Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Nächste SlideShare
Water microbiology
Water microbiology
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 60 Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Diashows für Sie (20)

Anzeige

Ähnlich wie Water microbiology (20)

Weitere von Dr. Majid Mohiuddin (Hashmi) (20)

Anzeige

Aktuellste (20)

Water microbiology

  1. 1. WATER MICROBIOLOGY MAJID MOHIUDDIN
  2. 2. Water Microbiology The study of diversity of microorganisms – viruses, bacteria, algae, protozoa and microscopic fungi – which inhabit and perform activities essential to life in fresh, estuarine and marine waters, including springs, lakes, rivers, bays and seas comes under the umbrella of Water Microbiology.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE:  Every thing originated in the water & everything is sustained by water.  All life on earth depends on water.  Man uses water for many purposes. - drinking - irrigation - fisheries - industrial processes - transportation - waste disposal
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF WATER • For life • Inorganic constituent of living matter. Medium for Growth: Second natural medium • Contain mineral nutrients and dissolved oxygen. • Organic matter = Microbial Population. • Microbial population higher in Rivers near thickly populated cities than village. • PH, Temperature range & inorganic phosphate & situation of the lake. • Availability of possible factors (Zinc & Coppers)- limits growth of Microbes. & Poor quantity of nitrate and nitrogen. • Calcium-harmful for algae.
  5. 5. Water- common source of Infectious Diseases • Dysentery - Entamoeba histolytica • Typhoid Fever – Salmonella typhi • Cholera – Vibrio cholerae • Giardiasis – Gardia lamblia • Legionellosis – Legionella pneumophila • Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) – Naegleria fowleri (a Protozoan) Significant waterborne viral pathogens: Hepatitis A Norwalk Viruses
  6. 6. Common Waterborne Diseases Caused Due to Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa & Algae WHO estimates, 30,000 people die everyday in developing countries due to lack of clean water WATERBORNE PATHOGENS DISEASE CAUSED Bacteria Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever Salmonella enteritides Gastroenteritis Helicobacter pylori (Camphylobacter pylori) Stomach (gastric) ulcers, chronic gastritis, stomach caner Shigella dysenteria & others Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) Vibrio cholerae Cholera (or Asiatic cholera) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strain) Gastroenteritis Campylobacter fetus Gastroenteritis Legionella pneumophila Legionnaires disease (Pneumonia) Aeromonas hydrophila Gastroenteritis
  7. 7. Common Waterborne Diseases Caused Due to Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa & Algae WHO estimates, 30,000 people die everyday in developing countries due to lack of clean water WATERBORNE PATHOGENS DISEASE CAUSED Virus Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis Polio Virus Poliomyelitis Coxsackie virus Gastroenteritis PROTOZOA Giardia intestinalis Giardiasis Balantidium coli Balantidiasis Entamoeba histolytica Amoebic dysentery Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis (gastroenteritis) Naegleria fowleri Amoebic meningoencephalitis ALGAE Gonyaulax catanella Muscular paralysis Gambierdiscus toxicus Ciguatera fish poisoning
  8. 8. HYDEROGEN/WATER CYCLE
  9. 9. Hydrogen Cycle
  10. 10. Water in Nature Water exist in 3 states Gas Solid Liquid Lithosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere
  11. 11. 1. Ocean 2. Polar Ice Caps 3. Glaciers 4. Ice fields 5. Inland surface water – Lakes and River
  12. 12. Ocean – 97% of the Hydrosphere. Most of this water is cold between 2 and 30 C & high pressure (> 100 atmospheres).
  13. 13. Polar ice caps Ice fields Glaciers 2% in the form of ice
  14. 14. Inland surface water 0.02% Lake River
