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Crime and deviance complete revision

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Crime and deviance complete revision

  1. 1. 1. Theories of crime and deviance Key questions: Key information 1. What is crime and deviance?  Definitions of crime and deviance, social construction and biological explanations. 2. Why do people commit  Functionalism – Durkheim & crime? Merton  Subcultural strain theory 3. What happens if a person  Labelling theory is labelled as a criminal?  Marxism and Neo-Marxism (white collar crime) 4. Are crime statistics  Left and Right Realism valid?
  2. 2. Crime Deviance Deviant not criminal Any act which breaks Behaviour which Deviant and the laws of moves away from Burping, not criminal society, such as murder conventional queuing or rape. norms and values Rape, murder such as burping Criminal not deviant , paedophilia Social control is and farting in enforced by agencies Speeding, parking on such as police and the public. yellow lines courts. Biological explanations Definitions and Early criminologists like explanations Crime and deviance as Cesare Lombroso sort to relative find physical criminal characteristics like long Crime as socially constructed Crime and deviance is arms or sloping If what is consider to be crime relative (changing) in foreheads. Sociologists and deviance changes it can’t relation to time, place find such ‘born bad’ be inherently wrong but must and culture. What one determinism dangerous be culturally specific. society may see as a and prefer to normalise This means crime and deviance crime another may crime by reminding us is socially constructed i.e. not, such as polygamy that we all commit crime created and defined by the (many wives). Other and there are social people of that society and not examples are factors which influence universal. homosexuality and our behaviour. suicide.
  3. 3. Durkheim – Key ideas Crime and society Positive functions of crime 1. Crime is inevitable and Society is only healthy when necessary to society. social order is maintained 1. Re-marking social through the police and boundaries – affirms 2. Crime has positive courts. We need a small social norms and functions. amount of crime to remind values. 3. The perfect amount us of what we believe in. 2. Media coverage – as of crime will keep Only a small minority will be a warning to others. society healthy and self-interested and commit avoid anomie crime. 3. Social bonds – (Normlessness) strengthened as we unite in disapproval. Functionalism on crime 4. Safety Value – a Criticisms little bit of deviance reduces more serious  What is the perfect amount Society of saints problems – of crime? Prostitution – Kingley Imagine there was no Davis. Explaining the functions of crime or deviance, even crime doesn’t explain what the most slight slip like 5. Malfunctioning caused them in the first place. coughing without putting society – theft, drug your hand over your use and truancy alert Murder maybe functional for mouth would become a us to other social society but what about the crime. problems in society. victim?
  4. 4. Merton - Key idea 1. The goals of People engage in society – American deviant behaviour Deviance is the Dream when they are result of the unable to achieve strain between socially approved 2. Your legitimate goals. means of achieving them 1. Conformity Strain produces Five frustration which creates a Most of America not pressure to deviate, what adaptations criminal or deviant Merton calls the strain to anomie. Deviant adaptations Innovation Retreatism Explanation Criminal behaviour Habitual drug users as an adaptation and alcoholics lower class and ethnic minorities are more likely to commit criminal acts Ritualism Rebellion because of their People in dead end position in the social Karl Marx and structure. jobs. Martin Luther King
  5. 5. TYPE Goal of Means Type Success Conformity Accepts Legitimate Most people (Normal) Innovation Accepts Illegitimate Gangsters (Tony (Criminal) Montana) Ritualism Rejects Legitimate People in dead end (Deviant) jobs. Retreatism Rejects Illegitimate Habitual drug user (Deviant) or drunk Rebellion Rejects for Illegitimate Karl Marx, Martin (Deviant) alternative Luther King, Criticisms  Why don’t all lower class people turn to crime?  Can only account for utilitarian crime (money) what about gang violence, rape and Graffiti?  What about other factors like class, gender, ethnicity and sexuality?
