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Disaster management

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Disaster management

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Disaster is any occurrence that causes damage, ecological disruption ,loss of human life ,deterioration of health and health services on a scale ,sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. Disaster management: The body of policy and administrative decisions and operational activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster at all levels. It encompasses all the aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre and post disaster activities.
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS According to W.H.O., A.Disaster: “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence of either natural or man made that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victim cannot alleviate without assistance.” B.Disaster Nursing: “It can be defined as the adaptation of professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting the nursing, physical and emotional needs resulting from a disaster.” C.Hazard: “Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their environment .” * When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities, they can turn into disasters.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF DISASTER  Predictability  Controllability  Speed of onset  Length of forewarning  Duration of impact  Scope and intensity of impact.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER  Minimize the casualties.  Prevent further casualties.  Rescue the victims.  First aid.  Medical care.  Reconstruction.  Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of govt.  Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.  Organizations should function as an extension of their core business .
  6. 6. Contd ….  Individuals are responsible for their own safety.  Disaster management planning should focus on large-scale events.  Disaster management should recognize the difference between incidents and disasters.  Disaster management operational arrangements are additional to and do not replace incident management operational arrangements.  Planning must take account of the type of physical environment and the structure of the population.  Disaster management arrangements must recognize the involvement and potential role of non-govt. agencies.
  7. 7. EARTHQUAKE: It is a stippage of crusted rock along a fault or area of strain and rebound to new alignment. Effects of Earthquake:- Shaking of earth. Surface falling. After shocks. Tsunami. Tremors /vibrations. Landslides . Probability of occurrence can be determined but not the exact time.
  8. 8. TSUNAMI: A faulty movement on sea floor, accompanied by an earthquake. A landslide occurring under water or above the sea & plunging into the water. Volcanic activity takes place either under water or near the shore. Characteristics: Tsunami waves are barely perceptible in deep water and may measure about 160 kms. between the wave crests. May consists of ten or more wave crests. Move upto 800 kms/hr in deep water of ocean, diminishing in speed as the waves approaches
  9. 9. VOLCANO:  Magma pushed upward through volcanic event by pressure and effervescence of dissolved gases.  Magma flowing out into surface is ‘lava’ and all the solid particles ejected are ‘tephra’.  Damage results from type and material ejected such as ash, pyroclastic flows (blasts of gas containing ash and fragments), mud debris and lava flows. Adverse effects:  Death results from rockfall, toxic gases leads to respiratory difficulties, destruction of infrastructures, crops and supplies.
  10. 10. LANDSLIDES: o Down slope transport of soil and rock resulting from naturally occurring vibrations, changes in direct water content, removal of lateral support and weathering or human manipulation of water courses and slope coposition. Draughts: o It is insufficient water available or unavailability of water. Causes: o Rainfall deficit. o Human induced changes in ground surface & soil, higher sea-surface temperatures, increase of an atmospheric co2 and green house gases.
  11. 11. TROPICAL CYCLONES:  Mixture of heat and moisture forms a low pressure center over ocean in tropical latitudes where the center temperature is over 26*c.  Wind current spin and organize around deepening low pressure over accelerating towards the center and moving along track pushed by trade winds.  When cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptional rainfall and storm cause damage with secondary flooding and landslides. Floods: It is naturally occurring flash, river and coastal flooding from intense rainfall, may be associated with seasonal, weather patterns, human manipulations of watersheds, drainage basins and flood plains.
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: Air pollution caused by pollutants such as sulphur-di-oxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, carbon monoxide and lead from industries and transport. Marine pollution:- Sewage, industrial effluents, marine litter, petroleum spills, dumped radioactive substances. Water pollution :- Domestic waste water into lakes, rivers, ponds, etc.
  13. 13. DEFORESTATION: It occurs due to:-  Firewood collection.  Timber harvesting. Adverse effects:  Flood  Draught  Famine (decrease in agricultural production due to erosion of top-soil and collapse of hillside may lead to food shortage).  Desertification (reduction of land productivity), environmental pollution, global warming, etc.
  14. 14. CHEMICAL & INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS: Causes:  Disasters in plants/factory handlings.  Explosion of toxic substances.  Improper waste management of toxic chemicals.  Technological system failure.  Natural hazards in industries like fire.
