raw materials are obtained from various sources. Stores house these raw materials, give the raw material to concerned shop and keep record of them. Faulty materials are rejected. Raw materials are  Billets, slabs/plates, bars, cables and sleeves, extrusions, sheets. Materials Management strives to ensure that the material cost component of the total product cost be the least. In order to achieve this, the control is exercised in the following fields. 1. Materials planning. 2. Purchasing. 3. Store keeping. 4. Inventory control. 5. Receiving, inspection and dispatching. 6. Value analysis, standardization and variety Reduction. 7. Materials handling & traffic. 8. Disposal of scrap and surplus, material Preservation. 3.6 Export machine shop This shop manufactures detailed components for export products. In this shop, International airbus and jet fighters small and big parts manufactured. HAL manufactures components and parts for some aircraft manufacturers and exports them to following counters  USA (boing uplock box), France (airbus), Israel (boing 737 cargo doors) etc. The current undergoing projects is  Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors
  18. 18. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 18 HAL and Airbus had started the business in 1990 by signing a contract for supply of 600 ship sets of doors. HAL has steadily grown its association with Airbus from supplying just two doors per month in 1990 to 24 ship sets per month presently. Till now, HAL has delivered over 2,500 ship sets of Single Aisle (SA) forward passenger doors to Airbus. HAL remains one of the major suppliers to Airbus and its manufactured door is fitted on every alternate Single Aisle (SA) aircraft. and one HAL door is in operation every five seconds, globally, HAL said in a statement. Some of the airbus components are – bell crank, lever, handle, pin, spacer, kook aft, butter tripod, lock plate, fitting hoist forward, aft inboard and outboard chord, forward inboard and outboard chord, fork fitting, handle etc. The raw materials are procured from the store department. Components are machined in this shop as per given design drawings using fallowing machines.  General Capson and Turret lathe machine: It is general turning operations in which a material removal takes place by radial approaching the single point cutting tool against the rotating object. Turret lathe: it is similar to center, except that a longitudinally feedable hexagon turret (six sided block) replaces the tailstock and tool post-compounded assembly. It holds six tools with straight shank. Different types of turret lathe,  Horizontal turret lathe  Vertical turret lathe  CNC turret lathe The operations performed on turret lathe are similar to those performed on centre lathe, except that two or more operations may be carried out simultaneously on turret lathe, and also special types of tool holders and cutting tools are employed in the process. The various operations carried out on lathes are  Turning, Facing, Form turning, External threading, Knurling, Drilling, Boring, Tapping, Reaming, Counter boring, Parting-off, Chamfering.  Drilling machines (8 machines)  Bench or sensitive drilling machines
  19. 19. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 19  Radial drilling machines The various drilling operations carried out are  Drilling, reaming Boring, Tapping, Reaming, Counter boring, counter sinking, Parting-off, spot facing, trepanning.  Milling machines  Vertical milling machine (6 m/c)  Horizontal milling machine(6 m/c)  Heavy duty milling machine (7 m/c)  Copy milling machine:  2D copy milling(1 m/c)  3D copy milling(4 m/c) The various milling operations carried out are  Plane or slab milling, Face milling, End milling, slot milling, angular milling, straddle milling, gang milling, gear cutting, form milling, gang milling, saw milling,key way milling, thread milling.  Grinding machines (6 m/c)  Surface grinding machine  Horizontal spindle type with reciprocating table  Vertical spindle type with reciprocating table  Center type cylindrical grinding machine  Centerless type cylindrical grinding machine  Internal grinding machine  External grinding machine  CNC machines  CNC turn mill Centre  CNC mill turn Centre 3.7 Export assembly shop
  20. 20. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 20 HAL’s cost-effective and widespread skills are available to the International Aerospace Community. HAL has proven capabilities and offers collaborative arrangements in the areas of manufacturing of machine components, sheet metals, assemblies, subassemblies and design and development tasks (Structural analysis, 3D modeling and testing). Parts manufactured in export shop are assembled in this shop with help of nut &bolt, rivets & PRC (used to avoid leakage). Some of the work packages for renowned international aerospace leaders include  Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors  Boeing F/A 18 Gun Bay Door  Boeing 777 Up lock Box Assembly  Boeing 767 Bulk Cargo Doors  Boeing 737 Freighter Conversion Kits  Boeing 757 over Wing Exit Doors  Boeing P-8 I Weapon Doors & Tail cone  Euro copter Ecureuil composites  Boeing -3D-Modelling / Digitization of Drawings The current undergoing projects are  Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors  Boeing 777 Up lock Box Assembly 3.7.1 Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors The single aisle (SA) passenger door is precision ICY item, which is suited to an ICY media and fitted on aircraft directly. This door is common for fall range of single aisle aircraft family i.e. A318, A319, A321. Components of door includes 7 NC machined beams and cross members which are joined to build the box type structure and finally wrapped with outer skin with precisely controlled counter sinking and riveting to form the complete structure. The door is equipped with precision mechanism for controlling effortless opening even though fully equipped door weighs about 89 kgs. Division has equipped with capacity and knows how to supply customized doors. ―customization‖ means supplying doors to airlines requirement by directly accessing airbus data base and configuring the doors to the airlines predefined customization.
  21. 21. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 21 Doors are directly being delivered to final assembly line at station Nazire france. Airbus has recognized HAL as a ―major subcontractor‖. Steps for airbus A320 passenger door assembly  Sub assembly- forward and aft edge member assembly, Upper, lower and cross beam assembly  Build structure by joining these sub-assemblies on the door skin by rivets, apply the PRC and painting is to be done.  Mechanical installation: gear box, clamp assembly, plate assembly, fitting hinge lower & upper, fitting hook, handle assembly, bearings etc.  Equipping: electrical wire connections  Icy check: check whether all the components are settled, sufficient gap between parts, no misplaces, distance between rivets etc.  Furnishing, packing and dispatch Special process approvals  Sealant application  Installation of bearing and ball joints  Installation of tight fit bushes  Riveting(manual)  Bonding of bushes and ball bearings  Raw material procurements  Silver plating  Cadmium plating  Hard chrome plating  Magnetic particle inspection  Die penetrant inspection  Chromic acid anodizing  Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) anodizing (for aluminium)  Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) anodizing (for titanium)  Passivation  Manganese phosphating  Heat treatment of Al and solid rivets  Alochrome touch-up
  22. 22. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 22 Fig.3.1 Airbus forward passenger door 3.7.2 Boeing 777 Uplock Box Assembly Uplock box assembly is attached to main landing gear wheel well and is used to secure the main landing gear of being 777 aircraft in closed position. Components of box include web assemblies, stiffness, fittings and brackets made out of aluminium sheets, extrusions and plates. Landing gear hook and latch into the uplock box when landing gear is up and door are closed for flight. It carries weight of the closed landing gear door during flight. In addition to supporting the closed gear door, the uplock also has two emergency functions.  The box has to be strong enough to support the weight of the landing gear, if the gear control system should loose hydraulic pressure and the landing gear releases in the closed wheel well.