  6. 6. Subcultural group Albert Cohen – Status frustration A group with its own Cloward and Ohlin – distinctive norms and A Subcultural strain theory Opportunity structures values, sometimes which argues lower class people A Subcultural strain although not always are frustrated because they theory like Cohen but deviant. want to be successful but lack more concerned about the qualifications and skills to do the different types of Contemporary examples so. They solve this frustration crimes groups commit. by rejecting society and creating The Street gangs living They conclude where their own norms and values in a in the Favelas of Rio you live dictates the gang. Here they achieve status and the gangs of South type of criminal activity through non-utilitarian crimes Africa show that often available to you. Criminal like violence and graffiti. criminal groups are not subcultures are rejecting societies available in areas of norms and values but Subcultural strain criminal hierarchy. are in fact conforming theories Conflict subcultures to their own. arise due to low social cohesion and high Walter Miller – Lower class subcultures population turnover. Retreatists subcultures Not a strain subculture, each social class doesn’t feel any are the result of being strain but just has different focal concerns which lead to unsuccessful in society different criminal activity. The lower class experience a and the other two lack of excitement at work which leads to the desire to subcultures. look for excitement in things like joy-riding.
  7. 7. Overview Lower-class feel the strain Strain theory Robert Merton and commit utilitarian crime (money) Lower-class feel the strain but start Albert Cohen subculture and commit Subcultural non-utilitarian crime Strain theory Lower-class feel the Cloward and strain but what crime Ohlin they commit depends on the area they live in Lower-class doesn’t Subcultural feel the strain each Walter Miller theory subcultural group has different values
  8. 8. Interactionism Howard Becker Labelling process Doesn’t focus on the Focuses on the process of a 1. A label is attached structures of society but person and act getting by police and courts. how people and society labelled as deviant. He interact and how this argues that no act is 2. Label becomes a affects criminal intrinsically deviant but master status – behaviour. relies on its context to overrides other determine its acceptability. status as sibling, Examples: nudity, injecting friend etc. Deviancy amplification oneself even murder. 3. The labelled person spiral accepts the label – Interactionism – because how we see This idea says that ourselves relies on sensationalist reporting Labelling theory how others see us. by the newspapers distorts the act of crime Stanley Cohen 4. Self-fulfilling or deviance and prophecy – whether Cohen studied how the media increases public the label was true or has often demonised youth awareness. Public not we act in culture. This happened to pressure is put on the accordance with it. mods and Rockers in 1964 police and courts to act. This confirms who were seen as modern day This creates a moral peoples beliefs folk devils who threatened panic where certain acts about the label being social order. His research or groups are seen as a true. found that actual acts of threat to social order. deviance were minimal.
  9. 9. Blue collar crime White collar crime Corporate crime Crimes committed by Crimes committed by Crimes carried out on behalf of manual factory workers office workers a company such as tax evasion or (working class), these (middle/upper class) toxic waste dumping. are street crimes like like fraud, these are Occupational crime theft which are in often hidden from public view. public view. Crimes carried out at the expense of companies like fraud. Case study – Enron False accounting and White collar crime White collar crime reports of high profit allowed president Very difficult to prosecute Kenneth Lay to Case study – Guinness affair due to problems of who is borrow $74 million responsible and who is a from a company False claims of success led to victim. Much white collar before it was made high share prices and company crime is not dealt with bankrupt. 20,000 directors making millions. criminally but creditors were owed Gerald Ronson received a one administratively by an estimated $67 - year sentence in Ford (open external agencies like the billion, most received prison) and was released on EPA (Environmental less than 20 cents for parole after serving about 6 Protection Agency) and the every dollar they months. He is still a successful Trading Standards Agency. were owed. 19,000 businessman and one of Only serious cases go to people lost their jobs Britain's 100 richest people. court. and savings.
