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Innovations sustainability and regulations

Lecture by Tom Nilsson, Malmö University, in Kiev, January 2016.

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Innovations sustainability and regulations

  1. 1. Innovations, sustainability and regulations
  2. 2. Social innovation from a public sector perspective • The institutional setting (as in formal and informal rules) • Changes in public management that paved the way for cross-sector collaboration and social innovation • New Public Management and Governance inspired reforms (and discourses or new ideas regarding the public sector)
  3. 3. Moving away from a Weberian bureaucracy • Changing the public leadership • Changing the means of political steering • Rewarding employees initiatives • Introducing competition as a incentive for change • Focusing on the citizens (or consumers of public goods) ---------------- # The obedient and neutral weberian bureaucrat in a formalised structure, compliant and implementing quite detailed regulation
  4. 4. Governance • A term that emerged in the late 80s and gained currency among both academics and policy-makers in the 1990s • A broader term than government. It refers, in its widest sense, to the various ways through which social life is coordinated. • Emphasis on the horizontal side of government. Coordination of societal sectors, collaboration and co-operation between political, economic and third sector actors (but often in the “shadow of hierarchy”) • Both analytical/descriptive and normative/prescriptive (as in ‘Good Governance’). • Rhodes argues that there has been a shift from “governance by a unitary state to governance through and by networks”
  5. 5. Why Governance? • The incapacity of the State to ‘steer’ and the need to bring in other actors. “Government overload” and an effort to share resources. A remedy to horizontal policy coordination problems. • The idea of making politics more in tune with citizens’ needs and wishes • The greater impact of both supranational and subnational organisations (multi-level governance)
  6. 6. Vertical vs horizontal dimensions • According to the vertical logic public administration is expected to implement political decisions through a vertically organised bureaucracy (”Weberian”) • Key concepts: accountability (both democratic and managerial), control, clear lines of responsibility, standardisation • According to the horizontal logic public administration is expected to develop through horizontal collaboration and coordination with external and internal partners • Key concepts: autonomy, decentralisation, local adaptation, networks, partnerships, projects
  7. 7. Governance has many shapes and forms • Formal – informal • Policy-formulating - implementing • Open – closed • Inclusive – exclusive • Permanent – temporary • Orchestrated (by the state or the EU) – spontaneous
  8. 8. Policy instruments • Usually achieved by soft policy instruments: - economic incentives (carrots) - pursuation, information, knowledge (sermons) Especially in sensitive or difficult policy areas where results are hard to achieve by traditional means; i.e. environmental issues, regional growth, integration, social cohesion
  9. 9. One example • Textile dialogues between the Swedish Chemicals Agency and the fashion/clothes/textile companies. • “The Swedish Chemicals Agency shall establish dialogues with prioritized industries with the purpose of strengthening the industries’ knowledge regarding chemicals and follow up their activities to identify and reduce risks and substitute harmful chemical substances. The Agency shall see to that the industries formulate monitorable targets for this work. (Government instruction 2010) • Self regulate
  10. 10. However… • Obtaining change is difficult, organisations are resistant and change challenges ”status quo” and invested interests (i.e. the existing dispersion of power). • Challenges can be generational (old vs. new mind-sets), or challenge professional norms or value systems • There are no quick fix, and local adaptation of ideas and reforms are necessary