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M A H E S H C H A N D
L E C T U R E R
Disaster is any occurrence that causes damage,
ecological disruption ,loss of human life ,deterioration
of health and health services on a scale ,sufficient to
warrant an extraordinary response from outside the
affected community or area.
Disaster management: The body of policy
and administrative decisions and operational
activities that pertain to various stages of a disaster
at all levels.
It encompasses all the aspects of planning for
and responding to disasters, including both pre and
post disaster activities.
According to W.H.O.,
A.Disaster: “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence of either
natural or man made that causes human
suffering and creates human needs that victim cannot alleviate
B.Disaster Nursing: “It can be defined as the adaptation of
professional nursing skills in recognizing and meeting
the nursing, physical and emotional needs resulting
from a disaster.”
C.Hazard: “Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption
or damage to people and their environment .”
* When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities,
they can turn into disasters.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISASTER
Speed of onset
Length of forewarning
Duration of impact
Scope and intensity of impact.
PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER
Minimize the casualties.
Prevent further casualties.
Rescue the victims.
Disaster management is the responsibility of all
spheres of govt.
Disaster management should use resources that
exist for a day-to-day purpose.
Organizations should function as an extension of
their core business .
Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
Disaster management planning should focus on
Disaster management should recognize the
difference between incidents and disasters.
Disaster management operational arrangements are
additional to and do not replace incident
management operational arrangements.
Planning must take account of the type of physical
environment and the structure of the population.
Disaster management arrangements must recognize
the involvement and potential role of non-govt.
It is a stippage of crusted rock along a fault or area of
strain and rebound to new alignment.
Effects of Earthquake:-
Shaking of earth.
Probability of occurrence can be determined but not the
A faulty movement on sea floor, accompanied
by an earthquake. A landslide occurring under water
or above the sea & plunging into the water. Volcanic
activity takes place either under water or near the
Tsunami waves are barely perceptible in deep water
and may measure about 160 kms. between the wave
May consists of ten or more wave crests.
Move upto 800 kms/hr in deep water of ocean,
diminishing in speed as the waves approaches
Magma pushed upward through volcanic event by
pressure and effervescence of dissolved gases.
Magma flowing out into surface is ‘lava’ and all the
solid particles ejected are ‘tephra’.
Damage results from type and material ejected such
as ash, pyroclastic flows (blasts of gas containing
ash and fragments), mud debris and lava flows.
Death results from rockfall, toxic gases leads to
respiratory difficulties, destruction of
infrastructures, crops and supplies.
o Down slope transport of soil and rock resulting from
naturally occurring vibrations, changes in direct
water content, removal of lateral support and
weathering or human manipulation of water courses
and slope coposition.
o It is insufficient water available or unavailability of
o Rainfall deficit.
o Human induced changes in ground surface & soil,
higher sea-surface temperatures, increase of an
atmospheric co2 and green house gases.
Mixture of heat and moisture forms a low pressure
center over ocean in tropical latitudes where the
center temperature is over 26*c.
Wind current spin and organize around deepening
low pressure over accelerating towards the center
and moving along track pushed by trade winds.
When cyclone strikes land, high winds, exceptional
rainfall and storm cause damage with secondary
flooding and landslides.
Floods: It is naturally occurring flash, river and coastal
flooding from intense rainfall, may be associated
with seasonal, weather patterns, human
manipulations of watersheds, drainage basins and
Air pollution caused by pollutants such as
sulphur-di-oxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates,
carbon monoxide and lead from industries and
Marine pollution:- Sewage, industrial effluents,
marine litter, petroleum spills, dumped
Water pollution :- Domestic waste water into lakes,
rivers, ponds, etc.
It occurs due to:-
Famine (decrease in agricultural production due
to erosion of top-soil and collapse of hillside
may lead to food shortage).
Desertification (reduction of land productivity),
environmental pollution, global warming, etc.
CHEMICAL & INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS:
Disasters in plants/factory handlings.
Explosion of toxic substances.
Improper waste management of toxic
Technological system failure.
Natural hazards in industries like fire.
Conflicts between refugees and local committees.
Mass displacement of people.
Displaced persons:- Forced to leave their homes as
a result of draught, disaster, flood, in search of food,
direct or indirect consequences of conflicts.
Epidemics: It is said to be rise in number of cases of
parasites or infectious origin.
Sanitary conditions, decline in nutritional status.
Overcrowding, contaminated water or food supply.
Poverty, ecological changes favourable for vector
A. PRE-IMPACT PHASE:
Is an ongoing multisectoral activity. Integral part of the
national system responsible for developing plans
and programs for disaster management, prevention,
mitigation, response, rehabilitation and
Co-ordination of a variety of sectors to carry out :
i. Evaluation of risk.
ii. Adopt standards and regulations.
iii. Organize communication and response
iv. Ensure all the resources –ready & easily
v. Develop public education programs.
B. IMPACT PHASE:
Search , rescue and first aid.
Identification of dead.
C. POST-IMPACT PHASE:
i. Disaster response:-
Immediate reaction to disaster as the disaster
is anticipated , or soon after it begins in order to
assess the needs , reduce the suffering, limit the
spread and consequences of the disaster, open up
the way to rehabilitation by:-
Search and rescue
Emergency medical services
Securing food and water
Maintenance of law and order
Implementing the disaster management plan.
Setting up medical camps and mobilizing resources.
Providing adequate shelter and sanitary facilities.
Development of search and rescue team.
Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control.
Basic sanitation & personal hygiene.
iii. Disaster mitigation:-
This involves lessening the likely effects of the
emergencies. These include depending upon the
disaster, protection of vulnerable population and
For ex. Improving structural qualities of the schools ,
houses and such other buildings so that medical
casualties can be minimized.
similarly, ensuring the safety of health facilities and
public health services including water supply and
sewerage system to reduce the cost of rehabilitation
This mitigation complements the disaster
preparedness and disaster response activities.