  10. 10. Key idea Criminolgenic Capitalism The state and law making The Law and the Crime is inevitable in Capitalism.  All laws serve the ruling criminal justice system The working class commit class. is another tool used by the ruling class to utilitarian and non-utilitarian Most law is based on serve their interests crimes because of poverty, protecting private and maintain a position constant advertising, alienation of power. property. and a lack of control. Even the ruling class feel the pressure to The working class and commit crime and get ahead. ethnic minorities are punished harshly while the Weaknesses crimes of the powerful go Marxism on crime unnoticed.  Very deterministic, not all working class commit crime. Ideological functions of law  Switzerland and Japan Strengths Laws don’t just punish but are capitalist but have low perform functions to keep crime rates. Shows a link between capitalism stable. Health and law and the safety laws keep the working Prosecutions against interests of the class able to work. Seeing crime companies and the ruling ruling class. as a working class problem class do happen. diverts it away from capitalism. Left Realists say most Highlights selective Seeing criminals as disturbed working class crime is enforcement. also disguises the true nature of committed against working crime. class people not the state.
  11. 11. A fully social theory of Neo-Marxism on crime deviance – combining Marxism and labelling theory Policing the crisis – Stuart Hall 1. The 1970’s was a period of considerable Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and social crisis in Britain, the result of an Jock Young (1973) international downturn in capitalist economies. 1. The wider origins of the 2. This turmoil was shown in a number of inner- deviant act. city riots, conflict in Northern Ireland and a high level of strikes. The government was 2. The immediate origins of searching for a group that could be the deviant act. scapegoated, to draw attention onto them and away from the crisis. 3. The act itself. 3. Mugging – which according to the police was more likely to be carried out by those from African-Caribbean backgrounds. 4. The immediate origins of social reaction. 4. Media outrage at the extent of muggings, linked to racism amongst the Metropolitan police. 5. The wider origins of social reaction. 5. The need to find scapegoats and the ease with which young men from African-Caribbean's backgrounds could be blamed. 6. The effects of labelling. 6. A sense of injustice amongst ethnic minorities against the police led to much hostility between them and further arrests.
  12. 12. Key ideas Biology  The root cause of crime is Wilson and Hernstein Charles Murray (1990) biology and poor socialisation suggest some people are Argues most crime is as people make a rational innately more strongly committed by the choice to commit crime. predisposed to commit underclass (unemployed). crime than others.  The solution is more A recent upsurge in lone- Especially those who have formal social control such parent families has led to personality traits like as harsher prison poor socialisation and aggression, risk taking and sentences, zero tolerance encouraged these people low impulse control. policies and more CCTV. to be welfare dependant. Criticisms Right Realism Rational Choice  Doesn’t explain white theory collar crime or Tackling crime domestic violence. Ron Clarke (1980) Make crime less attractive to suggests that people  Ignores issues like criminals by (formal rationalise their poverty. control):- choice to commit crime  Scapegoats the • Zero tolerance – harsh by weighing up the underclass. sentences ‘broken window’. cost vs benefits. If the benefits (money)  Overstates the role of • Target hardening – make it outweigh the costs rationality. difficult to access private (prison) then they will and public buildings. commit crime.  Crime displaced to other areas. • More surveillance – CCTV.
  13. 13. Key ideas The offenders Marginalisation  The root cause of crime is Relative Young and Lea argue that Marginalised groups are deprivation, marginalisation most crime is committed by those who lack clear and exclusion in modern W/C against the W/C. This goals or society. is due to discontent caused representation. Young by relative deprivation W/C are powerless and The solution is more (judging your status by that unrepresented which informal social control such of others) and individualism leads to violence and as better housing, more job (being self-interested). rioting. opportunities and more democratic policing. Left Realism Criticisms Modern society and exclusion  Doesn’t explain white Tackling crime collar crime or A lack of jobs for the domestic violence. Make things better for people W/C and being out by (informal social control): priced of the property  Minimum wage and • Giving them housing market has left many housing conditions have socially excluded. Jock never been better. conditions to be proud of. young says we live in a  M/C could be relatively • Better job opportunities. ‘bulimic society’ where deprived and • A better relationship we are exposed to a individualistic, yet don’t between police and large variety of commit as much crime. public, being more consumer products democratic will help the which the W/C cannot  Impossible to get rid of purchase. relative deprivation. flow of information.
