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impact of socio-cultural belief of food choice on female menstruation.

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impact of socio-cultural belief of food choice on female menstruation.

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impact of socio-cultural belief of food choice on female menstruation.

  1. 1. Topic: Exploring the impact of socio-cultural belief of food choice on female menstruation. Group members Tehmina ejaz Bibi Maryam Rijha jawad Shaheen Nida
  2. 2. Contents • 1) Introduction • 2) Literature Review • 3) Research Question • 4) Hypothesis • 5) Objectives • 6) Conceptualization and Operationalization • 7) Theoretical Framework • 8) Methodology • 9) Unit of Analysis • 10) Universe • 11) Research Locale • 12) Sample Size • 13) Technique for data analysis • 14) Data interpretation • 15) Conclusion and recommendation • 16) References
  3. 3. Abstract • Socio-cultural context always has strong influence on the food choices and eating patterns of an individual in which he/she lives. Traditional beliefs and values associated with different kind of foods influence the preferences, diet and food choices of individuals and it have a huge influence on female menstruation. • The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of different socio-cultural beliefs on the food choices on female menstruation, from Gilgit baltistan girls, studying in the International Islamic University Islamabad Pakistan. The sample for the present study comprised of Gbian’s girls who studying in IIUI Pakistan. • Using qualitative research method, this study espoused the indepth interview and case study method.4 interview and 2 case studies are selected from fieldwork. • The findings of the study revealed that there is strong impact of socio-cultural factors (beliefs about hot and cold dichotomy of food,local herbs,cultural practices on the menstruation of Gbians girls,students of IIUI.
  4. 4. Introduction 1) Aims explore & clear understanding socio cultural beliefs. 2) Menstruation 3) Hot and cold dichotomy(Saher et.al 2014) 4) Practice of food intake during menstruation 5) Myths and taboos 6) Capila (2004) and Saher (2014)
  5. 5. Purpose of Study 1. Reasons and factors 2.
  6. 6. Rationale of the study • Cross culture study • Emic approach
  7. 7. Literature Review Themes of review: Ethno medical practices in Pakistan Pakistan cultural practices regarding menstruations Ying Yang theory  Beliefs of ‘Hot’ and ‘Cold’ dichotomy of food
  8. 8. Beliefs of hot and cold dichotomy of food The beliefs of hot and cold effect of food that is prevail in South Asia and almost all part of world. It is believe by qualified Hakeem, doctors, and medical systems which are prevailed in societies. this classification is based on food quality and its effect on human body such as Alcohol, beef, onion, chili, consider as hot food on the other hand dairy product, vegetables, citrus fruits , tropical consider as cold food. This classification varies with different cultures , hot and cold attributes of food perceived contextually. There are myths about food for girls during menstruation. Some restriction on certain foods during menstruation such as meet, rice, curd etc.
  9. 9. Ying Yang theory the original concept of yin yang theory is to understand of nature and environment. Ying Yang nutrition: traditional Chinese TMC believes that people need eat balance food which is based on hot and cold food balance. Ying food is referred to cool food according them this type food moist human body this food high in potassium, like soy product, fruits watermelon and star fruits vegetables ,cucumber, carrot and cadge crab and duck meet.. Yang food is warm food is consider higher calories and sodium such as protein, meet of chicken and beef, egg, rice, sesame oil, mushrooms.
  10. 10. Ethno medical practices in Pakistan It’s cultural health care beliefs and practices of indigenous people of a society where people cure their illness and health problems though local medicine based on plants and herbs. In Pashtus’ tribe in Northern west Pakistan women use green tea, turmeric and leaves used to preparing medicines for women gynae problems such as menstrual problems, leucorrhoea, ant fertility and delivery problems. In rural areas women not go to doctors due to different reasons like ridged socio culture beliefs, poor stander of living, and lack of modern facilities.
  11. 11. Pakistani cultural practices regarding menstruation There are culturally concepts constructed among females regarding menstruation . Specially which food should intake and which is avoided during this time. Puerperium is also kind of menstruation these period women faced after delivery in this time a healthy diet is very important to healing. they use home made things like turmeric in multiple ways mix with milk and honey . A case study which is conducted in Karachi non-school going girls according their thoughts hot and cold impact of food. They avoid meat, pickles, cold drinks and carrots, yogurt. they have beliefs that cold food gain their weight and hot food meat, grams would be stop the flow of bleeding and egg would increase flow of blood.
