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  1. 1. Topic: Education Group Members: Aneela Ejaz Ayesha Arif Iqra Zahoor & Laraib Saeed Presented to: Ma'am Hadeeba
  2. 2. Schooling and social inequality • Social conflict analysis explains how schooling cause inequality. • Explain how stereotype of good and bad students described in the symbolic interaction discussion arise in the first place. • In addition, a social conflict challenges the structural functional idea that schooling develops everybody's talents and abilities by claiming that schooling plays a part in social stratification.
  3. 3. Social control: Schooling in way of controlling people, reinforcing the acceptance of status quo. Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis (1976) claim that the rise of public education in the late 19th century came at exactly the same time that factory owners needed an obedient and disciplined workforce. In schools, immigrants learned not only the English but also the importance of the following orders:
  4. 4. Standerized Testing • Here is a question of the kind historically used to measure the academic ability of school age children in united states: • Painter is to painting as ________ is to sonnet. Driver (b) poet (c) carpenter (d) priest • The correct answer is (b) poet. • This question is supposedly measures logical reasoning, but getting the right answer also depends on knowing what each term means.
  5. 5. • Students who are unfamiliar with the sonnet,(western Europe form of written verse) are not likely to answer the question correctly. • The organization that creates standerized tests claims that this type of bias has been all but eliminated because they carefully study response pattern and drop any question that favors one racial or ethnic category.
  6. 6. • But critics insist that some bias based on class race or ethnicity will always exist in formal testing. Because test questions will always reflect our society’s dominant culture, minority students are placed at disadvantages (Crouse & Trusheim, 1988; Putka, 1990).
  7. 7. School Tracking • Despite controversy over standerized test, most schools in the united states use them for tracking assigning students to different type of educational programs. • Such as: college preparatory classes, general education, vocational and technical training. • Tracking helps teachers meet each student’s individual needs and abilities. • However, one education critic, Jonathan Kozol (1992), considers tracking an example of ‘’savage inequalities’’ in our school system.
  8. 8. • Most students from privilege backgrounds do well on standardized tests an get into higher tracks, where they receive the best the school can offer. • Students from disadvantaged backgrounds typically do less well on these test and end up in lower tracks, where teachers stress memorization and putt little focus on creativity.
  9. 9. • Based on these concerns, school in US are cautious about making tracking assignments and giving student the chance to move from one tract to another. Some school have even dropped tracking entirely. Tracking can help match instructions with students abilities, but rigid tracking can have powerful impact on student learning and self-concept. Young people who spends year in higher track tend to see themselves as bright and able; students in lower tract end up with less ambition and low self esteem. ( Bowles & Gintis, 1976; Kilgore, 1991; Gamoran, 1992; kozol, 1992).
  10. 10. Inequality among school • Just as students treated differently within schools, school themselves differ in important ways. • The biggest difference is between public and private school.
  11. 11. Public and Private Schools • Across the united States, about 89% of the 55.6 million school children attend state founded public school. • The rest go to private school. • Most private school students attend one of the 7100 parochial school (operated by the roman Catholic church). The catholic school system grew rapidly a century ago as cities swelled with immigrants. • Enrolling children in catholic schools help the new arrival hold on to religious heritage in a new and mostly Protestant society. • Today, after decades of flight fro the inner city by white people, many parochial schools in-roll non-Catholic, including a growing numbers of African Americans whose families seeks an alternative to the neighbor hood to public school.
  12. 12. • Experts also have private school, often known a s Christians academies. • These schools are favored by parents who want:  religious instructions  as well as higher academic  disciplinary standards. • There are also about 6,900 nonreligious private schools in US that enroll mostly young people from well off families. • These are typically praporatory schools, molded on British boarding schools, that not only provide strong academic programs but also  convey the values  teach the way of life of the upper class. Many ‘’preppies’’ maintain lifelong school based social network provide numerous social advantages.
  13. 13. Are private schools qualitatively better than public schools? • Research shows that holding family social background constant, students in private schools do outperform those in public schools on standard measure of academic success. The advantages of private schools include smaller classes more demanding coursework and greater discipline ( Coleman & Hoffer 1987).
  14. 14. Inequality in Public schooling • Public schools are not all the same. • Differences in funding result in unequal resources; consequently, children in more affluent areas receive a better education than children living in poor communities. • National map 20-1 shows one key way in which resources differ: average yearly teacher salaries vary by as much as $35,000 in state by state comparison.
  15. 15. • At the local level difference in school funding can be dramatic. • Arlington county, Virginia, one of the richest suburbs in the united states, spend more than $18,500 a year on each of its student, compared to about $5000 in poor ares like Alpine, Utah and in-recent years, these differences have grown ( Winter, 2004). • The thinking about diversity box shows the effects of funding difference in the every day lives of students.
  16. 16. • Because schools are typically funded through local property taxes, schools in more affluent areas offers a better education than school in a poor communities. • This difference also benefits white over minorities, which is why some districts enacted a policy of busing transporting students to achieve racial balance and equal opportunity in schools. • Although only 5 % of US schoolchildren are bused to school outside their neighborhood, this policy is controversial. Supporters claims that given the reality of racial segregation, the only way government will adequately fund schools in poor, minority neighbor hood is if white children from richer areas attend.