  15. 15. SOCIO-POLITICAL FORCES:  Conflicts between refugees and local committees.  Civil conflicts.  Mass displacement of people.  Displaced persons:- Forced to leave their homes as a result of draught, disaster, flood, in search of food, direct or indirect consequences of conflicts. Epidemics: It is said to be rise in number of cases of parasites or infectious origin. Causes:  Sanitary conditions, decline in nutritional status.  Overcrowding, contaminated water or food supply.  Poverty, ecological changes favourable for vector breeding.
  16. 16. A. PRE-IMPACT PHASE:  Disaster preparedness:- Is an ongoing multisectoral activity. Integral part of the national system responsible for developing plans and programs for disaster management, prevention, mitigation, response, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Co-ordination of a variety of sectors to carry out : i. Evaluation of risk. ii. Adopt standards and regulations. iii. Organize communication and response mechanism. iv. Ensure all the resources –ready & easily mobilised. v. Develop public education programs.
  17. 17. B. IMPACT PHASE:  Search , rescue and first aid.  Field care  Triage  Tagging  Identification of dead.
  18. 18. C. POST-IMPACT PHASE: i. Disaster response:- Immediate reaction to disaster as the disaster is anticipated , or soon after it begins in order to assess the needs , reduce the suffering, limit the spread and consequences of the disaster, open up the way to rehabilitation by:- Mass evacuation Search and rescue Emergency medical services Securing food and water Maintenance of law and order Implementing the disaster management plan.
  19. 19. Contd…. Setting up medical camps and mobilizing resources. Providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities. Development of search and rescue team. Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control. Vaccination. ii.Rehabilitation:-  Water supply  Food supply  Basic sanitation & personal hygiene.  Vector control.
  20. 20. Contd…. iii. Disaster mitigation:-  This involves lessening the likely effects of the emergencies. These include depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and structure.  For ex. Improving structural qualities of the schools , houses and such other buildings so that medical casualties can be minimized.  similarly, ensuring the safety of health facilities and public health services including water supply and sewerage system to reduce the cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction.  This mitigation complements the disaster preparedness and disaster response activities.
  21. 21. DISASTER MANAGEMENT A continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, co-ordinating & implementing the measures which are necessary or expendient for:  Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster.  Reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences.  Capacity-building.  Preparedness to deal with any disaster.  Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.  Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster.
  22. 22. PREPARE DISASTER ACTION PLAN: It is planned and systematic approach towards understanding and solving the disaster to minimize the affect.  The approach should be multisectoral.  Plan should be realistic and easily adoptable.  Plan should be clearly laid down defining the role and responsibility of different agencies.  Should be exercised in between to evaluate it.  It should be prepared at the country, state, district and institutional level.  National disaster management authority (N.D.M.A.) facilitates state with support and advice while plan and implementation by S.D.M.A.(state disaster
  23. 23. TRIAGE Golden hour Immediate or high priority. Delayed or medium priority. Minor or minimal or ambulatory patients. Expectant or least priority. Colour code. i. Priority – Red band – serious cases. ii. Priority – Yellow band – moderately severe cases. iii. Priority – Blue band – required admission to ward. iv. Priority – Green band – stable cases, first aid needed. v. Priority – Black band – dead.
  24. 24. DISASTER EFFECTS:  Deaths  Disabilities  Increase in communicable diseases.  Psychological problems.  Food shortage  Socio-economic losses.  Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.  Environmental disruption. DISASTER DRILL: A disaster drill is an exercise in which people simulate the circumstances of a disaster so that they have an opportunity to practice their responses.
  25. 25. ROLE OF A NURSE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT: I.DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: To facilitate preparation with community. To provide updated record of vulnerable populations within the community. Nurse leads a preparedness effort. Nurse play multiroles in community. Nurse should have understanding of community resources. Disaster nurse must be involved in community organization.
  26. 26. II.DISASTER RESPONSE:  Nurse must involve in community assessment.  Once rescue workers begin to arrive at the scene, immediate plans for triage should begin.  Nurse work as a member of assessment team.  To be involved in ongoing surveillance. III.DISASTER RECOVERY:  Successful recovery preparation.  Be vigilant in health teaching.  Psychological support.  Referrals to hospital as needed.  Remain alert for environmental health.  Nurse must be attentive to danger.