A continuous and integrated process of
planning, organizing, co-ordinating & implementing
the measures which are necessary or expendient
Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster.
Reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or
Preparedness to deal with any disaster.
Prompt response to any threatening disaster
situation or disaster.
Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of
PREPARE DISASTER ACTION PLAN:
It is planned and systematic approach towards
understanding and solving the disaster to minimize
The approach should be multisectoral.
Plan should be realistic and easily adoptable.
Plan should be clearly laid down defining the role
and responsibility of different agencies.
Should be exercised in between to evaluate it.
It should be prepared at the country, state, district
and institutional level.
National disaster management authority (N.D.M.A.)
facilitates state with support and advice while plan
and implementation by S.D.M.A.(state disaster
Immediate or high priority.
Delayed or medium priority.
Minor or minimal or ambulatory patients.
Expectant or least priority.
i. Priority – Red band – serious cases.
ii. Priority – Yellow band – moderately severe cases.
iii. Priority – Blue band – required admission to ward.
iv. Priority – Green band – stable cases, first aid
v. Priority – Black band – dead.
Increase in communicable diseases.
Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
DISASTER DRILL: A disaster drill is an exercise in which
people simulate the circumstances of a disaster so
that they have an opportunity to practice their
ROLE OF A NURSE IN DISASTER
To facilitate preparation with community.
To provide updated record of vulnerable
populations within the community.
Nurse leads a preparedness effort.
Nurse play multiroles in community.
Nurse should have understanding of community
Disaster nurse must be involved in community
Nurse must involve in community assessment.
Once rescue workers begin to arrive at the scene,
immediate plans for triage should begin.
Nurse work as a member of assessment team.
To be involved in ongoing surveillance.
Successful recovery preparation.
Be vigilant in health teaching.
Referrals to hospital as needed.
Remain alert for environmental health.
Nurse must be attentive to danger.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT TEAM
The objectives of disaster management
through framework include:
A forum for communication, information
exchange and developing consensus.
A format for co-ordination, eliminating,
duplication and reducing gaps in services.
The possibility of being more effective through
UNITED NATION DISASTER MANAGEMENT
It consist of representatives of each country.
Each country has representatives of UNICEF,
RED CROSS, WHO, etc.
COUNTRY DISASTER MANAGEMENT TEAM:
Most disaster-prone countries already have a
formal or informal disaster management team.
It is a multidisciplinary approach where people
from health sector, police dept., fire brigade,
military, engineering, civil, social workers, and
counsellors are also involved actively.
ROLE OF UNITED NATION AGENCIES
Measures of risk reduction and preparedness.
Assisting in planning and implementation of
Reviewing the impact of large settlements of
refugees or displaced persons.
Providing technical assistance, financial
NATIONAL POLICIES, OBJECTIVES AND
Policies with regard to all the soliciting, acceptance and
use of international assistance, including external
The authority delegated to local institutions, possible
roles and national NGOs and outside assistance
Policies regarding vaccinations, prophylactic distribution
of drugs, care of unaccompanied children and salvaging
Policies and criteria for any distribution and relief.
Specifications of the kinds of food and other formalities
which are appropriate and acceptable as donations.
General specifications for the kind of energy
sources(diesel, petrol, electricity).
It includes details of normal transport routes
and capacities to and within the disaster-prone areas
and knowledge of the specific logistical problems
likely to be faced moving supplies following a
Roads :- i. Landmarks
Trucking capacity:- i. Govt. contractors
ii. Private contractors
River & sea ports:- i. Harbor depths
ii. Cargo handling equipment
Airports and Air transports
Storage and Handling:- i. Govt. warehouses
ii. Private warehouses
Fuel supplies:- i. Diesel
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN INDIA:
To meet the challenges of emergency and
disaster situations, the Govt. of India has identified
the Notal ministries to enmask the responsibilities to
the various concerned departments and sectors and
also the support ministry to plan and implement.
RESPONSIBLE MINISTRY AND
SUPPORTIVE MINISTRY AS PER DISASTER
Type of disaster Notal ministry Support
- Natural disaster - Agriculture - Health
- Chemical disaster - Environment -
- Nuclear disaster - Atomic energy -
- Biological disaster - Health -
PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA
Disaster management in India is mainly
concerned for providing relief and rehabilitation to
the people affected by natural calamities.
In the tenth five year plan, for the first time,
disaster management was organized as a
The tenth plan prescribed:
Specific developmental schemes.
Status of implementation:-
A central law on disaster management has been
enacted in December 2005.
‘’National Disaster Management Authority’’ was formed
under the chairmanship of Prime Minister.
National disaster response team were being raised.
The civil defence set-up in the country has further
NEW ORIENTATION PROPOSED IN 11TH
PLAN, NATIONAL, STATE AND DISTRICT
PLANS:The Disaster Management Act stimulates
that a national plan on Disaster Management
shall be prepared in consultation with the state
government and expert bodies.
Integration of mitigation measures.
Role and responsibilities of different ministries
Vulnerability of different parts of state.
Development of plans and projects.
Integration of measures.
Roles and responsibilities of departments.
Allocation of responsibilities.
Procurements of resources.
Information to the public.
‘’Medical – Surgical Nursing’’, Joyce M. Black &
Jane Hokanson Hawks, Vol- 2, 8th edition,
Elsevier publications, India.
Brunner & Suddarth’s, ‘’Textbook of Medical-
Surgical Nursing’’, Vol- 1, 12th edition, Wolters
Kluwer publications, India.
Internet : Disaster Management in google.com