  15. 15. TYPES OF WATER 1. Atmospheric water: Rain water & Snow water (dust, soot & suspended particles & Air borne bacteria) 2. Surface water: Mountain, river water also. (organic matter, Soil microflora). Saprophytic Spp. & Protozoa. 3. Ground water: Water percolates (few bacteria & little amount of organic matter). (Microbes cannot multiply) 4. Stored water: Pounds, Reservoirs, Lakes & Ocean. • Microbial Population decreases X Area X Types of vegetation X Seasons X Individual chemical components X Total inorganic Salt contents. • Protozoa Presents.
  16. 16. Atmospheric water Rain water & Snow water (dust, soot & suspended particles & Air borne bacteria)
  17. 17. Surface water: Mountain, river water also. (organic matter, Soil microflora). Saprophytic Spp. & Protozoa. Mountain water River water
  18. 18. Ground water: Water percolates (few bacteria & little amount of organic matter). (Microbes cannot multiply)
  19. 19. Stored water Pond Reservoirs Lakes Ocean
  20. 20. Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. Stored Water: 1. Eutrophic Lake: Well nourished 2. Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished 3. Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matter of special type – Lake dark and acidic.
  21. 21. Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. Stored Water: 1. Eutrophic Lake
  22. 22. Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. Stored Water: 2. Oligotrophic Lake: Poorly nourished
  23. 23. Classified Based on Suitability for support of living matter. Stored Water: 3.Dystrophic Lake: High Organic matter of special type – Lake dark and acidic.
  24. 24. Water Impurities • Sea water ( about 3% dissolved mineral impurities) • Connote water (Produced with some crude oils, sometimes 20 to 30% dissolved salts) • Brackish water ( Industrial waste water) • Measured in Parts Per Million (ppm) - 10,000 ppm = 0.015%
  25. 25. FRESH WATER MICROBIOLOGY Fresh Water Environments are characterized by low salinity and variability in temperature, PH & oxygen concentration and contain microorganisms belonging to all major taxonomic groups. (eg. Aerobes (bacillus), Anaerobes (Clostridium), Aquatic fungi – Chytrids (Zoospora), Ingoldian fungi(Detuteromycetes),
  26. 26. Fresh Water Aquatic Ecosystems (Lakes & Ponds)  Littoral/shoreline Zone – area of shallow water near the shore – light penetrates to the bottom  Limnetic Zone – sunlight water away from the shore and the resident microorganisms include algae, cyanobacteria, pseudomonas and Caulobacter.  Photic/Profundal Zone- Light penetration (between Limnetic Zone and Lakee sediment)  Benthic Zone – composed of organic debris & mud. – Desulfovibrio & methane bacteria.
  27. 27. MICROORGANISMS IN WATER 1. Phytoplankton 2. Zooplankton 3. Periphyton (Biotecton) 4. Benthos (Zoobenthos) 5. Saprotrophs (Bacteria and Fungi) - Pleosaprophytic Zone - Mesosaprophytic Zone - Oligosaphrophytic Zone 6. Sea water Microorganism
  28. 28. 1. Phytoplankton: - Floating microscopic autotrophs - Cyanobacteria, algae (Chlorophyceae & Bacillariophyceae)  Classified based on Size: - Ultraplankton 0.5 to 10 m - Nannoplankton 10 to 50 m - Microplankton 50 to 500 m - Net plankton - Macroplankton 500 m  Primary Producers – indicates water quality  Biological treatment of Organic wastes in water .
  29. 29. 2. Zooplankton: • Heterogenous assemblage of minute floating animal forms found in water. • Locomotary structures • Primary consumers • Dominating Members » Protozoa, » Ronifera, » Copepoda » Cladocera » Ostracod.
  30. 30. 3. Periphyton (Biotecton) • are the organisms (both plant and animal) attached or clinging to the submerged plant or other surfaces projecting above the bottom • An organism may remain as periphyton throughout its life or during some period of its life cycle. • Animals may be an obligatory or a facultative periphyton.
  31. 31. Periphytons
