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Introduction to the Global Crop Diversity Trust

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Presentation to Tunisian national genebank

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Introduction to the Global Crop Diversity Trust

  1. 1. The Global Crop Diversity Trust: a Foundation for Food Security
  2. 2. What is the Trust ?  Independent international organization established by FAO and CGIAR Centres • Established in October 2004 • Secretariat in Bonn from January 2013  Endowment to secure long-term funding for global system • Complementary short-term project funding to overcome key constraints  Policy framework of International Treaty on PGRFA • Element of the funding strategy of the Treaty • Priority for crops under Annex 1, collections in Article 15  Governed by Executive Board • Treaty GB, Donors Council, FAO, CGIAR
  3. 3. International collections
  4. 4. Goal “to advance an efficient and sustainable global system of ex situ conservation by promoting the rescue, understanding, use and long-term conservation of valuable plant genetic resources”
  5. 5. Building and sustaining the Global System Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
  6. 6. Ex situ conservation  Over 1,700 facilities  Holding 7.4m accessions  Vital resource for breeding
  7. 7. Safety duplication Long-term collection On-farm management Breeding/ Working collection The “Global System” we have now Conservation Use Distribution
  8. 8. Global back-up Safety duplicate collection Long-term international collection National collection Breeding/Working collection On-farm management The “Global System” we need Conservation Use
  9. 9.  National genebanks have intimate knowledge of indigenous experience and wisdom, local conditions and needs • search out, acquire, screen, develop, store and distribute diversity of particular and current relevance to country  International genebanks conserve and make available diversity over the long-term  Global back-up – Svalbard Global Seed Vault  Enabling environment – the Treaty Towards a truly global system
  10. 10. www.croptrust.org
  11. 11. Trust activities Regeneration Conservation research Evaluation Permanent backupDuplicationInformation systems
  12. 12. Wheat  78,375 regenerated  3,675 put in vitro  12,255 not viable Regeneration
  13. 13. Safety duplication  32,917 accessions  43 countries 117 wheat, 615 barley Mongolia, Nepal, Belarus & Armenia 365 Chickpea Georgia & Pakistan 215 faba bean Georgia & Ecuador 157 grasspea Nepal & Pakistan 620 lentil Nepal, Georgia & Pakistan
  14. 14. Shipping samples  7 shipments in 1,340 accessions destroyed or returned  many still in quarantine
  15. 15. 774,601 accessions stored in Svalbard
  16. 16. Phillippine National Genebank Typhoon Xangsane, 2006
  17. 17. Inside the vault
  18. 18. Photos International Rice Research Institute (IRRI); Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). 2009.  43 projects  59 collections  20 crops  143 traits  58 NARS  8 CGIAR  43 countries Evaluation
  19. 19. Promoting use: Information systems Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
  20. 20. Information systems
  21. 21. • Online portal to accession-level information on the world’s genebank holdings • Initially developed as investment from GCDT, Bioversity, and ITPGRFA-Secretariat • Initially encompasses CGIAR/held International Collections, Eurisco and USDA • Searchable on passport, characterization, evaluation and ecogeographic descriptors • Plans for further development and improvement • Expandable to include all genebanks!
  22. 22. http://www.genesys-pgr.org Global information portal
  23. 23. • An information management system for genebanks • The new incarnation of USDA’s Genetic Resources Information System (GRIN) • “Open source” software for continued development and maintenance by the user community
  24. 24. In Trust for the International Community Plan and Partnership for Managing and Sustaining CGIAR – held collections of Plant Genetic Resources Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
  25. 25. Objective To conserve the diversity of PGR in CGIAR-held collections, to make it available to breeders and researchers in a manner that meets high international scientific standards, is cost efficient, is secure, reliable and sustainable over the long-term and is supportive of and consistent with ITPGRFA
  26. 26. International collections
  27. 27. Accessions AfricaRice Rice 20,000 Bioversity Banana 1,298 CIAT Beans, Cassava, Tropical forages 65,635 CIMMYT Maize, Wheat 155,129 CIP Potato, Sweet potato, Andean Roots & Tubers 16,495 ICARDA Grain legumes, Wheat, Barley, Forage & range crops 134,160 ICRAF Trees 5,144 ICRISAT Dryland cereals, Grain legumes 156,313 IITA Cowpea, Cassava, Yam, Banana, Misc legumes 28,286 ILRI Tropical forages 18,291 IRRI Rice 110,817 Total 711,568 International collections
  28. 28. CGIAR Research Program for Managing and Sustaining Crop Collections  11 Centres  5 year funding plan  $20 million/year  Routine operations  Trust management and oversight  Commitment by donors to transition to funding through Trust endowment
  29. 29. Transition to sustainable funding
  30. 30. Online reporting tool
  31. 31. Safe-guarding threatened diversity and promoting use: Collecting, protecting and preparing crop wild relatives Image by:Neil Palmer/CIAT
  32. 32. But why CWR? Hoisington et al 1998 Folke 2001
  33. 33. The Trust’s CWR initiative • Identify, collect, conserve, document and use key crop wild relative diversity for climate change adaptation (in developing countries) • $50 million over 10 years pledged by Norwegian government, starting 2011 • 26 target crops
  34. 34. Species Common name Avena sativa Oat Cajanus cajan Pigeonpea lCicer arietinum Chickpea Daucus carota Carrot Eleusine coracana Finger millet Helianthus annuus Sunflower Hordeum vulgare Barley Ipomoea batatas Sweet potato Lathyrus sativus Grass pea/Common chickling Lens culinaris Lentil Malus domestica Apple Medicago sativa Alfalfa/Lucerne Musa acuminata Cavendish banana Musa balbisiana Guangdong plantain Species Common name Oryza glaberrima African rice Oryza sativa Rice Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Phaseolus lunatus Butter bean/Lima bean Phaseolus vulgaris Garden bean Pisum sativum Garden pea Secale cereale Rye Solanum melongena Eggplant/Aubergine Solanum tuberosum Potato Sorghum bicolor Sorghum Triticum aestivum Bread wheat Vicia faba Faba bean Vicia sativa Common vetch Vigna subterranea Bambara groundnut Vigna unguiculata Cowpea Crop wild relatives initiative
  35. 35. Gap analysis: carrot
  36. 36. Gap analysis: carrot
  37. 37. www.croptrust.org