  14. 14. 2. The social distribution of crime Key questions Key information 1. Do crime statistics give a  Crime statistics – police, BCS true picture of crime? and self-report study.  Gender and crime 2. Are people from different  Ethnicity and crime age  Age and social class groups, classes, ethnicities  Location – Environmental and gender groups treated criminology equally when it comes to crime? 3. Is there any link between location and criminal activity?
  15. 15. Official statistics Recorded crime Lack of crime reporting Complied from A crime, which has Crimes may not be reported due government departments been recorded by to:- the police as a like the police and crime. (Only 40%  fear of reprisal. courts. of reported crime is then recorded Lack of awareness (fraud). due to discretionary Fear it may not be taken Reported crime powers of the seriously. A crime, which the police).  Crime is too trivial. public has reported to the police. (90% of all crime the Crime statistics Inaccurate picture of police deal with is crime reported to them by the public).  White collar crime dealt with administratively. Official crime statistics are  Only serious crimes the tip of the iceberg, BCS from incidences is and self-report studies recorded. show there is more crime Rules for counting always than what can be seen on change. the surface. This is known as the dark figure of crime Lack of recording makes (what is recorded vs. clear up rates look higher. reported).
  16. 16. British Crime Survey The study is based on a representative sample of adults A victim study which asks Self-report studies living in private households in people if they have been a England and Wales. In 2002 over Anonymous victim of a crime and the 36,000 surveys were conducted. questionnaires which circumstances of that Certain crimes are excluded due ask respondents if they crime. It was conducted to low reporting such as have committed a crime every two years from murder, drug possession or over the past year. 1982 -2000 then every dealing, fraud, offences against year since. businesses. They are usually based Trends and patterns on self-completed BCS and Self- questionnaires or  BCS says 10.7 million crimes committed, OS (4.7 million. report studies interviews which contain a list of The majority of crime is BCS: includes unreported offences. property related. and unrecorded crime but Respondents are asked  Violent crime accounts for only 75% is comparable with to highlight which they 1/5 of all crime police statistics. have committed. Self report studies show us  Overall crime peaked in 1995 Self-report: Mainly street that most people and has declined ever since. crime (working class) commit crime at some excludes hidden crimes like point in their lives so  Men aged 16-24 most likely domestic violence. Only to be a victim of violence. crime is normal. gives a small picture of criminal activity.
  17. 17. Key facts The Chivalry thesis Feminism  Girls and women appear This argues that most They argue the criminal to commit less crime. police, judges and justice system is  4/5 convicted offenders magistrates are men and patriarchal and is bias in Britain are male. men are socialised to be against women when they chivalrous to women. step outside gender roles.  Women more likely to be Roger Hood found women Women are judged more convicted of theft and are 1/3 less likely to be harshly for having property offences. jailed than men in similar promiscuous sex and  Men more likely to cases. being bad mothers rather convicted of violence and than the seriousness of sexual offences. Gender and crime their crimes. This is what happens in rape cases where the victims Liberation thesis Explanations for sexual activity is always female criminality on trial. Freda Alder (1975) argues that if feminists are right and women only commit less Feminist - Control Functionalist -Sex role crime because of patriarchy theory theory then greater equality should Women commit less The way girls are see a rise in women crimes because men socialised to be quiet and offenders. This equality will control women through demur doesn’t encourage bring about more female domestic roles, fear of them to behave offenders for violence and being a victim and aggressively or break white collar crime. financial dependence. the law.
  18. 18. Women demonised in the media Myra Hindley Maxine Carr Sentenced to 30 years in prison for Was convicted and sent to prison for her part in the murder and torture of providing a false alibi for boyfriend Ian 5 children along with Ian Brady. The Huntley who murdered Holly wells and media widely reported her true crime Jessica Chapman in 2002. Maxine had as not having any motherly instincts nothing directly to do with the murders but as a women. Newspapers still to this many protested for reintroduction of the day publish a sinister picture taken of death penalty outside the court. The media her 30 years ago because it portrays had a definitive role in demonising Maxine her as a cold sadistic killer. Carr by producing sensationalist stories of her past. Gender and crime Why do men commit crime? Postmodernity and masculinity James Messerschmidt (1993) makes a link Others have suggested that between male offending and masculinity. He previously jobs in manufacturing says all men want the dominant hegemonic allowed men to express their masculinity which is achieved through masculinity. An increase in domination of work, women and sexuality. He service sector jobs like bouncers argues that lower class men and ethnic allows men to express their minorities lack the resources to achieve this masculinity through masculinity so commit crime in order to violence, drug dealing and achieve it. racketeering.