  23. 23. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 23  If there is a tire burst in the wheel well, the support box has to be robust enough to resist damage and to retain function after side, bending, and bursting loads. One ship set contains 2 uplock boxes (LH & RH). Over all dimension: 21× 13× 45 in inches. Weight: 18 kgs Fabrication of tools, assembly jigs and detail components as well as inspection have been accomplished through NC data supplied by Boing. HAL is the single source for boing for supplying this structure assembly. Special process approvals  Heat treatment of Al alloys  Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) anodizing (for aluminium type II)  Chromic acid anodizing of Al type I  Chromic acid anodizing of Al class 1&3  Chemical conversion coatings on Al (immersion alloy)  Cadmium plating type I & type II  Magnetic particle inspection  penetrant inspection  chemical milling of Al type I & II  Mechanical testing  Metallurgical testing  Process solution control  Salt spray testing  Anodizing aluminium  Coating-multi colored chemical conversion of Al alloys by immersion Fig.3.2 boing 777 uplock box
  24. 24. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 24 3.8 NC shop and NC programing Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. Most NC today is computer numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the control. Machining operations like drilling, milling are done using NC programing.NC is not run by codes but instructions are entered by manual.  Parts are designed using softwares CATIA & UNIGRAPHICS. To program the CNC machines we use APT(Automatic Programmed Tool) source. It is used to calculate the path which the tool must follow in order to generate the desired part.  The resulting compiled file (in the form of G codes and N codes) is then run by the machine to move the tool accordingly in space. IFS software is used for NC programming, which is supplied by SAP Labs.  3 axes (the tool holder gives 3 degrees of freedom to the tool) and 5 axes(the tool holder gives 5 degrees of freedom to the tool) CNC(Computer Numeric Control) machines are used to machine the components.  There are three parts to be specified for any NC machine, to produce a part: 1. Tool geometry- the type and specifications of the tool to be used. 2. Part geometry- the geometry of the end product. 3. Methods-The instructions fed into the machine for the tool to move in space and produce the desired part.
  25. 25. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 25 Fig.3.3 NC machine 3.9 Maintenance and Safety department Maintenance department:-The objectives that govern the existence of the maintenance organization should also guide the functional activities of the department. Maintenance department functions:-  Repairs  Engineering  Preventive maintenance  Safety  Planning and scheduling  Estimating  Stores control  Work management  Plant operations  Quality Assurance  Employee relations  Training  Record keeping  Energy management  Regulatory compliance  Data base management  Budgeting  Reports and analysis  Financial planning  Construction and remodeling Safety:-Safety and maintenance go hand in hand because in order for items of equipment in a facility to be operated safely, they have to have any hazardous conditions fixed. The purpose of safety engineering department is to look after the safety of employees. To minimize the risk of accidents, injury and exposure to health hazards for all employees, this department looks after the basic general requirements in every shops:  Ventilation- Having wide open doors, installing exhaust gases, identifying and fixing of gas leaks  Welfare-providing drinking water, creating pathways for walking  First-Aid kits to be present in all shops  Providing Safety requirements: ear buds, hand glouse, goggles, helmets, shoes etc.  Medical test twice in a year.
  26. 26. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 26  Audiometric tests are conducted periodically for employees to check if their hearing senses are fine as the sensitivity to hearing loses gradually due to noise of the machines. Respiratory checks are also carried out. 3.10 Design Liaison Engineering (DLE)  It coordinates the activities to evaluate and resolve engineering-related production problems encountered in assigned area of aircraft manufacturing facility: Reviews the production schedules, engineering specifications, orders, and related information to maintain current knowledge of manufacturing methods, procedures, and activities in assigned area.  DLE solve the problems occurred in production query, shop query, method inspection, reverse engineering  DLE basically provides solution to the problems encountered when the aircraft crashes. Example: what has to be done if a bird hits to craft, or some defect occurs when flying  Interprets engineering drawings and facilitates correction of errors on drawings and documents identified during manufacturing operations.  Investigates reports of defective, damaged, or malfunctioning parts, assemblies, equipment, or systems to determine nature and scope of problem.  Examines measures, inspects, or tests defective part for conformance to engineering design drawings or blueprint specifications, using precision measuring and testing instruments, devices, and equipment. 3.11 Sheet metal and welding Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed with sheet metal. Various aircraft parts require sheet metal as they are light. In this shop sheet metal are cut to desired geometry, stretched and formed. The cutting operations are done by using Shearing machines or more advanced CNC routing machines. The edges of the sheet metal are deburred, to avoid sharp edges.
  27. 27. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 27 Upper, lower, cross beam assembly and edge member of airbus, Leading edges, Frames and ribs of wings, frames of fuselage are manufactured in this shop by using fallowing forming processes:-  Shearing  Bending  Curling  Deep drawing  Expanding  Ironing  Press brake forming  Stretching  Punching  Roll forming  Rolling  Spinning  Water jet cutting  Fastener Parts produced after forming process are to be sent to further processes like Heat treatment, NDT, welding, process shop, etc. In this shop different machines are there for forming process.  Stretch forming machine Type of machine: Hydraulic sheet metal stretcher press (erco) Capacity : operating pressure-2000 psi Grab length- 96 inch Tonnage- 300 tons Table size- 17 x 98 inch2 Basic functions : to form double curvature skins  Angular adjustment of cross beams on carriages is 150 or included angle of 300  Length of cross beam 134 inch  Distance between clamps when set aircraft beam ends 122 inch Stretch forming simultaneously stretches and bends a piece of sheet metal to form a large contoured shape. Auto manufacturers use the process to produce outer body panels; aircraft manufacturers stretch form fuselage skin sections. Benefits of the process include a lack surface marring, distortions and ripples, and accurate alignment of complex profiles.
  28. 28. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 28 Stretch forming occurs in a stretch press, with the Sheet metal securely held along its edges by gripping jaws. The gripping jaws, attached to a carriage, are pulled by pneumatic or hydraulic force to stretch the sheet as shown in figure. The tooling used-a stretch form block - comprises a solid contoured piece against which the sheet metal is pressed. As the form die drives into the sheet, tensile forces increase until the sheet plastically deforms into its new shape. Fig.3.4 stretch forming  CNC Stretch forming machine (France) Capacity : Tonnage- 600 tons, Vertical stroke 1100 mm Forming speed- 0.1 to 4 mm/sec Jaw length- 4140 mm Maximum distance between jaws- 4200 mm Minimum distance between jaws- 30 mm Jaw orientation: ± 100 horizontal central plane of machine, ± 150 horizontal central plane around their vertical transverse axis. Basic function: Stretch forming of skins, leading edges using CNC programing, Also machine can be operated through manual, teach in mode and auto mode. Simulation and programing is achieved through SF3 software.  Hydraulic press (USA)
  29. 29. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 29 Type of machine: hydraulic rubber press Capacity : tonnage-1000 tons, bed size- 60 x 144 inch2 , stroke length- 60 inch, Shut height- 12 inch Functions: used for vertical stretch forming leading edge skins using special gripping jaws, also can be used for forming sheet metal components using double action male & female tools for draw forming operation. Also can be used to form straight and curved flanges keeping routed blanks on the forming dies by application of moving ram, Hydraulic gripping attachments to form leading edge skins.  Power brake machine Type of machine: mechanical press brake Capacity: shut height- 150 mm, stroke length- 70 mm, bed length- 3000 mm. Functions: straight bending of various sections of flanges from flat sheets using different types of die such as air brakes, bottoming and goose neck dies, also gang punching, forming and bending for contoured parts using special dies.  Roller Type of machine: farmham roller Capacity: 20 feet wide(6m) x any length, maximum sheet thickness- 0.101 inch Al alloy Functions: for forming parts to different curvatures including cylindrical also can be used for forming wing leading edge skin. 3.12 Heat Treatment and Plastic department Heat treatment is defined as controlled heating and cooling of a metal component in order to alter the physical and mechanical properties of metal without changing its shape. They are essential processes in metal manufacturing which increase desirable characteristic of metal, while allowing for further processing to take place. so that the metal will be more useful, serviceable and safe for a definite purpose. Purpose  To improve mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact resistance, ductility in metal and their alloys.