  12. 12. Research Questions: • How socio cultural beliefs of food influence Gbian’s Girls menstruation? • What kind of cultural practices done by Gbian’s adult girls to minimize menstrual pain ?
  13. 13. Research Gap Many academicians and researchers conduct research on socio cultural beliefs and women menstruation and highly focus on populated area like punjab but there is under published researches are there that emphasize on menstrual issues ,treatments girls of Gilgit Baltistan so the researchers try their level best to explore a dynamic perspective, beliefs of food and their impact on Gbians girls.
  14. 14. To study yin and yang food among Gbian’s girls? To explore strategies that Gbian’s girls minimize their pain by using different local herbs ? To evaluate hot and cold dichotomy of food influence on gbians girls menstruation? To measure precautions used by Gbians girls during menstruation?
  15. 15. Research Methodology: • The methodology is purely qualitative in nature • Tool for data collection: In depth interview and case studies are primary tool for data collection. • Technique for Data analysis: Interview schedule and case studies selected for data analysis. • Sample size: The sample size is 6. • Locale: Female Campus • Universe: All females • Unit of Analysis: Gbians girls are selected as target population.
  16. 16. Hypothesis: • Use of local herbs influence effectively in healing of uterus and vagina among girls of Gilgit Baltistan. • Maintaining Balance between hot and cold dichotomy of food create good impact on menstruation of Gbians girls.
  17. 17. Conceptualization and Operationalization: Conceptualization: The researcher explores two variables that are as under: • a. Socio Cultural Beliefs • b. Female Menstruation:
  18. 18. •a. Socio cultural beliefs: A set of belief, attitudes, customs, practices and behavior that exist within population.(E.B Tylor,1871). • b. Female menstruation: is a normal, natural female physiological function. A period, or menstruation, is the shedding of the endometri um - the lining of the uterus (womb). Menstruation is also known as menses. Menses are part of normal sexual health for women during reproductive age (Christian’s, 2016). • D.R, Paula Hilliard, professor of obstetrics & gynecology and pediatrics at the University Of Cincinnati College Of Medicine, said: • "The menstrual cycle is a window into the general health and well-being of women and not just a reproductive event."
  19. 19. • The researcher further explain the define variable in his own understanding to meet the expectation of audience and to fulfill requirement of the research.
  20. 20. Socio cultural belief of food and menstruation • The socio cultural belief of food are basically the beliefs, attitude ,behavior toward consumption of particular food having hot and cold dichotomy with different intensity and impact. • These beliefs are prevail in different society and in cultures. however menstruation or, a period is a shedding of endometrial tissue from the womb that is released through the vagina. • Women have a period approximately every 28 days; however, there is some variation in this cycle, ranging from a 24-day to a 35-day cycle. A period is part of the woman's menstrual cycle.
  21. 21. Continue • There is direct relationship between good food and balanced menstruation. By consuming different food and having different cultural beliefs of intaking food, females are become so conscious about their fertility and menstruation.The girls of Gilgit in IIUI consume different kind of foods to minimize pain and control bleeding.Further more the researcher explore some indicators to measure the two variables which are as under: • 1. Hot and Cold dichotomy of food • 2. Cultural Practices • 3. Local herbs
  22. 22. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
  23. 23. Explanation of Theoretical model: • These indicators are extract from reviewing the intellectual literature. • Hot and cold dichotomy of food include traditional Chinese Theory of Yin and Yang in which women is more conscious of in taking particular food or diet. For better physical health include healthy womb or uterus or less menstrual pain girls highly maintain balance between yin and yang food. • Herbalism: Herbalism is basically a unit of ethno medicine in which girls mostly consume different kind of local herbs, plants for healthy uterus and physical health. Pomegranate cherry, and carrot juice are highly effective for better health and to increase blood and glucose level in body so after completion of menstruation cycle girls of Gilgit Baltistan use seeds, leaves of pomegranate and carrot for healing of intestine, uterus and maintains of blood level in body.
  24. 24. Cultural Practices • Female menstruation is also effected by cultural practices. Every culture has its own medication and cultural practices (Manderson, 1987). • Female practice those cultural precaution, procedures, strategies, techniques which are highly acceptable and comfortable in their own context(Cultural Relativism) so girls of Gilgit Baltistan mostly recommend hot and cold dichotomy of food and take bath after 2 days of menstruation cycle. But these practices vary among girls because they belongs from different region or districts of Gilgit Baltistan. • Girls who belongs from rural areas of Gilgit like Hunza, the girls consume milk of livestock regularly during menstruation however the girls who belongs from towns, urban area not mostly consume milk regularly during menstruation. They avoid food having high intensity. •
  25. 25. Data interpretation And Findings Case studies with thematic analysis and Indepth Interviews.