  19. 19. Key facts Ethnicity and the criminal 1. Policing Official statistics say black justice system Many allegations of people are: oppressive policing  7 times more likely to be from minority ethnic 2.Stop and search communities are made. stopped and searched. Lots of stop an search is  3 ½ times more likely to perhaps due to racism be arrested. 3. Arrests and and the targeting of cautions  5 times more likely to be ethnic minorities. in prison than their white More likely to be counterparts. arrested and cautioned Ethnicity and perhaps due to a  Victim studies say black mistrust of police and crime people are more likely to not admitting to the be identified as offence. offenders & most crime 4. Prosecution & is intra –ethnic meaning conviction it takes place among 5. Sentencing and Prison rather than between Crown prosecution Service more likely to Custodial sentences more ethnic groups. drop cases against ethnic likely to be given to black  Self-report studies minorities. Black and offenders. Blacks and conclude that black Asian defendants are less Asians over-represented people have similar rates likely to be found guilty. in prisons and more likely of offending to whites if to be given longer not lower. sentences.
  20. 20. Explaining differences in offending Neo-Marxist - Paul Gilroy Neo-Marxist - Stuart Black people commit more Hall et al (Policing the Left realism crime because they resent crisis) Ethnic minorities commit more the cultural experience of crime because racism in wider colonialism i.e. being taken Combines Marxism and has caused them to be over and having black slaves Labelling theory. marginalised, coupled with sent to Britain to work. This economic exclusion such as experience causes Economic conditions in high unemployment and poor resentment in young black the 1990’s were housing. Left realists don’t males which makes them bad, government look believe that racism in the commit crime. for a scapegoat. police can account for higher crime because black people Young black muggers Ethnicity and have a higher offending rate are labelled and a moral than Asians. crime panic is created about their behaviour in the Stephen Lawrence Victimisation media. The death of Stephen Police recorded 61,000 Lawrence in 1993 by a white Young black males racists incidents while the gang caused outcry as police commit no more crime BCS reports 184,000 many botched the investigation. than any other group go unreported. People from The inquiry called the but labelling and the mixed ethnic backgrounds Macpherson report declared economy makes it seem were more likely to be institutional racism in the like they do. victims of crimes. police.
  21. 21. Key facts Functionalism – Age and Subcultural theory – Age class and class  Young, working class are more likely to commit Functionalists like Merton Young working class people criminal acts than say young working class join gangs because they are older, middle class. people commit crime because frustrated at their status in they strive for success but mainstream society. They  A typical prisoner in the lack the necessary solve this by rejecting U.K will be under 30 and educational skills and mainstream norms and working class. qualifications. They want values, joining a gang and  Offending rises steeply the goal of success but must achieving a status through from 10-18 then declines achieve it illegitimately. non-utilitarian crimes. sharply after 24. (Innovation) Age – class and Right realism – class Labelling theory – crime age and class Right realists like Charles Murray believe Young working Left realism – Age and class that single parent class people Most crime is committed by working families fail to socialise especially boys are class people against working class their children more likely to be people. Perhaps because relative effectively due to a lack stopped and deprivation, individualism and that of male role searched and fact we live in a bulimic society (the models, they also grow labelled as idea that we are exposed to consumer up to be welfare criminals by the products but cannot consume them). dependant. police and courts.