  30. 30. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 30  To increase resistance of metal to wear, heat and corrosion.  To improve machinability  To refine the gran structure after hot working a metal  To relieve the internal stresses set up during cold working, casting, welding and forging etc Heat treatment equipments: various equipments those are required for heat treatment of steel and Al alloys.  Furnaces a. Air furnace operating between 5000 to 12000 C b. Air circulating furnace operating between 250 to 6000 C c. Special furnaces like- Nitriding, Cyaniding salt bathes  Quenching tanks a. Water tanks b. Salt brine tank c. Oil tank d. Glycol tank  Temperature controlling and recording Automatic temperature controller through feedback (servo mechanism) system using potentiometric, electronic, thyristor output instruments and thermocouples or pyrometers. The various thermocouples used are iron-constanun, copper-constanun, chromel- alumel. Time temperature automatic recorders using graduated chart papers.  Fixtures: loading baskets, fixtures trays made of mild steel/stainless steel welded construction.  Tools: tongs, hooks, slings, asbestos hand gloves, heat protection clothes, barrier creams, helmets, goggles, face shields etc.  Cold storage: cold storage chamber operating between -500 to -200 C  Vapour degreasing plant: using trichloro ethylene. 3.12.1 Aluminium heat treatment process Annealing: process in which the metal is heated to high temperature, holding (soaking) it there for a considerable time and the allowing it to cool to room temperature at predetermined rate. It is used to enable forming, machining process etc.
  31. 31. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 31  Al alloys are heated from 3500 C to 4300 C followed by controlled rate cooling makes the material sufficiently soft.  The controlled cooling to be carried out down to about 2000 C – 2500 C is required for most of heat treatable Al alloys whereas air cooling is sufficient for non-heat treatable alloys.  Few annealing cycles are listed below for reference. Al – Cu – Mn : 3800 – 4300 C – slowly cooled or 3400 – 3600 C – Air cool Al – Zn : 4300 C – 2 hours – slow cooled and 2300 C – 2-6 hours – air cooled Al – Mn : 3500 C – 2 hours – air cooled Examples: aircraft parts- wing skins, frames of wing, leading edges, Jaguar- tail plane ribs etc. Solution heat treatment: is a age hardening process which involves heating alloys to certain temperature that causes the alloying atoms (solutes) to dissolve into the solution. This results in a homogenous solid solution of single phase. This process is to obtain in solid solution of the maximum permissible concentration of the solutes such as copper, magnesium, silicon or zinc at room temperature by rapid cooling or quenching from high temperature.  Solution heat treatment for Al alloys consist of heating for various durations depending on thickness of the material, at prescribed temperatures between 4600 C to 5450 C and holding them for 25 min.  Quenching (which rapidly cools the homogenous solid solution and freezes the atoms in the solution) at room temperature in water or glycol.  Cold water quench gives maximum mechanical properties, but this advantage is offset by development of high internal stress leading to cracks and distortion. The boiling water quench or glycol quench leaves less residual stress and reduces the risk of distortion.  Few cycles are listed below for reference Al – Cu – Mn : 4900 C to 5100 C – cold water, hot water (600 C to 700 C), glycol. Al – Zn : 4600 C to 5000 C – cold water and glycol for sheet, hot water (850 C to 950 C), for others. Al-Si-Mn-Mg : 5150 C to 5450 C – cold water, glycol. Example: Hawk Mk 132 components- wing skin, ribs, beams etc - and Airbus A320 components, jaguar tail plane ribs, etc. undergoes solution heat treatment.
  32. 32. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 32 Aging: the improvement in strength following solution heat treatment can be achieved by aging. The process where the solute particles diffuse out of the solution, and into clusters that distort and strengthen the material. This occurs over prolonged time. Alloy is heated at temperature between 1000 C to 2000 C for 6 to 30 hours is necessary and gives much stronger and harder alloy. Typical aging temperature and duration Al – Cu – Mg : 1600 C to 1850 C, 6 to 18 hr – Air cool Al – Zn : 1250 C to 1600 C, 18 to 30 hr – Air cool Al – Si – Mn – Mg : 1600 C to 1750 C, 12 to 18 hr – Air cool Example: jaguar tail plane ribs, hawk Mk 132- wing skins, stiffeners etc. Stress relieving: if the components are severely cold worked or machined residual stresses are to be relieved. These alloys are normally stress relieved at 1600 C to 1900 C. Example: Hawk Mk 132- wing frames, canopy- lever and Airbus A320 components- bolt, bush, bush-locking undergoes stress relieving. Heat treatment may be done before and after forming, machining process, before and after NDT. 3.12.2 Heat treatment of ferrous materials Annealing: annealing of steel involves following steps  Heating the steel above its critical temperature to form austenite.  Transformation of austenite by slow cooling (at the rate of 250 C to 300 C per hour) to room temperature to form coarse pearlite. Normalizing:  The components are put into the furnace maintained at the required temperature and heated to about 500 C above the upper critical temperature of steel and  Holds at this temperature for sufficient time.  Then parts are removed from the furnace and cooled in the surrounding air to room temperature.
