3. The 19th Century in Europe was a period full of
Changes in different levels:
Most European countries got a democratic constitution and the monarquies lost power.
The 19th century is also marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Holy Roman and
This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the
United States, spurring military conflicts but also advance in science and exploration.
Social and economic changes
The 19th century was an era of inventions and discovery, with significant developments in the
fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the
groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.
This new century will see the birth of two new social classes: the workers and the bourgeoisie.
All this changes became evident in different artistic and
architectural movements along this period...
4. The town planning
Town-planing reform of Barcelona, “Plan Cerdà” 1860
Town-planing reform of Paris, 1853-1869
Town-Planing reform of Viena “Ring” 1859-1872
5. There are not global artistic trades: Architecture is not connected anymore with other
arts. The architectonical styles doesn’t envolve all the arts (painting and sculpture). The
last global style is The Neoclassical.
The education is divided in two areas: In 1794 The Polytechnic School (École
polytechnique) was opened in Paris. Is a specialized school for Engineering.
In 1806 was opened in Paris the School of Fine Arts (École nationale supérieure des
beaux-arts) where the architects were educated.
Engineering is attached to the new materials used in Architecture: glass, iron,
cement and concrete anr used to satisfy needs.
The architecture will be identificated with the past: Historicism or Eclecticism ,
used the architectonical lenguage from old artistic trends. Old materials will be
used (Stone, break…).
Attached to the Industrial Revolution and technological advances and the serial
production that will predetermine the construction.
Which materials am I
going to use? There are not aesthetic
Which type of
building can I build Everithing is fuctional.
The industrial Revolution created new needs: bridges, viaduct, trais stations, city
1th International World Fair: 1851 in London.
9. Historicism or Eclecticism
Born at School of Fine Arts (École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts) .
Back to the national past: Middle Ages. Gothic Style.
The 19th Century bourgeoisie accepted the lenguage of old artistic trends.
They liked the Historicism and the Eclecticism because it fits with them notion of
Garnier. Paris Opera
15. - Cronology: 1890 - 1910.
- Is an international style but with national variations: Art Nouveau (France), Jugendstil
(Germany), Secession (Austria), Arts and Crafts Movement (England) and Modernismo
- It involve design in all the areas: Architecture, fornitures, jewellery, …
- Aims to link technology and advances with the craft tradition.
- Artisanal production is back: carpenters, blacksmith, glazier work is valued again.
- Recupera el sentido estético de carácter naturalista, decoración natural, con líneas
curvas, dinámicas y llenas de vida, sinuosas, copiando elementos naturales.
- Misture of elements from East Asia (China, Japan), Muslim Architecture, Neogothic
Architecture from the Historicism and Architecture from Fary Tales (imaginary world).
- Is the main style of the bourgesie from the end of the 19th Century.
16. Arts & Crafts : England
Glasgow School of Art (1897)
, Charles Rennie Mackintosh
17. Art Nouveau : France
Hector Guimard. Gate from the Subway Station La Porte
Hector Guimard. Hotel Mezzara (1910)