  22. 22. Marxism Blue collar crime The working class are no more criminals than anyone else, however Crimes committed the law protects the bourgeoisie so by manual factory the working class become easier to workers (working criminalise. The working class get class), these are street crimes like White collar crime harsher punishments compared with those who commit white collar crimes. theft which are in Crimes committed by public view. office workers (middle/upper class) White collar crime like fraud, these are often hidden from Very difficult to prosecute Social class and public view. due to problems of who is crime responsible and who is a victim. Much white collar crime is not dealt with criminally but Case study – Guinness affair administratively by False claims of success led to high share prices external agencies like the and company directors making millions. Gerald EPA (Environmental Ronson received a one -year sentence in Ford (open Protection Agency) and the prison) and was released on parole after serving Trading Standards Agency. about 6 months. He is still a successful Only serious cases go to businessman and one of Britain's 100 richest court. people.
  23. 23. Key ideas Shaw and McKay They found the Did a study of delinquency in delinquency living rates  There is a link between declined from zone 1 to Chicago (1927-33). They where offenders live and 5. They argue that divided the city of into five crimes committed in that zone 1 has the highest zones, drawn at two-mile area. rate of delinquents intervals, radiating outwards in concentric circles from the because it is  Environmental criminology characterised by a CBD (Central Business is concerned with mapping high population District). the spatial distribution of turnover and mixture offenders and offences. of different cultures. Location – They called this the zone of transition Environmental Criminology The least delinquents live in Zone 5 – 1.8 % They concluded that mainly commuter zone the zone of transition with expensive houses. had social disorganisation (low social cohesion and The most delinquents little sense of live in Zone 1 – 9.8% - community) making it deteriorating housing a breading ground for and factories, high deviants. population turnover
  24. 24. Explanations Area offending rates in Britain Studies in Britain contradict Opportunity theory Shaw and Mckay and the idea of determining crime by location. Crimes will be committed in locations where Some studies show higher targets are attractive to criminals meaning numbers of offenders living in it has a high monetary value and can easily council housing estates rather be transported and sold. Coupled with than city centres (Morris 1957). accessibility meaning if physical access is One study of two council estates easy and chances of being observed are low. separated by a road showed one had 300% more offenders living Location – Routine activities there than the other (Bottoms, Mawby and Xanthos 1989) . Environmental theory Criminology Argues that crimes are likely to happen in They say most Cognitive mapping (1984) particular places offenders commit Patricia and Paul Brantingham argue because of three things: crimes in areas they that we have cognitive maps inside There are likely are familiar with; out heads which outline our offenders in the area, because of an perception of the geography of our attractive targets and offender’s awareness local area. These maps contain an absence of capable of space, and places we are familiar with such as guardians like property opportunities for home, school or work, places of owners. crime. entertainment etc.
  25. 25. 3. Crime in contemporary society Key questions: Key information 1. Has crime become global?  Globalisation and crime  Mass media and crime 2. How does the media report  Green crime criminal activity?  Human rights  State crimes 3. What are green crimes and how are they dealt with? 4. What rights due all human beings have? 5. How can we stop state crimes when we have no world police?
  26. 26. Globalisation Transnational crime Risk consciousness Greater communication and Increased terrorism has Definition: The way in travel have made the drugs increased our awareness which we seem to live in industry extend beyond of the international risks an increasingly ‘shrinking national boundaries. Often we face and increased world’, where societies involving many countries the security at our national are becoming more supply comes from south borders, airports, ports interconnected and America (Colombia) and its and train stations. dependant on each other. demand from western countries. Increased crime Global crime (1 trillion)  Arms trafficking Globalisation and Ian Taylor (1973) Marxist argues that  Smuggling immigrants crime globalisation has allowed  Trafficking women capitalism to create Changing crime and children more crime by exploiting Hobbs and Dunningham say workers abroad and  Sex tourism crime is now longer local but creating fraud on a  Cyber-crimes – ‘Glocal’ meaning it involves larger scale. identity theft and networks of people across manufacturing products child porn the globe. Gleeny (2008) abroad has led to a lack argues even the mafia has of jobs and opportunities  Drugs trade gone global, it has franchised for the working  Money laundering its businesses to different class, which leads them parts of the globe – McMafia to crime.