  17. 17. • Critic respond that busing is expensive and undermine the concept of neighborhood schools. • But almost every one agreed on one thing: given the racial imbalance of most urban areas, an effecting busing scheme would have to join inner cities and suburbs, a plan that has never been political possible. • Since the 1950s busing students to achieve racial balance in school has sharply declined. Although there was some modest decline in Maracaibo segregation in US public school between 1960 and 1970, there has been little change since then ( Logan, Oakley, & stowell, 2008).
  18. 18. • But other policies to address unequal schools have emerged. • One plan is to provide money equal across a state. • This is the approach taken by Vermont, which passed a law that distributes per student tex money equally to all communities. • But not every one thinks that money is the key to good schooling. Consider, for example, that youngstown, Ohio, spends &14500 each year on each public school student ( 40 % above the national average) but barley manage to graduate half of them.
  19. 19. • Newark, New Jersey spends double the national average per student and still does not graduate half of all students (Will, 2011). What other than money is involved? A classic report by a research team headed by James Coleman (1966) confirmed that students in mostly minorities school suffers from larger class size, insuffient liberariries and fewer science labs. • But the Colemen report cautioned that more money by it self would not magically improve scooling. More important are the corporative efforts and enthusiam of teachers, parents and the students themselves.
  20. 20. • In other words, even if school funding exactly same everywhere, studenets who benefits from more cultural capital-that is, those whose parents value schooling, read to thier children and encourage the development of imagination-would still perform better. In short we should not expect schools alone to overcome marked social inequality in united states . •
  21. 21. Access to higher education: • Schooling is the main path to good job. But only 70 % of US high schools graduate enroll in college immedietly after graduation. Among young people 18 to 24 years old, about 47 % are enrolled in college (National center of education statics, 2010). • A crucial factor affecting access to us higher education is family income. College is expensive: Even at state supported institutions, annual tuition average about $ 7600 and admission to the most exclusive private colleges and universities exceeds $ 50,000 a year. This means that college attendance is more common among families with higher incomes. In the united states, some 6.7 million families have at least one child enrolled in college. Of these families 47 % of income of at least $75,000 annually (roughly the richest 30%, who fall within the upper middle class and working class), and only 9% have income of less than $20,000 a year ( the lower class including families classified as poor) (US Census Bureau,2010). • These economic differences are one reason that the education gap between the whites and minorities widens at the college level. Africans Americans are not quite as likely as non Hispanic whites to graduate fro higher school and are much less likely to complete four or ore years of college. Hispanic many of whom speak Spanish as their first language, have a lower rate of higher school graduation, and again, the gap is much greater when it comes to college degrees. Schooling is an important path to social mobility in our society, but the promise of school has not overcome the racial inequality that exists in the united states.
  22. 22. • Completing college brings any rewards, including higher earning. In the pas forty years, as our economy has shifted to work that requires processing information, the gap in every income between people who complete only high school and those who earn a four year college degree has ore than doubled. In fact, today, a college degree ads as much as $ 1 million to a persons lifetime income. In simple terms, higher education is good investment. • In 2009, men who are high schools graduates averaged $39,478, and college graduates averaged $62,444. A men with a bachelors degrees earns 2.6 times a s much in annual income as a man with eight or fewer years of schooling. Across the board, women earn less than men, although as with men, added years of schooling boosts their income, although not quiet as much. Keep in mind that for both men and women, some of the greater earnings have to do with social background, because those with the most schooling are likely to come from relatively well-off families to begin with.
  23. 23. Great opportunity: • Expending higher education • 20.4 million people enrolled in colleges and universities, the US is world leader in providing a college education to its people. This country also enrolled students from abroad than any other. • One reason for this achievement is that there are 4,495 colleges and universities in US. • This number includes 2,774 four years institutions ( which awards bachelors degrees) as well as 1,721 two years colleges ( which awards associates degrees). • Some two year college are private, but most are publicly funded community college that serves a local area( usually a city or a country) a charge a low tuition ( National center for education statics,2010).
  24. 24. • Because higher education is a key path to better jobs and higher income, the government makes money available to help certain category of people pay the costs of college. • After world war 2, the GI Bill provided college funds to veterans, which the result that ten of thousands were men and women were able to attend college. Some branches of the military continue to offer college money to enlistees; in addition, veterans continue to benefit from a number of governments grants and scholarships.
  25. 25. Community college: • Since the 1960s, the expansion of state funded community colleges has further increased access to higher education. According to the national center for education statics (2010), the 1,721 two year colleges across the US now enroll 41.3% of all college undergraduates. • Community colleges provide a number of specific benefits. First, their relatively low tuition cost places college courses and degrees within the reach of million of families that could not otherwise afford them. Many students at community colleges today are the first in their family to pursue a college degree. The lowest cost of community colleges especially important during periods of economic recession. When the economy slumps and people lose their jobs, colleges enrollments soar, especially at community colleges. • Second, community college has special importance for minorities.
  26. 26. • Currently, 40% of all African Americans and 51% of Hispanic undergraduates in US attends community colleges. • Third, although it is true that community colleges serve local populations, they also attracts students from around the world. Many community colleges recruits students from abroad, and about 15% of all foreign students enrolled on a US campus are studying at community colleges. • Forth, the top priority the faculty who work at large universities in typically research, but most important job for community college faculty is teaching. Thus, although teaching loads are higher (typically four of five classes each semester), community colleges appeal to faculty who find their greatest pleasure in the class room. Community college students often get more attention from faculty than students at large universities ( Jacobson, 2003). Finally, community college teach the knowledge and carrier skills that countless people depend on to finds the jobs they wants.