  33. 33. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 33  The resultant strength of material would be more than the annealed condition. Purpose: to refine the grain structure, to improve machinability, to obtain relative ductility without reducing the hardness and strength. Hardening: it is carried out to increase the hardness of steel. The hardening of steel requires the formation of martensite, because martensite has the strongest microstructure than pearlite and austenite.  Steel specimen is heated to about 300 to 500 C above the critical temperature and held at this temperature for 15-30 min  Rapidly cooling by quenching in oil, water, salt brine or salt bath etc.  This results in the transformation of austenite to martensite that is responsible for increasing the hardness of steel. Tempering: is the process that reduces the brittleness of steel without lowering its hardness and strength.  Reheating the hardened steel to a temperature below the lower critical temperature fallowed by a slow cooling in still air.  Reheating permits partial transformation of martensite, and relieving of internal stresses. With increase in tempering temperatures, transformation of martensite occurs at a faster rate. Stress relieving: the residual stresses developed in parts are relieved by heating at 1300 C to 3000 C for one hour fallowed by cooling in air. 3.13 Process shop In this shop electroplating and anodizing for aircraft components are conducted. 3.13.1 Electroplating It is the process ofplatingone metal onto another by hydrolysis, most commonly for decorative purposes or to prevent corrosion of a metal. There are also specific types of electroplating such as copper plating, silver plating, and chromium plating.  Anodizing : is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminium is ideally
  34. 34. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 34 suited to anodizing, although other non-ferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized. Example: Airbus A320- fitting hoist aft, jaguar- ribs, hawk – wing frames wing skin, bracket. Chromic acid anodizing Process flow chart for chromic acid anodising Fig.3.5 chromic acid anodising 1. Vapour degreasing: it takes place in a closed working chamber of a chlorinated or non- halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning system. It is suitable for cleaning oils, greases, emulsions, etc. from lightly contaminated components. The solvent (Tri chloro-ethylene) is heated to about ≤ 900 C for 2-3 min and the resulting solvent vapour directed onto the components to be cleaned. The temperature difference between the hot vapour and the cold components causes the solvent to condense on the surface of the work pieces, which results in a rinsing action by the pure solvent condensate. 1. Vapour degrease tank 2. Alkaline cleaning tank 3. Cold water swill 4.Deoxidi ze tank 5. Cold water rinse 6. Anodize tank 7. Cold water rinse 8. Dichromate seal 9. Drying 10.Inspection & packing
  35. 35. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 35 2. Alkaline cleaning tank: Alkaline cleaning agents contain strong bases like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Bleach and ammonia are common alkaline cleaning agents. these are used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces. Tank is heated to 500 – 600 C for 5-10 min and gives fully cleaned component. 3. Cold water swill: dip the component in cold water for 3-5 min at ambient temperature. 4. De oxidize tank: Dip the part for 0.5-10 minutes into the pre-mixed solution at ambient temperature. Sulpho-chroming is used to remove oxide layer using de-oxidizer. See the section on Aluminum De-oxidizer. 5. Cold water rinse: Rinse work thoroughly in clean water for 3-5 min. 6. Anodize: The aluminium is immersed in an electrolyte consisting of chromic acid solution. The temperature (330 C-370 C) of the solution is controlled to give the desired properties. A DC (direct current) electric current is passed between the aluminium that is made the anode (positive terminal), the electrolyte and a cathode (often lead). When the current is applied, the water in the Electrolyte breaks down and oxygen is deposited at the anode. This oxygen combines with the aluminium to form oxide and thus builds on the oxide film always present on the surface. The acid in the electrolyte tries to dissolve this oxide and produces a porous oxide film on the aluminium surface. Coating thickness up to 25 micron is recommended for external use. 7. Cold water rinse: Once the required thickness of anodic film is obtained, the aluminium is removed from the electrolyte and rinsed in the water thoroughly to remove the acids from the pores in the film. The anodic film produced is now ready for colouring, if required. 8. Di chromate seal: Sealing is the process in which the pores at the surface of the oxide layer are closed off. It is effected by placing the anodized object in boiling water for a 15 - 20 minute period or in chemically enriched water at room temperature. 9. Drying: the coated component is kept for drying for required time at temperature from ambient to 700 C. after that process ic completed. Hard Chrome Plating: is an electrolytic process using chromic acid based electrolyte. The part being the cathode and with the passage of a DC current through lead anodes, chromium metal deposits on the component surface. Example: pistons of IJT, LCA, Dornier 228 etc.
  36. 36. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 36 Cadmium plating: Cadmium is a soft white metal that, when plated onto steel, cast iron, malleable iron, copper, and powdered metal, functions as a "sacrificial coating," corroding before the substrate material. To enhance the corrosion protection of cadmium plating, chromate conversion coatings can be applied over the plated metal, yielding the familiar gold color as seen in the above picture. Other colours, such as olive drab are also available. Example: Airbus A320 components- Bush, Hawk- rear fuselage tailcone- doubler etc. Manganese phosphate coatings are applied to the surface of ferrous substrates to prevent galling and to improve break-in properties. Manganese phosphate coatings, unlike zinc phosphate coatings, also provide continued wear protection after initial break-in. The coating is formed via immersion in a dilute phosphoric acid solution and is dark grey in appearance. Example: Aerospace- actuator components, fastening systems Silver plating is a corrosion resistant coating that can be plated on steel, aluminum, copper, bronze and stainless steel alloys. Because of silver's conductivity and excellent solderability, it is often plated onto electrical components. It is widely used in the aerospace industry on engine turbine components for its outstanding lubricity, even at high temperatures. For the same reason, it is sometimes used as a break-in coating on gears. Example: Aerospace- fasteners (lubrication and corrosion protection), turbine fasteners & components, bearing surfaces, electronic connectors, rotorcraft gears and others. 3.13.2 Chemical milling process Chemical milling is a milling process by the use of chemicals to achieve intricate structural features which may not be easily obtained by mechanical milling. In chemical milling, shallow cavities are produced on plates, sheets, forgings, and extrusions, generally for the overall reduction of weight. The procedure for chemical milling consists of the following: 1. If part has residual stresses from previous operations, stresses are first relieved. 2. Degrease & clean surfaces to ensure adhesion of masking material and uniform material removal.
  37. 37. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 37 3. Apply masking material. maskant is applied over areas where don’t want to machine.The maskant material should not react with the chemical reagent. 4. Peel off masking that covers various regions that require etching. 5. Place the entire part in a chemical bath. Exposed surfaces are etched with etchants such as NaOH for Al to the temperature about 990 -1040 C, solutions of HCl & HNO3 acids for steels, or FeCl3 for stainless steel. 6. After machining, parts should be rinsed in cold water and washed to prevent further reactions with any etchant residues. 7. Rest of masking material is removed and part is cleaned and inspected. 8. Finishing operations 9. This sequence of operations can be repeated to produce stepped cavities and various contours. Fig.3.6 (a) Schematic illustration of the chemical-machining process. Note that no forces or machine tools are involved in this process. (b) Stages in producing a profiled cavity by chemical machining; note the undercut. 3.13.3 Plastics Plastics are used in many applications throughout modern aircraft. These applications range from structural components of thermosetting plastics reinforced with fiberglass to decorative trim of thermoplastic materials to windows, wind screen and canopies. In this shop, Canopy and wind screen are manufactured for aircrafts and helicopters for domestic and international customers.
