Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Mcas tech eng materials tools simple machines short 2012

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Nächste SlideShare
Simple machines**
Simple machines**
Wird geladen in …3
×

Hier ansehen

1 von 33 Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Anzeige

Mcas tech eng materials tools simple machines short 2012

  1. 1. MCAS Science Review Technology and Engineering
  2. 2. Topics to Review What are some characteristics of a material that might affect a design made from that material (for example, weight, strength, hardness, and flexibility)? What materials and tools that can be used to safely construct a prototype (for example, hammer, screwdriver, pliers, tape measure, screws, nails and other mechanical fasteners)? Describe the six simple machines (screw, wheel and axle, wedge, inclined plane, lever, pulley). What is a compound machine?
  3. 3. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following qualities of the material: weight – the measurement of how heavy something is. Weight is caused by the force of gravity. Mass is the amount of matter contained in a certain volume of the material. An object will weigh differently on the Moon and on Earth, although the mass of the object is the same. density – the amount of something per unit of area or volume strength – power to resist strain or stress. Strength is tested with the machines at right.
  4. 4. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: hardness – ability to resist scratching or denting, measured on different scales, such as the one shown below
  5. 5. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: flexibility – ability to bend
  6. 6. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: expansion – ability to expand (and contract)
  7. 7. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: durability – ability to withstand wear and use; here polypropylene material is tested with machines
  8. 8. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following qualities of the material: color – visible color, caused by reflected/absorbed light transparency, translucency, opacity – how much light can pass through the material, such as the sheets in the illustrations below. opaque translucent transparent transparent translucent opaque
  9. 9. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: melting/boiling/freezing points – temperature at which material freezes, melts, or boils
  10. 10. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: conductivity – ability to conduct electricity or heat; silver conducts electricity and heat very well, even in the epoxy and in the fabric of the hat!
  11. 11. What materials should I use? When deciding on a material to use, consider the following quality of the material: magnetism – ability to be, become, and retain magnetism; magnets can be natural, like magnetite, or manufactured
  12. 12. Tools and Their Uses flathead screwdriver – used to screw in or remove flathead screws Phillips head screwdriver – used to screw in or remove Phillips head screws
  13. 13. Tools and Their Uses screws – used to fasten materials that will be subjected to stress and strain
  14. 14. Tools and Their Uses screws – a variation on the Phillips head screw was developed at Reed and Prince Screw Factory in Worcester, MA, where Ms. Burruss’ grandfather worked for four decades. The screws are called Frearson or Reed and Prince screws. Special Reed and Prince screwdrivers must be used with these screws, which are used today in Japanese and other Asian products.
  15. 15. Tools and Their Uses hammer – used to drive in or remove nails nails – used to fasten materials that will not receive stress and strain
  16. 16. Tools and Their Uses pliers – used to grip, bend, and cut things
  17. 17. Tools and Their Uses pliers – used to grip, bend, and cut things
  18. 18. Tools and Their Uses wrench – used to grip nuts, bolts, or pieces of pipe so that they can be turned bolts – used to fasten objects together; a bolt is a threaded fastener, but, unlike tapered screws, it is cylindrical and generally pokes all the way through a material nuts – used to secure a bolt; a nut is a square or hexagonal fastener that holds the bolt in place on the back side of the material
  19. 19. Tools and Their Uses saw – used to sever wood, metal, PVC, and other materials tape measure – used to measure three- dimensional (3D) or curved objects ruler – used to measure two-dimensional (2D) or flat objects
  20. 20. How do I use a screwdriver and a hammer?
  21. 21. How do I use a wrench and pliers?
  22. 22. How do I use a saw?
  23. 23. How do I use a tape measure and ruler?
  24. 24. Simple Machines The six simple machines are the screw, wheel and axle, wedge, inclined plane, lever, and pulley. Simple machines are tools that make work easier. They have few or no moving parts. These machines use energy to work. Work is defined as a force acting on an object to move it across a distance. Pushing, pulling, and lifting are common forms of work. WHEEL AND AXLE
  25. 25. Inclined Plane An inclined plane is a flat surface that is higher on one end. A plane is a flat surface with only two dimensions, like the surface of a smooth board. If the board is lying on the ground, it won’t help you do work. If you lift one end of the board up, you can use it to move objects across distances. That’s work! A common inclined plane is a ramp.