  27. 27. DISASTER MANAGEMENT TEAM The objectives of disaster management through framework include:  A forum for communication, information exchange and developing consensus.  A format for co-ordination, eliminating, duplication and reducing gaps in services.  The possibility of being more effective through pooled resources.
  28. 28. UNITED NATION DISASTER MANAGEMENT TEAM:  It consist of representatives of each country.  Each country has representatives of UNICEF, RED CROSS, WHO, etc. COUNTRY DISASTER MANAGEMENT TEAM:  Most disaster-prone countries already have a formal or informal disaster management team.  It is a multidisciplinary approach where people from health sector, police dept., fire brigade, military, engineering, civil, social workers, and counsellors are also involved actively.
  29. 29. ROLE OF UNITED NATION AGENCIES  Measures of risk reduction and preparedness.  Assisting in planning and implementation of disaster rehabilitation.  Reviewing the impact of large settlements of refugees or displaced persons.  Providing technical assistance, financial assistance, etc.
  30. 30. NATIONAL POLICIES, OBJECTIVES AND STANDARDS  Policies with regard to all the soliciting, acceptance and use of international assistance, including external personnel.  The authority delegated to local institutions, possible roles and national NGOs and outside assistance agencies.  Policies regarding vaccinations, prophylactic distribution of drugs, care of unaccompanied children and salvaging of materials.  Policies and criteria for any distribution and relief.  Specifications of the kinds of food and other formalities which are appropriate and acceptable as donations.  General specifications for the kind of energy sources(diesel, petrol, electricity).
  31. 31. TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES It includes details of normal transport routes and capacities to and within the disaster-prone areas and knowledge of the specific logistical problems likely to be faced moving supplies following a disaster.  Roads :- i. Landmarks ii. Links iii. Maps  Trucking capacity:- i. Govt. contractors ii. Private contractors  Railways  River & sea ports:- i. Harbor depths ii. Cargo handling equipment
  32. 32. Contd….  Airports and Air transports  Storage and Handling:- i. Govt. warehouses ii. Private warehouses  Fuel supplies:- i. Diesel ii. Petrol DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN INDIA: To meet the challenges of emergency and disaster situations, the Govt. of India has identified the Notal ministries to enmask the responsibilities to the various concerned departments and sectors and also the support ministry to plan and implement.
  33. 33. RESPONSIBLE MINISTRY AND SUPPORTIVE MINISTRY AS PER DISASTER Type of disaster Notal ministry Support ministry - Natural disaster - Agriculture - Health - Chemical disaster - Environment - Health - Nuclear disaster - Atomic energy - Health - Biological disaster - Health - Public Health
  34. 34. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA Disaster management in India is mainly concerned for providing relief and rehabilitation to the people affected by natural calamities. Tenth plan:- In the tenth five year plan, for the first time, disaster management was organized as a development issue. The tenth plan prescribed: Policy guidelines Operational guidelines Specific developmental schemes.
  35. 35. Contd…. Status of implementation:- A central law on disaster management has been enacted in December 2005. ‘’National Disaster Management Authority’’ was formed under the chairmanship of Prime Minister. National disaster response team were being raised. The civil defence set-up in the country has further strengthened.
  36. 36. NEW ORIENTATION PROPOSED IN 11TH PLAN, NATIONAL, STATE AND DISTRICT PLANS:The Disaster Management Act stimulates that a national plan on Disaster Management shall be prepared in consultation with the state government and expert bodies.  National :-  Preventive measures  Integration of mitigation measures.  Capacity building  Role and responsibilities of different ministries and departments.
  37. 37.  STATE:-  Vulnerability of different parts of state.  Development of plans and projects.  Integration of measures.  Roles and responsibilities of departments.  DISTRICT:-  Preventive measures  Vulnerability  Capacity building  Allocation of responsibilities.  Procurements of resources.  Information to the public.
  38. 38. REFERENCES  ‘’Medical – Surgical Nursing’’, Joyce M. Black & Jane Hokanson Hawks, Vol- 2, 8th edition, Elsevier publications, India. pg. no. 2213-2214.  Brunner & Suddarth’s, ‘’Textbook of Medical- Surgical Nursing’’, Vol- 1, 12th edition, Wolters Kluwer publications, India. pg. no. 2191-2199.  Internet : Disaster Management in google.com