  38. 38. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 38 Canopy for cheetah and chetak helicopters and tejas, kiran, jaguar fighter aircrafts are manufactured in this shop. Cast acrylic and Stretch acrylic plastic sheet is used to produce canopies and wind screens. Cast Acrylic is a form of Poly (methyl methacrylate), the polymerized methyl ester of methacrylic acid, is thermoplastic. Stretched acrylic is obtained by stretching cast acrylic sheets, a process which re-orients the long polymer chains. This drastically increases the material properties. And shows an improved craze resistance as well as a far better stress, crack propagation and solvent resistance than acrylic. It is therefore suitable for bird resistant wind shields, canopies, outer cabin window panes and other transparencies for pressurized aircraft. Vacuum forming process is used to manufacture the canopies and wind screens. Vacuum forming  First, a wooden mould is made. This is made in the shape to which the acrylic sheet will form around. Often where possible, the mould should have angled edges, in order to allow the tooling to pop out of the plastic when made.  The mould is then placed into the vacuum former oven. A acrylic sheet is then clamped above but not on the mould.  In the oven, the heater is positioned above the plastic. This will heat up abou temperature 1650 C, warming the plastic & allowing it to become flexible and moldable.  After a few minutes, the plastic should be at a temperature to allow moulding.  The shelf on which the wooden mould is sat on, is moved upwards and into the flexible plastic using a handle.  The vacuum is then switched on, removing all air from the oven. This allows the plastic to form to the shape of the mould.  Once cooled, the sheet is then removed from the oven, the mould is removed & any excess trimmed.  Clean the canopy and use emery paper to remove if any tool marks are there.  Cut to required shape and attach the one glass cloth layer on that by using acrifix gel to make the holes on it. If holes are done directly on canopy, the crack propagation occurs. So that
  39. 39. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 39 glass cloth is used. But drilling is done directly on stretched acrylic sheet cracks are not appeared while drilling because it has good material properties than acrylic sheet.  After that sent to next process- fastening, inspection and assembly line. Fig.3.7 Canopy 3.14 Work test lab 3.14.1 Non Destructive Test (NDT) for aircraft parts During aircraft maintenance 'NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING' (NDT) is the most economical way of performing inspection and this is the only way of discovering defects. In simply we can say, NDT can detect cracks or any other irregularities in the airframe structure and engine components which are obviously not visible to the naked eye. Use of NDT  Flaw detection & evaluation, Leak Detection, Location Determination In the present trend of NDT application on aircraft 70-80% of NDT is performed on the airframe, structure, landing gears and the rest carried out on engine & related components. In order to maintain the aircraft defects free and ensure a high degree of quality & reliability and as a part of inspection programme, usually following NDT methods are applied. Liquid penetrant test
  40. 40. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 40 Penetrant Examination is performed with a dye solution. Once applied to the surface, the dye will effectively penetrate any surface-breaking cavity. Excess solution is removed from the object. A developer is then applied to draw out any penetrant that remains unseen. With fluorescent dyes, ultraviolet light is used to make the ―bleed-out‖ fluoresce brightly, allowing imperfections to be readily seen. With visible dyes, a color contrast between the penetrant and developer makes the "bleed-out" easy to see. Example: Hawk Mk132 – canopy – lever, crank shaft, handles etc. Magnetic particle test Magnetic Particle Examination is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field into a ferromagnetic material and applying iron particles to the surface of the item being examined. Surface and near-surface discontinuities affect the flow of the magnetic field within the part causing the applied particles to gather at locations of flux leakage, thus producing a visible indication of the irregularity on the surface of the material. Example: Airbus A320 components – bush, threaded bush etc. Radiography test: Radiographic Examination involves using radioactive isotopes (gamma rays) or X-rays on materials to peer qualitatively for indications the same way a doctor looks for fractures or other conditions within the body. Radiation is directed through a part and projected onto film or a digital detection device leaving an image which can be examined by the qualified Radiographer. Examples: welding parts, drop tank etc. Ultrasonic inspection test Ultrasonic inspection operates on the principle of 'transmitted' & 'reflected' sound wave. Sound has a constant velocity in a given substance; therefore, a change in the acoustical impedance of the material causes a change in the sound velocity at that point producing an echo. The distance of the acoustical impedance (flaw) can be determined if the velocity of the sound in the test material, and the time taken for the sound to reach & return from the flaw is known. Ultrasonic inspection is usually performed with two techniques (i) Reflection (Pulse echo) technique (ii) Through transmission technique. 'Pulse echo' technique is most widely used in aircraft maintenance inspection.
  41. 41. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 41 Equipment: The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment comprises with the following basic elements: (i) Cathode ray oscilloscope (ii) Timing Circuit (iii) Rategenerator (iv) RF pulser (v) Amplifier & (vi) Transducer (search unit). 3.15 Honeycomb workshop The most important characteristics for sandwich structures are  They are lightweight compared to metallic  Have high stiffness, better strength and better flexibility  Cost effective compared to other composite structures. Lightweight and stiff, sandwich panels are a vital element of many modern aircraft interior designs. Reinforcing and edge finishing of such panels can be costly and time consuming, but it is essential. The ailerons and rudder are fabricated from aluminium honeycomb. Honeycomb panels have a variety of uses on the aircraft, such as floor panels, bulkheads, and control surfaces, as well as wing skin panels. Interior components, including flooring, are typically formed from composites or laminates of thin but rigid outer layers over a honeycomb interior. Composite materials are laid up (put into carefully arranged and shaped overlapping layers) by hand or machine and then cured in an oven or autoclave. A honeycomb panel can be made from a wide variety of materials. Aluminium core honeycomb with an outer skin of aluminium is common. The processes carried out in this shop are: 1. Pinning: Process of suiting up the aluminium parts as per bonding tool. It has been used to produce high performance honeycomb structure 2. Anodizing: Protective coating Aluminium parts. Since aircrafts are prone to corrosion, as it flies in different weather conditions anodizing is carried out. 3. Priming: Spray Coating of primer to facilitate Aluminium bonding. 4. Bonding: Can be categorized to into two types:  Sandwich bonding: Sandwiching honeycomb core with two Al foils.