  26. 26. Wedge A wedge is two connected, inclined planes that meet and form a sharp edge. This edge can push or split things apart. Axe and knife blades and nails are all wedges.
  27. 27. Screw A screw is an inclined plane that winds around itself around a cylinder or cone. A screw has ridges and is not smooth like a nail. Some screws are used to lower and raise things. Archimedes’ water screw moves water uphill. Other types of screws are used to hold objects together.
  28. 28. Lever A lever is an arm that pivots around a turning point called a fulcrum. The load is the object the fulcrum moves. The closer the object is to the fulcrum, the easier it is to move. Levers pry things loose or raise large objects. Hammers, crowbars, and seesaws are levers.
  29. 29. Wheel and Axle An axle is a rod that goes through a wheel that rotates around it and turns it. Wheels and axles are used to move objects across distances (remember, that’s called work). It’s interesting that Native Americans never invented the wheel for real use. Some children’s toys had wheels, but adults didn’t use them. Think how much easier heir nomadic life would have been!
  30. 30. Pulley A pulley consists of one or more wheels and a ropes. The rope fits on the groove of the wheel. One part of the rope is attached to the load. When you pull on the rope on the other side of the pulley, the wheel turns and the load will move. Pulleys let you move loads up, down, or sideways. They make the work of moving heavy loads a lot easier.
  31. 31. Pulley One pulley makes work easier. Multiple pulleys can make work even easier. All right, all right, you’ve won your bet: you can lift me with one hand!
  32. 32. What is a compound machine? A compound machine has two or more simple machines working together to make work easier. What simple machines can you find in these compound machines?
  33. 33. Works Cited for MCAS Science Review Slide Shows "Alaska Photographer Ron Niebrugge." Alaska Photographer Ron Niebrugge. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://wildnatureimages.com/>. "Bugman123.com - Paul Nylanderâ s Web Site." Bugman123.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bugman123.com/>. "Carl Linnaeus." Carl Linnaeus. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "CASES: (a Lesson Plan)." CASES: (a Lesson Plan). CASES, n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://cases.soe.umich.edu/plans.php?nav=showplan>. "Earth Floor: Cycles." Earth Floor: Cycles. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html>. "ENCHANTED LEARNING HOME PAGE." ENCHANTED LEARNING HOME PAGE. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/>. "Engineering Design Process." Engineering Is Elementary®. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "Fitting Algae Into the Food Web." Fitting Algae Into the Food Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html>. "Food Chains - Geography For Kids - By KidsGeo.com." Food Chains - Geography For Kids - By KidsGeo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0162-food-chains.php>. "Forms of Energy." EIA Energy Kids -. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/energy.cfm?page=about_forms_of_energy-basics-k.cfm>. "GCSE.com: Revising Revision." GCSE.com: Revising Revision. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.gcse.com/>. "Global Trade Online - The World's Popular B2B Trade Marketplace." Global Trade Online - The World's Popular B2B Trade Marketplace. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.1st-product.com/>. "Heights Technology Blog." Heights Technology Blog RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://heightstechnology.edublogs.org/category/assignments-11- 12/>. "How the Moon Works." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "HowStuffWorks "Science"" HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/>. "Investment." : Evolution of Human. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/>. "Patently Apple." 'Patently Apple' N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.patentlyapple.com/>. "Photo Gallery: Erosion and Weathering." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "Science Project Ideas, Information and Support for Science Fair Projects." Science Project Ideas, Information and Support for Science Fair Projects. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.scienceproject.com/>. Siegel, Ethan. "Dark Matter in Our Solar System." Starts with a Bang. N.p., 25 June 2008. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "Solar Sam's® Innovations." Solar Sam's Innovations Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.solarsam.com/>. "StarChild: The Solar System." StarChild: The Solar System. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. "Tools Incorporated - Broussard LA - Oilfield Downhole Equipment - Rental Tools - Directional Drilling Equipment - Stabilizers - Mudmotors." Tools Incorporated - Broussard LA - Oilfield Downhole Equipment - Rental Tools - Directional Drilling Equipment - Stabilizers - Mudmotors. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://tools-inc.com/>. "Visual Dictionary." Visual Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://www.infovisual.info/>. "Water Resources of Georgia." USGS Georgia Water Science Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. <http://ga.water.usgs.gov/>.

×