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Techniques of Power

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Techniques of Power

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Techniques of Power

  1. 1.  It is the ability to …  Get someone to do something you want done.  Make things happen in the way you want.  It is the ability of a person or a group to influence the beliefs and actions of other people Power
  2. 2.  John French and Bertram Raven (1959) identified five types:  Legitimate Power  Reward Power  Expert Power  Referent Power  Coercive Power Types of Power
  3. 3.  Associated with having status or formal job authority  The person has the right to make demands, and expect obedience from others  Example: Project Director, CEO, Politician Legitimate Power
  4. 4.  Derives from having capacity to provide rewards to others  It results from one person’s ability to compensate another for compliance.  Example: Reward by company in the form of bonus Reward Power
  5. 5.  Expert Power • Based on person’s own experiences, skills and knowledge • It is based on the followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence • This is given to the person who is perceived to be a subject matter expert by others • However, having knowledge and information is not power, power is earned by sharing that knowledge and information
  6. 6.  Refers to the ability of a person to influence others because of the followers’ loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, desire to gain approval from, or desire to be associated with the person.  It is the result of a person’s perceived attractiveness, worthiness, influence and/or right to respect from others  Can be thought of as charisma, admiration, connection and appeal.  Example: celebrities, a person with charm often makes everyone feel good, so he or she tend to have a lot of influence in a workplace Referent Power
  7. 7.   It is exercised through fear  This is derived from having the perceived capacity to penalize or punish others for non compliance  This is subject to abuse and is often associated with legitimate power  The use of this power will inevitably damage any relationship with the subordinate Coercive Power
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  10. 10.  French and Raven model give two groups of power:  One group is about the person: expert and referent power  Second group is about the context: legitimate power, reward power and coercive power Groups of power
  11. 11.  Sources of Power  Knowledge as power:  Organizations are information processors that must use knowledge to produce goods and services.  The concept of knowledge as power means that individuals, teams, groups, or departments that possess knowledge that is crucial in attaining the organization's goals have power, but only if they use the power to advance the interested of their organization
  12. 12.   Control of Resources as Power:  Resources can be: material, positional, ideational  The departments, groups, or individuals who can provide essential or difficult to obtain resources acquire more power in the organization than others
  13. 13.  Decision making as Power:  In an organization it creates more or less power differences among individuals or groups.  Managers exercise considerable power in an organization simply because of their decision making ability
  14. 14.   Networks as Power:  The existence of structural and situational power depends not only on access to information, resources and decision making, but also on the ability to get cooperation in carrying out tasks  Being in the center of a reverse network generates power both from the knowledge gathering, and distribution perspective and from the ability you have to influence others
  15. 15.  Sources of Power Knowledge Control of Resources Decision Making Power Networks
  16. 16.  Amitai Etzioni identified three types of organizational power:  Coercive power: forces people to do something through threat, intimidation or violence.  Utilitarian power: influences people by providing them with reward and benefits  Normative Power: influences members through peer pressure, or by letting the individuals know that they are erected to act according to the overall wishes of the group Bases of Power
  17. 17.   Desire to have an impact on others.  Strong action, giving help or advice, controlling someone.  Action that produces emotion in others  Concern for reputation  High need for power:  Competitive, aggressive, prestige  Correlated with success when directed toward the organization and not toward personal agenda  Coaching, democratic managing style Need for Power
  18. 18.  Have high need for social power  Approach relationships with a communal orientation  Focus on needs and interests of others Successful Power Users belief in the authority system belief in justice preference for work & discipline
  19. 19.   Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.  Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values.  Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.  Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request. Ways to Influence With Power
  20. 20.   Exchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors.  Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.  Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.  Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.
  21. 21.  It is the right to a manager to achieve the objectives of the organization  It is the right to take decisions  Authority is manifestation of power, it exists where one person has a formal right to command and another has a formal obligation to obey  It may be understood as institutionalized power  The foundation of authority is the amount of power the person is perceived to have, to give directions, their willingness and ability to use power effectively Authority
  22. 22.  1. Legal Authority: based on a system of rules that is applied administratively and judicially in accordance with known principles 2. Traditional Authority: based on a system in which authority is legitimate because it has always existed 3. Charismatic Authority: based on the charisma of a leader who shows that he or she possesses the right to lead by virtue of their personal attributes Types of Authority

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