  42. 42. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 42  Lay-up bonding- Layers of polymers such as Kevlar fabric are laid up on each other using suitable adhesives to get required thickness. 5. Autoclave curing: The set component is sent to curing in vacuum chamber. The component is heated to 135°C by applying pressure. 6. Component is cleaned and offered for inspection. Fig.3.8 Honeycomb structure process Fig.3.9 Aileron made by honeycomb structure
  43. 43. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 43 Fig.3.10 A wing leading edge formed from honeycomb material bonded to the aluminium spar structure. 3.16 Tool room and tool engineering The tools required for the production of an aircraft are generally manufactured in a tool room comprising of different types of machine tools and associated production equipment. A typical aircraft tool room generally consists of the following types of machine tools and associated production and inspection equipment. This shop provides the machining tools, inspection tools and other required tools to the respective shops. The following tools are manufacture in HAL:-
  44. 44. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 44  Assembly jigs  Drill jigs  Milling fixtures  Copy mill fixtures  Drilling and route templates  Stretch forming tools  Copy forming tools 3.17 Drop tank  In aviation, a drop tank (external tank, wing tank, or belly tank) is used to describe auxiliary fuel tanks externally carried by aircraft. A drop tank is expendable and often jettison able.  External tanks are commonplace on modern military aircraft and occasionally found in civilian ones, although the latter are less likely to be discarded except in the event of emergency. The primary disadvantage with drop tanks is that they impose a drag penalty on the aircraft carrying them.  Drop Tanks are additional fuel tanks. The drop tanks are manufactured and they are tested for leakage. The testing is done in three stages 1)Checking for leakage using uncompressed air 2)Checking for leakage using compressed air(higher than designed pressure) 3)Flow rate test-Time taken to fill and empty the drop tank. Fig.3.11 Drop tank
  45. 45. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 45 3.18 Hawk machine shop In this shop machine components of Hawk Mk 132 aircraft are manufactured. Aluminium alloys are mainly used for machine components. The raw material for the machine components are obtained from Stores. Hawk Mk 132- Advanced Jet Trainer The Hawk is a tandem-seat Aircraft for ground attack, flying training and weapon training. It has a low wing and an all-metal structure and is powered by an Adour Mk 871 turbofan engine. The Aircraft has an integrated navigation/attack system and radio and inertial navigation systems. The Aircraft is cleared for instrument flying and for Solo Instrument flying from the front cockpit only. The Hawk Mk 132 is a variant of the highly successful BAE Systems. The aircraft is being produced at HAL under licence from BAES, UK. The Hawk Mk. 132 formally entered service with Indian Air Force (IAF) on 23 February 2008. The IAF received 24 aircraft directly from BAE Systems with deliveries beginning in November 2007, and further 42 Hawks assembled by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited between 2008 and 2011.In February 2008, India planned to order 57 more Hawks, with 40 going to the Indian Air Force and the remaining 17 to the Indian Navy. It was announced in July 2010 that the IAF and The Navy would receive the additional 57 aircraft and all that will be built in India by Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) under licence from BAE. Hal has so far produced 36 aircrafts and would be producing all the 57 aircrafts by 2017. Role: Transonic ground attack/ trainer Specifications: Length: 12.43 m Area (Gross): 16.70 m2 Wing Span: 9.940 m Fig.3.12 Hawk Mk 132 aircraft
  46. 46. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 46 Height: 3.98 m Mach no: 1.2 Service ceiling: 45600 feet Maximum Take Off weight: 9100 kg Maximum landing weight: 5900 kg Basic Mass (Empty): 4,440 Kg Fuel capacity Sweep:- Internal: 360 Imp Galls Ext. Drop Tanks: 2 x 130 Imp Galls Engine type: Rolls Royce Adour MK 871 Turbofan Static Thrust at sea level: 23.8 kN (5730 lbf) at sea level ISA Weapons: 30mm ADEN gun 2 x Matra R550 magic ATM 4 x LAU51 x 19 tube rocket launcher 500 lb laser guide bomb 250/500/1000 lb free fall bomb. Some of the hawk components are  Nut and bolt, screws, lever bracket, fork end, pin shear, bush, fitter, crank shaft, handles, washer, clamps, lock nut, fitting drain valve, hinge aft, spigot, latch, fitting, spacer, connector fork end etc. The raw materials are procured from the store department. Components are machined in this shop as per given design drawings using fallowing machines.  General Capson and Turret lathe machine: (12 lathe & 14 turret lathe machines) It is general turning operations in which a material removal takes place by radial approaching the single point cutting tool against the rotating object. Turret lathe: it is similar to center, except that a longitudinally feedable hexagon turret (six sided block) replaces the tailstock and tool post-compounded assembly. It holds six tools with straight shank. Different types of turret lathe,
  47. 47. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 47  Horizontal turret lathe  Vertical turret lathe  CNC turret lathe The operations performed on turret lathe are similar to those performed on center lathe, except that two or more operations may be carried out simultaneously on turret lathe, and also special types of tool holders and cutting tools are employed in the process. The various operations carried out on lathes are  Turning, Facing, Form turning, External threading, Knurling, Drilling, Boring, Tapping, Reaming, Counter boring, Parting-off, Chamfering.  Drilling machines (8 machines)  Bench or sensitive drilling machines  Radial drilling machines The various drilling operations carried out are  Drilling, reaming Boring, Tapping, Reaming, Counter boring, counter sinking, Parting-off, spot facing, trepanning.  Milling machines  Vertical milling machine (6 m/c)  Horizontal milling machine(6 m/c)  Heavy duty milling machine (7 m/c)  Copy milling machine:  2D copy milling(1 m/c)  3D copy milling(4 m/c) The various milling operations carried out are  Plane or slab milling, Face milling, End milling, slot milling, angular milling, straddle milling, gang milling, gear cutting, form milling, gang milling, saw milling,key way milling, thread milling.  Grinding machines (6 m/c)  Surface grinding machine  Horizontal spindle type with reciprocating table
  48. 48. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 48  Vertical spindle type with reciprocating table  Center type cylindrical grinding machine  Centerless type cylindrical grinding machine  Internal grinding machine  External grinding machine  CNC machines  Twin spindle 3 axis high speed CNC profiler  Twin spindle 5 axis high speed CNC profiler Sub-assemblies In this shop sub-assemblies of aircrafts are carried out and those are  13 numbers of precision mechanical assemblies for hawk aircraft  656 sub-assemblies for hawk aircraft  Airbrake assemblies for Hawk  Pylon assemblies for Hawk  KIRAN landing gear, main gear and other sub-assemblies  Rotables/RMS/AOG assemblies of Hawk, jaguar and Kiran aircrafts  Carrying out services/ reworks at airbuses, equipping hanger and final assembly. 3.19 Hawk Wing Assembly The wings are the primary lifting surfaces for the aircraft. A wing is a type of fin with a surface, which produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere. The airflow over the wing is what generates the vast majority of lifting force necessary for flight. In the event that the wings are not functioning properly during the aircraft’s pre-flight inspection, a skilled aircraft dispatcher will delay the flight until the wing is properly fixed and functioning. The parts of wings of hawk are assembled here. They are either individual parts or sub- assemblies. Wing May be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of the fuselage. Hawk wing is made up of three major components.  Spars: this structure running parallel to the length of the wing. In a fixed-wing aircraft, the spar is often the main structural member of the wing, running spanwise at right angles (or
  49. 49. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 49 thereabouts depending on wing sweep) to the fuselage. The spar carries flight loads and the weight of the wings while on the ground.  Ribs: structures perpendicular to the length of the wing. There are 16 Ribs for the Hawk wing out of which 3 are machined and rest of them are made by sheet metal process.  Wing skin panel: this machined by twin spindle 5 axis CNC profiler in hawk machine shop. Assembly process steps Currently, this is a labour-intensive process using manual drilling and fastening methods with dedicated jigs and fixtures. Wing assembly is particularly intensive, requiring a large number of holes to be precisely drilled and counter-sunk in the skins, through which rivets are later driven.  The structure of the wing takes its shape in assembly Jigs and fixtures.  Ribs and spars are loaded in a set sequence. Those are fixed to wing skin by fasteners and riveting. The joints are sealed using Polymerized Rubber Compound (PRC).  Drill the holes on wing skin and inserts the fasteners to attach stringers to the skin panels in a continuous operation.  Wings can also be used to store fuel. To avoid leakage of the fuel the joints are sealed using Polymerized Rubber Compound (PRC).  Aileron and flaps are hinged to the trailing edge of wing structure. After both ailerons and flaps are securely hinged, firmly grasp the wing panel and aileron to make sure the hinges are securely glued and cannot be pulled out. Do this by carefully applying medium pressure, trying to separate the aileron from the wing panel. Use caution not to crush the wing structure. The hinge is constructed of a special material that allows the C/A glue to wick or penetrate and distribute throughout the hinge, securely bonding it to the structure of the wing panel and aileron.  The finished wing is cleaned and sealed from the inside to ensure a leakproof fuel compartment.  Pylons are attached under wings to carry the payload.