  27. 27. The media and crime News as socially constructed Fictional crime  The media over-represent ‘The news is not discovered but Our ideas of crime violence and sex crimes – manufactured’ says Cohen and don’t just come from this make us think its Young. What they mean is what the news. Fictional happening more and that gets coverage depends on what representation of most killers are strange has happened, who is crime comes from psychopaths – in most involved, when and where. Crime books, films and TV cases the perpetrator is by its very definition is abnormal shows. They tend to know to the victim. and ticks most of these news match the incorrect worthy boxes. stereotypes of the The media portray media. criminals and victims as older and more middle- Mass media and class. crime How could the media Media coverage cause crime? Can the media cause crime exaggerates police success or fear?  Imitation – copycats. in clearing up cases. Most studies show media  Desensitisation. The media exaggerates violence has at most a small the risk of victimisation,  Learning criminal and limited negative effect especially women. techniques. on audiences. Studies do The media overplay show those that watch TV  Desire for extraordinary crimes but for longer periods of time unaffordable goods. underplay ordinary crimes. are more likely to be fearful of becoming a victim.  Glamorising offending.
  28. 28. New media – new crime Cyber-crime Cinema, television, computer games and the  Cyber-trespass – includes hacking and internet have all been blamed for spreading viruses. corrupting the young. The internet has grown so quickly its brought about cyber  Cyber –deception and theft – identify crime. Defined as computer-meditated theft, illegal downloading. criminal activities conducted through global  Cyber-pornography – illegal porn electronic networks. involving children.  Cyber-violence – bullying by text, threatening e-mails, cyber stalking. Stanley Cohen Mass media and crime Cohen studied how the media has often demonised youth culture. This Deviancy amplification spiral happened to mods and Rockers in 1964 who were This idea says that sensationalist seen as modern day folk reporting by the newspapers distorts the devils who threatened act of crime or deviance and increases social order. His research public awareness. Public pressure is put found that actual acts of on the police and courts to act. This deviant acts were minimal. creates a moral panic where certain acts or groups are seen as a threat to social order.
  29. 29. Key ideas Traditional criminology Green criminology Defined as crimes against If pollution that causes Less bound by laws but by the environment such as global warming is legal harm caused to the toxic waste dumping and and no real crime has environment or people. deforestation. Green crime been committed then Green criminology is a is linked with globalisation traditional criminology is much wider field and so as the world is one single not interested. called Transgressive eco-system. Ulrich Beck Criminology – goes beyond reminds us that many traditional criminology. environmental issues are Environmental/ manufactured rather than Green crime natural. Harm Secondary crimes Anthropocentric is a human Primary crimes Crimes that result from centred approach which Crimes that result directly assumes humans have the flouting rules aimed at from the destruction of right to dominate nature preventing an environmental the earth:- for their own ends. The disaster.  Crimes of air pollution. Ecocentric view sees  State violence against humans and their oppositional groups – despite  Crimes of deforestation. environment as opposing terrorism states have interdependent, so harming  Crimes of species decline used the method themselves. one is harming another. and animal rights. Hazardous waste and Green criminology takes the  Crimes of water ecocentric approach. organised crime –illegal pollution. dumping.
  30. 30. Human rights Problem Solution The right to life, liberty States create laws which Herman and Schwendinger and free speech. make their actions legal (1970) argue we should Civil rights and free them from define crime as a violation criminal charges. of human rights rather The right to vote, to than law breaking. States privacy, fair trial and that deny humans their education. Human rights rights are then seen as criminals. This new The social conditions Stanley Cohen – The spiral approach has been called of state crimes of state denial (1996) Transgressive criminology as it transgresses (goes Three ways dictators deny beyond) the traditional Three features which human rights violations:- boundaries of criminology produces state crimes:- (criminal law). Stage 1: ‘It didn’t happen’, this works until the Authorisation – New problem media uncover evidence that it obedience. did. Not everybody agrees on Routinisation – human rights. Is freedom Stage 2: ‘If it did from poverty a human pressure to continue. happen, it is something else’. right? Could states be Dehumanisation – charged as criminals for Stage 3: ‘Even if it is what not making its members Enemy is a monster. you say it is, its justified’ wealthy? we had to do it.