  26. 26. (Hot and Cold dichotomy of food) • One of my respondent is XYZ who belongs from Hunza Gilgit and studying in IIUI. She have negative experience with menstruation,she fell extremely ill,less bleeding, yellow color likoria but extremely pain in her uterus during first day of menstruation.Some times she become hospitalized.She become fed up from using biomedicine.After consuming biomedicine,her mother in law recommend her traditional remedies to cure pain or cure yellow likoria which is considered as severe.She start to use hot food and avoid cold food during periods.The hot intensity food include dairy farm products like warm milk,honey,eggs,dry fruits soup,coconut,cheery and butter and cold food like cold water,tea,yougart,cream,coriander.She avoid cold food and consume coconut for controlling pungent smell of likoria, warm dry soup of apricot for internal healing, warm milk for reducing pain in uterus, eat cherry for increase blood quantity in body and scientifically it has been proved that consumption of black cheery and pomegranate increase energy level in body
  27. 27. Case study 2: (Cultural practices) • One of my respondent is XYZ ,who belongs from Ganish Hunza,and she is student of sociology IIUI. She stated that she feel extremely pain during menses and she highly belief on her cultural practices and local herbs(ethno medicines).She have issue of excessive bleeding, and pain in first 2 days of menses. Some time due to excessive bleeding she face guilt because of menstruation leads to create pungent smell, dirt clothes etc.
  28. 28. • Moreover she stated that in winter season month of January one day at morning time I hold a heavy bucket of water and later on I feel uncomfortable a small piece of blood excrete from my uterus and pains starts.At that time I become scared and I told to my mother. My mother start to treat in a very traditional way. First my mother take a rough leather and put ashes without coal fire from the stove and cover it in leather piece..and put that cover leather ashes on my upper side of uterus approximately for 20 minutes and I feel relaxed. Next day my mother give me paste of turmeric which was only mix with warm water. and told me to apply this paste over the external vagina and get steam with hot water.I do what my mother guide me. When the steam vapours mix with warm paste that was apply on outer side of uterus I feel calm..I revise this practice thrice time. And I become cure
  29. 29. • However when I came here I feel pain due to unhygienic food during menstruation I only use herbs ‘supandur’’.The herb which is put on fire and inhale the smell of that particular plant. The belief behind using of supandur or shrub is purification of body soul from any kind of dirt and it is considered as sacred and it is only get from mountainous area where fairies live their life’s. The researcher tried his level best to view the cultural aspect, practices of menstruation in a particular context with help of Gbians girls(Cultural Relativism).
  30. 30. Interview guide • part A • Q1. What do you know about hot and cold intensity food ? • Q2.What kind of experience you face after consuming different herbs? • Q3.Why girls recommend cultural practices to minimize menstrual pain. Share your experience • Q4.Do you belief in Traditional Chinese medicine(Yin and yang) if yes then explain your experience • Q5.What will you consume food instead of spicy food that will give you relaxation during menstruation
  31. 31. Part B. • Q1.Do you consume cold drinks during menstruation?If yes then explain the reason? • Q2.Do you have any home remedies to minimize menstrual pain ?If yes then explain? • Q3.Do you have any kinds of menstruation taboos or beliefs prevail regarding foods for girls and women in your culture?if yes then broadly explain. • Q4. Any kind of food or vegetable which is not allowed to consume during menstruation ?
  32. 32. Part C • Q1 Do you take any medicines or multi vitamins during menstruation ? • Q2.Which is most popular remedy in your culture regarding menstruation and why girls use it ? • Q3.Do you believe in Taseer (affects) of foods for girls? if yes then why you believe in Taseer (affects) of foods for girls? • Q4.Do you believe that use of turmeric with milk will minimize your menstrual pain?If yes then share your experience? • Q5.Does use of green tea and turmeric with milk will minimize your menstrual pain or excessive bleeding?If yes Share your experience.