  50. 50. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 50 Fig.3.13 Construction of wing Fig.3.14 Riveting
  51. 51. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 51 Fig.3.15 Wing parts 3.20 Hawk equipping loom shop In this shop, electronic equipment and control system are installed in the hawk aircraft. The equipping hanger gets an empty fuselage, and line routings are done here. LRU’s are installed. Routings of pipelines are done. Control column, mechanisms and avionics are equipped. Rectification of electrical connections is done. Power is given, AC and DC checks, connections are carried on. Air-conditioning and cooling systems are equipped. Canopy is installed. In the hawk equipping loom assembly in which following equipping are installed.  Pizo static  DITCO (continuity test) 9000 points  Oxygen system (2 cylinder)  PRB (pressure measuring device)  Power check (A.C or D.C)  Fuel system check (900 liter fuel)  Low and high level device  Wheel brake system  Engine driven pump  Aileron and tell plan  Cabin pressure check  Canopy fixing  Hydraulic for flight control  7 flight control  Primer (redder tell stock, ailerons)  Secondary (air brake, flaps, jacks)  Ground surface  Under carriage system  2nd under carriage  ACS (airmen center system)  Heat condition and moisture  Pressure control jacket  The fuselage interior is covered with blankets of fiberglass insulation, electrical wiring and air ducts are installed and interior surfaces are covered with decorative panelling. Storage bins, typically with integrated passenger lights and emergency oxygen supplies, are then installed.
  52. 52. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 52  Preassembled seating, galleys and lavatories are moved by hand and secured to floor tracks, permitting the rapid reconfiguration of the passenger cabin to conform to air carrier needs. 3.21 Hawk structural and final assembly This position is responsible for the structural installation of parts and major components in the manufacturing of the aircraft for the final assembly line. Aircraft part is divided into 3 parts 1. Cockpit 2. Fuselage 3. empennage 1. Cockpit It is the place where the pilot controls the airplane. The airplane control, gauges, and indicators are held here. Cockpit contains control panel, pilot seat, canopy, wind screen It has multi-function display. Made up of special LCD. These LCDs can withstand a temperature of – 400 C. The display is easily readable even in bright sunlight & dims enough for the pilot to read at night without losing night vision. It Consist of Following Parts 1. Weather Radar 2. ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) 3. Warning Caution Panel 4. Autopilot System 5. Cockpit Voice Recorder Fig: Cockpit
  53. 53. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 53 Fig.3.16 Cockpit Fig.3.17 cockpit layout 1. Weather Radar  Located at the Front of the plane.  Used to detect the weather conditions outside during a flight.  Pilot mainly focus on the cloud panel consisting of 1) RED COLOUR (Heavily electrically charged) 2) YELOW COLOUR (Semi Electrically charged) 3) GREEN COLOUR (Indicates Safest Level) 2. ADF (Automatic Direction Finder)  It works on the frequency range of 190 to 1700 Khz .
  54. 54. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 54  The ADF Consist of a Needle and a Compass Card.  It consist of a Receiver and Control Unit to Select the mode of Operation and tune the Station.  The ADF is connected to two antennas which are LOOP and SENSE antennas .which are used to sense the direction of the stations. 3. Warning and Caution Panel  Warning caution Panel is a group of lights used as an central indicator of status of various processes in an aircraft.  Consist of Main warning Lamp or Audible signal to draw the attention of pilot during abnormal conditions.  Lights are accompanied with a Test switch which when pressed illuminates all the lights to confirm that all lights are working. 4. Auto Pilot System  An Autopilot system is a Mechanical , Electrical and Hydraulic system used to guide the plane without assistance of the pilot.  Highly sensitive GPS systems are used in this to Correct the aircraft Position.  Mainly three parts on which The system depends:- 1) RADAR 2) DATA UNIT 3) SAFETY SWITCHING
  55. 55. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 55 Fig3.18 Weather radar Fig.3.19 ADF Fig.3.20 Warning and Caution Panel 2. Fuselage It is the main structure, or body, of the aircraft. Generally constructed in two or more sections.It provides space for Pilot & cargo compartments, personnel, controls, and most of the accessories. The power plant, wings, stabilizers, and landing gear are attached to it. Monocoque Type fuselage The monocoque (single shell) fuselage relies largely on the strength of the skin or covering to carry the primary loads. The design may be divided into two classes: 1. Monocoque 2. Semimonocoque Different portions of the same fuselage may belong to either of the two classes, but most modern aircraft are considered to be of semimonocoque type construction.
  56. 56. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 56 Semimonocoque type fuselage consists of formers, frame assemblies, and bulkheads, stringer. This is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. Fuselages are generally constructed in two or more sections.  First, a series of frames (vertical to the plane’s longitudinal axis) in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture, or jig. These frames are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. Stringers are held to frames by cleats.  The strong, heavy longerons (along the planes longitudinal axis) hold the bulkheads and formers. The bulkheads and formers hold the stringers. All of these join together to form a rigid fuselage framework. The joining is done by using thousands of fasteners and rivets.  Before the skin is riveted to the frames and stringers, other subsidiary frames such as door and window frames are riveted or bolted in position. The skin of aluminium is attached to the longerons, bulkheads, and other structural members, attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives. PRC is applied to the joints. Skin carries part of the load. Fig.3.21 The most common airframe construction is semimonocoque.
  57. 57. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 57 Fig.3.22 Semi-monocoque fuselage structure of an airplane 3. Empennage structure The correct name for the tail section of an airplane is empennage. It Consist of  Vertical stabilizer- rudder  Horizontal stabilizer- elevator The main purpose of stabilizers is to keep the aircraft in straight-and-level flight. The vertical Stabilizer maintains the stability of the aircraft about its vertical axis. This is known as directional stability. The vertical stabilizer usually serves as the base to which the rudder is attached. The horizontal stabilizer provides stability of the aircraft about its lateral axis. This is known as longitudinal stability. The horizontal stabilizer usually serves as the base to which the elevators are attached. On many newer, high-performance aircraft, the entire vertical and/or horizontal stabilizer is a movable airfoil. Without the movable airfoil, the flight control surfaces would lose their effectiveness at extremely high altitudes.
