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Form focus instruction

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Form focus instruction

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS PROGRAMA INGLÉS INGLÉS PARA FINES ESPECÍFICOS Teaching ReadingTeaching Reading Alexis Centrella Vegas Nancy Coronado June, 2012
  2. 2. Taken from: Stanley, S. (2007). An Analysis of Rx for Discovery ReadingRTM for Elementary Students Below Average in Reading. The United States of America: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. “Reading is a process of constructing meaning from written texts. It is a complex skill requiring the coordination of interrelated sources of information” (Stanley, 2007)
  3. 3.  Students´ carreer.  Language acquisition.  Students´ vocabulary knowledge.  Modelig English writing.  Introduce topics.  Stimulate discussions. Taken from: Jeremy Harmer (2009). How to teach English. England: Pearson Education Limited
  4. 4. Bottom-up Top-down Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Text-based Reader-based Letters, morphemes, syllables, words, phrases… Learnes draw their own intelligence and experience to undestand the text. Fo- ex-mp-e, y-u c-n r-ad -h-s se-te-ce -it- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt-r m-ss-ng. wet brought who socks some For example, you can read this sentence with every third letter missing. who brought some wet socks Examples Taken from: Bernstein, D. (2008). Essentials of Psychology. USA: Wadswoth Example: Example:
  5. 5. Scheme theory and backgraund knowledge The reader brings information, knowledge, emotion, experience, and culture to the printed world. (Content schemata and Formal schemata) The role of affects and culture Language ego, self-steem, emphathy, motivation. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy.
  6. 6. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Different kinds of readings Extensive Intensive Reading which students often do. Consists of detailed focus on the construction of reading texts. Adult literacy training • The role of cognition in reading. • The role of automaticity in word recognition. • The role of concious strategies. • Effective techniques for activating schemata. • Relationships of reading an writing.
  7. 7. Is the process of extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. Comprehension entails three elements The reader who is doing the comprehending. The text that is to be comprehended. The activity in which comprehension is a part. The socio-cultural context mediates students’ experiences, just as students’ experiences influence the context  Taken from: Snow C. (2002). Reading for understanding toward an R&D program in reading comprehension.
  8. 8. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. 1. Discriminate among the distinctive graphemes and orthographic pattern of English. 2. Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short term memory. 3. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose. 4. Recognize a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance.
  9. 9. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. 5. Recognize grammatical word classes, systems, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms. 6. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. 7. Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses. 8. Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation. 9. Recognize the communicative functions of written texts, according to form and purposes.
  10. 10. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. 10. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge. 11. Infer links and connections between ideas, deduce cause and effect, detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification. 12. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. 13. Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata. 14. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies.
  11. 11. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. 1. Identify the purpose of reading. 2. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding. 3. Use efficient silent reading techniques for relatively rapid comprehension. 4. Skim the text for main ideas.
  12. 12. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. 5. Scam the text for specific information. 6. Use semantic mapping or clustering. 7. Guess when you aren´t certain. 8. Analyze vocabulary. 9. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. 10. Capitalized on discourse makers to process relationships: Enumerative, addetive (reinforce, similarity, transition), logical sequence (summative, resultative), explicative, illustrative, contrastive (replacive, anthithetic, converssive)
  13. 13. It is an active process of constructing meaning. · Interactive: Involves the reader, the text and the context in which reading takes place. · Strategic: Readers have purposes for their reading and use a variety of strategies as they construct meaning. · Adaptable: Readers change the strategies they use depending on the text and on the purpose. Taken from: Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading. http://www.readingresource.net/teachingreading.html
  14. 14. Making connections: Text to self, text to text and text to world. Creating mental images: Visualizing the written information. Questioning: Asking themselves questions throughout the reading. Inferring: Reading between the lines. Evaluating: Determining importance. Sinthesizing: Ordering, retelling, and recreating into a coherent the whole information.
  15. 15. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Oral Silent Intensive Extensive Linguistic Content Skimming Scanning Global
  16. 16. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy.  Do not overlook instruction in reading skill.  Use motivating techniques.  Balance authenticity and readability in texts.  Encourage the development of reading strategies.  Include: bottom-up and top-down techniques.
  17. 17. Taken from: Brown, D. Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy.  Follow the “SQ3R”.  Subdivide techniques.  Build your techniques. Survey, questions, read, recite, and review Before you read, while you read, after you read. Doing, choosing, transfering, answering, considering, extending, duplicating, modeling, conversing.
  18. 18.  Reading is considered to be one of the process that promotes language aquisition.  In the process of reading schemata, backgraund, affects and culture, the type of reading, and the age of the learner play an importan role.  Learning goes beyond the simple process of decoding texts.  Students need to know how to read to get the information required.  There are several estrategies to develop the reading skill.
  19. 19. Stanley, S. (2007). An Analysis of Rx for Discovery ReadingRTM for Elementary Students Below Average in Reading. The United States of America: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Jeremy Harmer (2009). How to teach English. England: Pearson Education Limited. Brown, D. (2007). Teaching by Principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Snow C. (2002). Reading for understanding toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. [Book in line]. From: http://books.google.co.ve/ books?id=R1t9btYnK_EC&pg=PA9&dq=definition+of+reading+ comprehension&hl=es&sa=X&ei=F53TT6e1BvCK6QGr7uTAg&sqi= 2&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=definition%20of%20reading% 20comprehension&f=false. [Consulted: 2012, June 10]

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