  33. 33. data analysis: • Interview analysis :1 • Age 22 • My respondent no 1 share her experience with me according to her food like dry fruits, eggs, are hot intensity foods, during her menstrual cycle she avoids taking cold intensity foods like curd etc she prefers to consume desi ghee, milk eggs etc to have a normal painless cycle she said that in her area there are some sacred shrubs, used after menstruation which they put on fire, and inhale their smoke , which according to them purifies their bodies .. they consume pomegranate extracts and carrot juice to stabilize the iron levels in body which is being lost during menses and its also being scientifically proven She further describes that there are cultural practices like consumption of sheep milk with herbal extracts and ashes wraps are practiced to ease menstrual cramps and pain. She also says that in their area they keep balance in both cold and hot intensity foods during their cycles. Spicy foods are considered bad for health; sour foods are also not preferred. A specific apricot soup which is made of wheat and apricot which is used to reduce pain in menstrual cycle. She consumes multivitamins and folic acid during her cycle.
  34. 34. Interview analysis 2 • Age 21 • My respondent no 2 share her experience with me according to her honey ,fish, castor oil are hot intensity foods, during her menstrual cycle she avoids taking yogurt, cold water etc. she prefer to consume herbs like carrot seeds, ajwain, it helps in easing menstrual cramps and provide relief from pain. she prefer to consume dry dates with hot milk which in reduces menstrual pain and cramps. • she believes in Chinese medical system and have their own beliefs and experiments she feels that there should be a balance between both hot and cold intensity in food excessive amount will effects body in a bad way. food like chicken stock helps in soothing pain during menstruation. during menstruation she use ajwain extract with desi ghee which help to reduce the pain and maintain bleeding. the people living in gilgit baltistan will not encourage spicy food.she takes folic acid and omega 3 capsules which provide energy to the body, in her point of view and experience turmeric, milk, green tea provide relation to muscles and soothing effect to the body and minimize the pain.
  35. 35. Interview analysis 3 • Age 22 • Respondent no 3, from gilgit baltistan shares her experience. According to her consumption of high intensity foods helps in regulation of blood flow during menstruation, they help in easing pain and relief from cramps. Foods like egg,stocks,fish etc helps with cramps and its necessary to avoid low intensity foods such as curd, cold water, coriander etc cause they cause pain in lower abdomen and makes periods more painful. She told me about remedies used for menstrual pain such as aniseed boiled in milk, its consumption helps with cramps and bloating during menses. Food which causes gas and bloating such as spicy foods are avoided. Turmeric and jiggery with hot water is also consumed. •
  36. 36. Respondent no 4 Age 21 • A respondent from GB shares her experience as she states, that she belongs to GB, cold region she consume dry fruits, nuts, hot intensity foods during her cycle and avoid cold items. Use of teas and herbs in increased as compare to normal days. Soups are consumed In large amounts. Butter and fish is also consumed. Sour foods such as tamarind , pickles and lemon are avoided. Multivitamins like folic acid and pain reliever such as panadol and poniston are also used. Red and green chilies are avoided consumption of turmeric is increased
  37. 37. • It has been concluded that in every society cultural beliefs are prevail and it have its own cultural significance. Cultural belief of food choice is important to explore the important factors behind menstruation. Menstruation in females is a natural phenomena and it significance can be address through hot and cold dichotomy of food,theory of yin and yang, ethnomedicine,herbalism and cultural practices of Gbians girls.
  38. 38. Reference • Sadiq MA, Salih AA. 2013. Knowledge and practice of adolescent females about menstruation in Baghdad. J Gen Pract, 2:138. • Kumar A, Srivastava K. 2011. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. Soc Work Public Health,26:594–604 • Capila, A. 2004. Traditional Health Practices of Kumaoni Women: Continuity and Change. Concept Publishing Company. Page 109 • Manderson, L. 1987. “Hot-cold food and medical theories: overview and introduction”. Social Science and Medicine, 25(4): 329-330 • Inam, SNB., S. Siddiqui, K. Qureshi, F.Z. Punjani, and A. Omair, 2003. “Beliefs of Medical Students in the Hot and Cold Effects of Food: Impact of Nutrition Education”. Journal of Pakistan medical association, 53(6). • Rizvi. N.,Ali.T.S,(2016). Misconception and Mismanagement of Menstruation among Adolescents Girls who do not attend School in Pakistan, Volume 3 • Adnan.M.,Tariq.A,Mussarat.S, Begum.S,AbdElsalam.N.M,& Ullah.R.(2015). Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal plant in pashtun's Tribal Society. BioMed Research International, Volume 2015(2015),Article ID196475,9 pages • WEBSITE REFERENCE: • https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact- sheet/menstruation.htm • http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154699.php • http://ecommons.aku.edu/jam • http://www.shen-nong.com •

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