  58. 58. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 58 Rudder: The rudder is a moveable control surface hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. It is controlled by a pair of foot-operated rudder pedals in the cockpit. Elevator: Elevators are the movable control surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. Fig.3.23 Empennage Structure of an airplane Spar Ribs Stringers Skin Spar Stringers Stabilator
  59. 59. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 59 Fig.3.24 Empennage Landing gear: Located underneath of the fuselage with shock strut. The landing gear system consists of three retractable landing gear assemblies. Each main landing gear has a conventional air-oil shock strut, a wheel brake assembly, and a wheel and tire assembly. The nose landing gear has a conventional air-oil shock strut, a shimmy damper, and a wheel and tire assembly. The shock strut is designed to absorb the shock that would otherwise be transmitted to the airframe during landing, taxiing, and take-off. The air-oil strut is used on all naval aircraft. This type of strut has two telescoping cylinders filled with hydraulic fluid and compressed air or nitrogen. The main landing gear is equipped with brakes for stopping the aircraft and assisting the pilot in steering the aircraft on the ground. The nose gear of most aircraft can be steered from the cockpit. This provides greater ease and safety on the runway when landing and taking off and on the taxiway in taxiing. The main landing gear is equipped with brakes for stopping the aircraft and assisting the pilot in steering the aircraft on the ground. The most common type of landing gear consists of wheels, but airplanes can also be equipped with floats for water operations, or skis for landing on snow. The landing gear consists of three wheels - two main wheels and a third wheel positioned either at the front or rear of the airplane. Landing gear employing a rear mounted wheel is called conventional landing gear. A steerable nose wheel or tail wheel permits the airplane to be controlled throughout all operations while on the ground.
  60. 60. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 60 Fig3.25 Landing gear Power plant  Hawk aircraft is powered by an Adour Mk 871 turbofan engine.  The power plant usually includes both the engine and the propeller. The primary function of the engine is to provide the power to turn the propeller.  A unit or machine that converts chemical energy contains in the fuel to thrust force. Thrust force is essential for moving the airplane forward and producing lift force.  It also generates electrical power, provides a vacuum source for some flight instruments, and in most single-engine airplanes, provides a source of heat for the pilot and passengers.  The engine is covered by a cowling, or in the case of some airplanes, surrounded by a nacelle. The purpose of the cowling or nacelle is to streamline the flow of air around the engine and to help cool the engine by ducting air around the cylinders. Fig3.26 Adour Mk 871turbo fan engine Specifications of Adour Mk 871 turbo fan engine
  61. 61. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 61 Dimensions Fan Diameter: 570 mm Length: 1,960 mm Weight Dry Weight: 589 Kg (1,299 pound) Thrust: 2,722 Kg (6,000 pound) Final Assembly  On completion, the various subassemblies are brought together for final assembly.  During final assembly, the fuselage sections are riveted together around a supporting structure. Floor beams and stringers are installed and the interior coated with a corrosion inhibiting compound.  Cockpit assembly is joined to forward (fore) fuselage. Fore and aft fuselage sections are joined to the wings and wing stub (a boxlike structure that serves as a main fuel tank and the structural center of the aircraft).  The wing is attached to the fuselage through reinforced fuselage frames, frequently by bolts. In some aircraft, the wing spars are continuous through the fuselage depending on the demands of space.  The tailplane are attached to pick up points on the relevant fuselage frames. vertical stabilizer is generally mounted on aft fuselage with joint. the front and rear spars are attached to aft fuselage bulkheads by either permanent joint or fittings.  Power plants and landing and nose gear are mounted, and avionic components are installed.  The functioning of all components is thoroughly tested prior to towing the completed aircraft to a separate, well ventilated paint hanger, where a protective primer coat (normally zinc chromate based) is applied, followed by a decorative topcoat of urethane or epoxy paint.  Prior to delivery the aircraft is put through a rigorous series of ground and flight tests. Fig.3.27 final assembled Hawk Mk 132
  62. 62. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 62 CHAPTER 4 FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES Flight control surfaces are hinged (movable) airfoils designed to change the attitude of the aircraft during flight. These surfaces are divided into three groups—primary, secondary, and auxiliary. 4.1 Primary Group The primary group of flight control surfaces includes ailerons, elevators, and rudders.  The ailerons attach to the trailing edge of the wings. They control the rolling (or banking) motion of the aircraft. This action is known as longitudinal control (shown in Fig.3.28). The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the wing’s ailerons. By turning the stick, the pilot can change the positions of the ailerons.  Ailerons are controlled by a side-to-side motion of the control stick in the cockpit or a rotation of the control yoke. When the aileron on one wing deflects down, the aileron on the opposite wing deflects upward. This amplifies the movement of the aircraft around the longitudinal axis. On the wing on which the aileron trailing edge moves downward, camber is increased and lift is increased. Conversely, on the other wing, the raised aileron decreases lift. (shown in Fig.3.29)The result is a sensitive response to the control input to roll the aircraft.  The elevators are attached to the horizontal stabilizer and control the climb or descent (pitching motion) of the aircraft. This action is known as lateral control (shown in Fig.3.28). The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the tail section’s elevators.  The rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer. It determines the horizontal flight (turning or yawing motion) of the aircraft. This action is known as directional control (shown in Fig.3.28). The foot pedals are connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the rudder of the tail section. Provides side to side control of airplane. It is controlled by a pair of foot-operated rudder pedals in the cockpit. When the right pedal is pushed forward, it deflects the rudder to the right which moves the nose of the aircraft to the right. The left pedal is rigged to simultaneously move aft. When the left pedal is pushed forward, the nose of the aircraft moves to the left.
  63. 63. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 63 Fig.3.28 Flight control surfaces move the aircraft around the Three axes of flight.
  64. 64. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 64 Fig.3.29 Differential aileron control movement. When one aileron is moved down, the aileron on the opposite wing is deflected upward. Fig.3.30 Motion of an aircraft about its axes. 4.2 Secondary Group The secondary group includes the trim tabs and spring tabs. Trim tabs are small airfoil recessed into the trailing edges of the primary control surface. Each trim tab hinges to its parent primary control surface, but operates by an independent control. Trim tabs let the pilot trim out an unbalanced condition without exerting pressure on the primary controls. Spring tabs are similar in appearance to trim tabs but serve an entirely different purpose. Spring tabs are used for the same purpose as hydraulic actuators. They aid the pilot in moving a larger control surface, such as the ailerons and elevators.
  65. 65. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 65 Conclusion  Since its inception in 1940, the company has grown into a giant aviation complex spread all over India and employing a versatile work force of trained, highly skilled & experienced persons. It enjoys a monopoly in India.  Recently a light combat aircraft (LCA) has been designed indigenously in the country with the advancement of new technology & highly skilled scientists and with the cooperation of various agencies. It is double that of MIG-21. A time will come when India too will have stood in the world market of aircraft.  I am grateful to have been able to get the opportunity to pursue my industrial training at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. I had a good learning experience at HAL.I was introduced some state of technologies that are used to manufacture our defence aircrafts. I learnt various manufacturing techniques that are used in production, how materials are treated based on their role and finally how assemblies of aircraft are done.
  66. 66. Industrial Training Report Master of Technology Page 66 Reference 1. www.hal-india.com 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustan_Aeronautics_Limited 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BAE_Systems_Hawk 4. http://aermech.in/hal-hawk-mk-132-bae-hawkadvanced-jet-trainer-ajt- indian-armed-forces/ 5. http://www.experimentalaircraft.info/articles/aircraft-construction

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