  32. 32. 4. Benthios (Zoobenthos) The heterogenous assemblage of organisms attached or resting on the bottom or living in the bottom sediments of a body of water. Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants. Zoobenthos – Benthic Animals.
  33. 33. Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants
  34. 34. Phytobenthos- Benthic Plants
  35. 35. Zoobenthos – Benthic Animals
  36. 36. 5. Saprotrophs (Bacteria & Fungi): mud water. • Saprophytism – Pleosaprophytic Zone: Heavily Polluted Zone of water reservoir and contains sufficient amount of Organic residues of plants and animals. – Mesosaprophytic Zone: Less polluted due to high rate of mineralisation and oxidation of organic matter. – Oligosaphrophytic zone: pure and clear water
  37. 37. Lakes & Pond of Temperate Region – Based on Thermal stratification/gradients in temperature • - Seasonal changes in microbial populations. • Nutrients & Oxygen exchange. EPILIMNION: Warmest & aerobic. 250 -220 C THERMOCLINE:Buffer zone. 200 – 100 c HYPOLIMNION: Cooler & anaerobic.50 – 40 c • Upwilling Process: Nutrients up from sediments – massive growth of one group of microorganisms.
  38. 38. • Streams & Rivers: Nutrients from flow of inorganic and organic materials. – - effects of agricultural & industrial practiices – -Chemoorganotrophic Microorganisms • Estuaries: (a semi enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea) – receive inputs from various sources – domestic , industrial, agricultural or atmospheric sources – Coliforms, fecal streptococci, spp. of Bacillus, clostridium, sphaerotilus, Beggiatoa, Thiothrix, Thiobacillus. (Domestic pollution) – Hyphomicrobium, Caulobacter Gallionella ( Poor nutritional estuaries) – Fungi: Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota & Deuteromycota
  39. 39. Hydrothermal Vents • Deep-sea hot springs where volcanic activity generates fluids containing large amounts of inorganic energy sources that can be used by chemolithotrophic bacteria. • Bacteria fix CO2 into organic carbon used by deep sea animals. • Deep sea hydrothermal vents: – Warm vents: Emit Hydrothermal fluid – 6-230 c – Hot vents: 270-3800 c (Black smokers)
  40. 40. Hydrothermal vent
  41. 41. Microorganisms in sea: – Heliophilic (sunlight) – Barophilic (high hydrostatic pressure) – Psychrophilic (low temperature) – All are decomposed by bacteria and other microbes. – Contains bacteria, aerobic cellulose fermenters, fibriocolytic bacteria ad sulphuroxidizing bacteria, Blue green algae, green algae and diatoms. – Photosynthetic organisms (Primary Producers, the phytoplankton (eg., cyanobacteria, diatoms, dinoflagellates, chalmydomonada, and variety of other protists and eukaryotic algae) – Heterotrophic bacteria – at surface and lower strata. Ocean = High –pressure refrigerator ( 30 C at 100m depth High salinity ( 3.5% salts) & most below 5 o C, PH (8.0), Oxygen concentration
  42. 42. MARINE MICROBIOLOGY Contd….. Deep Sea = Water at > 1000m depth. Low Temperature High Temperature Low nutrient Levels  Archea at 100 meters Ocean depth  Barophiles(Piezophiles) = Weight/high pressure loving  Barotolerant  Baraophilic  Extreme obligate barophiles – at 10,000 m depth  Thiomargarita namibiensis (100x300 µm diameter) 100 time bigger than common bacterium - World Largest known
  43. 43. WATER POLLUTION - Change in quality or composition - By Waste disposal and other human activities - Less suitable or Harmful for drinking, domestic, agricultural recreational, fisheries or other purposes. Water Pollution: The adding to water of any substance, or the changing of water’s physical and chemical characteristics in any way which interferes with its use for legitimate purpose. WATER: CONTAMINATED, POLLUTED OR POTABLE
  44. 44. • It contain impurities of various kinds- both dissolved and suspended • Dissolved gases (H2S, CO2, NH3, N2) • Dissoved minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium) • Suspended impurities ( clay, silt, sand and mud) • Microorganisms.
  45. 45. Some different types of Water Pollution 1. Microbiological 2. Chemical 3. Oxygen depleting substances 4. Nutrients 5. Suspended matter
