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Comunidade Virtual - Luciano Matsuzaki

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Resumo do livro Comunidade Virtual - Howard Rheingold

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Comunidade Virtual - Luciano Matsuzaki

  1. 1. Luciano Matsuzaki RESUMO DO LIVRO “A COMUNIDADE VIRTUAL” AUTOR: Howard Rheingold 1ª edição. Lisboa: Gradiva: agosto de 1996
  2. 2. Sobre Howard Rheingold Howard Rheingold (nascido em 7 de julho de 1947) é um crítico, escritor, pintor e professor. É especializado nas implicações culturais, sociais e políticas dos meios de comunicação modernos como a Internet, telefonia móvel e comunidades virtuais.
  3. 3. A ORIGEM DA CMC (Comunicação mediada por computador)
  4. 4. (Comunicação mediada por computador) As CMC nasceram da necessidade da manutenção da supremacia militar e política americana durante a guerra fria; este governo financiou a pesquisa e implantação deste novo sistema de comunicação. Esta nova tecnologia em menos de duas décadas já estava disponível em várias partes do globo para o uso de cidadãos comuns.   A geração baby-boom carregada dos pensamentos ideológicos de transformação do mundo teve um papel importante na disseminação do uso das CMC. Acreditavam que este novo canal, possibilitaria uma maior liberdade de expressão e democratização ao acesso à informação. A internet surgiu da junção da tecnologia militar, cultura hacker, contracultura, comunidade acadêmica e cultura empreendedora - Castells A ORIGEM DA CMC
  5. 6. A COMUNIDADE WELL   A WELL (WHOLE EARTH ELETRONIC LINK ) originária de São Francisco/USA, é um sistema de teleconferência por computador que nasceu em 1985 como um braço da Whole Earth Catalog. Os fundadores esperavam que ela viesse a ser um veículo de intercâmbio social.
  6. 7. Homepage da Well, na internet - 1996
  7. 8. Os associados Well (Wellómanos) tinham acesso a diversas conferências fóruns, serviços e e-mail. A comunicação era realizada no modo texto. O sistema de conferência disponibilizava diversos tópicos, para consulta e troca de informações como exemplo: artes e letras, laser, diversão, educação, Grateful Dead, computadores, a WELL em si, etc. Um tópico específico relacionava-se com outros assuntos afins podendo ter acesso a vários conteúdos simultaneamente. Alguém sabe?... Os conferencistas (foristas, membros dos fóruns) mais dedicados eram recompensados com valor simbólico. Estes forneciam respostas bem escritas e precisas, conferindo a este, credibilidade e prestígio perante aos outros – reputação na comunidade A VIDA NA WELL
  8. 9. OS FÓRUNS NA WELL
  9. 11. ” Uma das mais importantes regras na Well é que ninguém é anônimo. O usuário sempre terá um nome de usuário ou nickname.”
  10. 12. A CONCEPÇÃO DE COMUNIDADE VIRTUAL Segundo Howard Rheingold
  11. 13. A concepção de comunidade virtual, segundo Howard Rheingold As comunidades virtuais são os agregados sociais surgidos na Rede, quando os intervenientes de um debate o levam por diante em número e sentimento suficientes para formarem teias de relações pessoais no cyberespaço.   A comunidade virtual está relacionada com o conceito de bens coletivos: o capital social na rede, o capital intelectual e a comunhão.   As comunidades virtuais possibilitam através das CMC, uma nova maneira de relacionamento entre indivíduos e consequentemente altera sua identidade e forma de existir.
  12. 14. O autor define a WELL como comunidade, partindo do principio das ligações emocionais e de cooperação que ele vivenciou.   Sentimento da comunidade (WELL) como lugar – terceiro lugar   Para ele uma das maiores vantagens das experiências vividas nas comunidades virtuais, foi o aumento considerável do número de novos amigos que compartilham com ele os mesmos valores e interesses, com o objetivo de atingir fora dos espaços virtuais, efeitos concretos na vida real. A concepção de comunidade virtual, segundo Howard Rheingold
  13. 15. MUD   MUD ( multi-user dungeous ), ou mundos imaginários, conforme define o autor, são lugares virtuais lúdicos, são locais mais associados aos lugares de laser.   São espaços que ultrapassam a comunicação em si, pois neles são criados objetos virtuais, edifícios virtuais e sujeitos imagéticos que podem ser homem, mulher ou qualquer coisa provida de poderes mágicos, que o participante assim desejar; são ambientes interativos de alto teor simbólico.   A atração e entusiasmo que estes meios provocam nos seus participantes, tornando-se uma obsessão, um vício, pode encontrar uma resposta na tese da pesquisadora Ammy Bruckman:   “ Os indivíduos foram interpelados por várias referências de identidade provocadas pelos meios de comunicação de massa, como a televisão, o rádio e o cinema, carregando consigo vários “eus”, que num ambiente propício, são externados.”
  14. 16. AS VISÕES CRÍTICAS SOBRE A CMC De forma geral o autor tem uma visão bastante otimista sobre o futuro da internet, não apenas como ferramenta de integração social, mas como elemento fundamental na democratização do conhecimento e cultura entre os povos. Ainda assim, não deixa de enxergar cenários um pouco menos risonhos também. Dentre algumas questões preocupantes, são levantadas, por exemplo, o uso da internet sob os conceitos da mídia de massa como ferramenta de distorção da realidade e alienação da opinião pública, a perda da noção de privacidade na medida do crescimento e integração da rede e suas ferramentas e, ainda, uma vigilância totalitária do estado através do efeito "big-brother".        Para ilustrar essas abordagens, o autor consulta trabalhos de outros estudiosos e apresenta ao leitor alguns cenários perigosos, com características e efeitos de atuação distintos na sociedade.
  15. 17. Apesar dos cenários caóticos apresentados pelos críticos, Howard Rheingolg é entusiasta da rede e considera que medidas de regulação podem e devem ser discutidas, e afirma principalmente que os efeitos positivos e negativos da rede em nossa sociedade e especialmente em nossas vidas está ligado à forma como fazemos uso dessa tecnologia. Numa última análise o autor recorre à ideia fundamental de que o segredo para a "libertação", independentemente ao cenário, consiste na formação de indivíduos bem instruídos e capazes de extrair das novas tecnologias aquilo que elas tenham de melhor para o desenvolvimento do ser humano e suas relações sociais.
  16. 18. Well 1997
  17. 19. Well 1997
  18. 20. Well 2002
  19. 21. Well 2010
  20. 22. http://www.rheingold.com
  21. 23. Well 2010 Luciano Matsuzaki pesquisador

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