  46. 46. Water Pollution categorized: • Physical Pollution: due to particulate matter(sand/soil) • Chemical Pollution: Inorganic & organic wastes. • Biological Pollution: Microorganisms – human wastes, food processing, meat packing plants and medical facilities.
  47. 47. Sources of Water Pollution: 1. Natural Sources: Rain, Snowfall, Leaching, river, etc. 2. Anthropogenic Sources: • Industrial sources • Domestic Sources • Agricultural Sources • Mining Sources • Physical Pollutants (thermal and radioactive substances).
  48. 48. 1. Industrial Sources: 1. Tanneries 2. Sugar mills 3. Pulp and Paper mills, 4. Distilleries, Oil refineries etc. Tanneries Sugar mills Pulp and Paper mills Distilleries, Oil refineries
  49. 49. 2. Domestic Sources: – From Houses – Commercial buildings – Institutions – Important Pollutants are Biodegradable Organic matter, coliforms and pathogens.
  50. 50. 3. Agricultural Sources: – Soil and silt removed by erosion – Agricultural run off – Synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides – Plant residue.
  51. 51. Classification of Water Pollution: (based on nature of its origin) 1. Point Sources » From pipes and sewage treatment plants and industrial facilities. 1. Non Point Sources » Urban storm water run off, run off from farm fields, acid rain, etc.
  52. 52. • Classified based on their environmental or health effects: » Infectious agents. » Oxygen demanding wastes » Plant nutrients » Inorganic pollutants » Toxic organic chemicals » Sediment » Thermal pollutants » Radioactive pollutants.
  53. 53. Wastewater Characterization: 1. Physial 2. Chemical 3. Biological 1.Physical Characteristics: » Colour » Odour » Turbidity » Temperature » Solids
  54. 54. 2.Chemical Characteristics: » PH » Alkalinity » Inorganic constituents like chlorides, heavy metals, nitrogen, Phosphorus, etc. » Dissolved Oxygen (DO) » Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) » Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 3.Biological Characteristics » Bacteria » Algae » Protozoa » Viruses » Coliforms Biodegradation of organic wastes suspended in water is brought about by aerobic decomposers provided that the water contains sufficient oxygen for microorganisms to decompose the substances. The Oxygen required for biodegradation is termed biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
  55. 55. Water Purification Sedimentation  Coagulation/ Flocculation Filtration Chlorination Storage Catch basin in untreated (or raw) water Catch basin in untreated (or raw) water Holding tank or coagulation basin Holding tank or coagulation basin Sand Charcoal Sand Charcoal …….. …….000…..@@@@@@@ @ …….. …….000…..@@@@@@@ @ Tank of treated water Tank of treated water Pumping stationPumping station Remove sand, gravel, large particulates Formation & removal of floc, containing insoluble material & microoganisms Removal or remaining particulates, organic & inorganic compounds Kill pathogenic microorganisms ie., disinfection Prevent growth of new inoculation To consumer through domestic water pipes STEPS FUNCTIONS
  56. 56. WATER QUALITY ASSAYS & PUBLIC HEALTH Presence of Indicator Microorganisms  Standard Plate Count  The Most Probable Number Methods.  The Membrane Filter Technique  The (o-nitrophenyl-ß-D-galactopyrano-side) ONPG and MUG(4-methylum – bellifery1-ß-D-glucuro-nide) Test.  Isolation of Aquatic Molds.(Chytridiomycetes & Oomycetes – Chytridiales Saprolegniales).  Nuisance Organisms (not harmful to human) in Drinking Water. (Desulfovibrio, Thiobacillus, Eukaryotic algae, diatoms & Cyanobacteria.
  57. 57. Raw waste water Screening Chamber Grit Primary setting tank Aeration Tank Secondary Settling Tank Effluent Sludge thickener Anaerobic digestion Sludge thickener Sludge Disposal Primarysludge Sludge recycling (30-40%) Activated sludge (Secondary sludge) Grit Chamber WASTE WATER TREATMENT
  58. 58. END MAJID MOHIUDDIN

×