  31. 31. Definition Case studies Eugene McLaughlin (2001) Crimes or deviant activities Pol Pot – Leader of the Four types of state crime:- perpetrated by or with Communist party in  Political crimes - permission of state agencies. Cambodia. Slave corruption or censorship labour, malnutrition, (controlling what the media Examples:- poor medical care says). resulted in the death Genocide (deliberate and of 21% of the  Crimes by security and systematic destruction of population (1.7 -2.5M). police forces – Genocide an ethnic, national or and torture. religious group). War crimes  Economic crime - violations Torture State crimes of health and safety. Imprisonment without trial Assassination  Social and cultural crimes - institutional racism. The problem of national sovereignty States are the supreme authority Abu Ghraib within their borders. Nazi Germany The problem is the state is the A prison in Baghdad Hitler started the source of law meaning it decides what Controlled by US led T4 – euthanasia crimes are, manages the criminal coalition forces. program from 1939 justice system and prosecutes Accusations of abuse in – 1941. offenders, meaning it can evade its 2004 – 11 soldiers 275,000 terminally own law. charge and convicted ill and mental for mistreatment. patients were killed.
  32. 32. 4. Crime control, prevention, punishment, victims and the criminal justice system Key questions Key information 1. How can we prevent  Crime prevention policies – crime from happening? ‘broken window’  Punishment of crimes & the 2. Does our way of prison system punishing really work?  Victimology – the study of victims  The role of the Criminal 3. What can we learn from Justice system victims of crimes? 4. What is the role of the criminal justice system?
  33. 33. Situational crime prevention Marcus Felson (1998) Problem – Displacement Ron Clarke ( 1992) argues for a This approach was used This approach doesn’t pre-emptive approach which with the Port Authority solve the causes of targets specific crimes (petty) Bus terminal in NYC. crime in the area. by altering the immediate They reshaped the Often criminals find environment of crime. As a environment to design different areas, change right realist he believes target out crime with large the type of crime they hardening and more CCTV will open spaces, it was commit or choose a increase the risk of being successful. different victim. caught and lower the rewards. Crime control and Environmental crime prevention prevention Wilson and Kellings argued for an approach called ‘broken window’. The term broken windows stands for various signs of disorder and lack of The results concern for others found in neighbourhoods. They argue that leaving broken windows This approach has found great unrepaired such as graffiti, begging etc sends success in NY. A ‘Clean Car out a signal that no one cares and can tip the Program’ was instituted on the area into social disorder. A way to prevent this subway in which trains with is more police on the streets enforcing zero graffiti on them were taken away tolerance towards any social disorder and immediately. As a result graffiti repairing things that are broken or was largely removed from the deteriorating . subway.
  34. 34. Social and community Perry pre-school project crime prevention These students were Research conducted in 1962 by David Weikart in Michigan. The given extra sessions A left realist approach to on decision making project provided high-quality crime prevention it gets to and problem solving. pre-school education to three- the causes of crime by Parents implemented and four-year-old African- improving unemployment and the programme at American children living in housing. home. poverty and assessed to be at high risk of school failure. The results Crime control and By age 40 they had prevention significantly fewer lifetime arrests for violent crime, property Evaluation of all policies crime and drugs, while  Displacement transfers the problem elsewhere. more had graduated from high school and  None of the following can help reduce white were in employment. collar or state crimes. For every dollar spent  Do criminals make the rational choice to commit on the programme, $17 crime? were saved on welfare, prison and  Only social and community gets to the causes of other costs. crime.
  35. 35. Reduction What is the purpose Restorative of punishment? The aim is to reduce This approach crime by deterring tries to restore others, rehabilitating Retribution things as they offenders and were by making incapacitation meaning taking away their ability Meaning pay back, based on the offenders meet to re-offend. This idea that offenders deserve to their victims to approach is instrumental be punished and society is see the personal as punishment is a means entitled to take its revenge. affect their crime to an end, i.e. crime reduction. This approach is expressive as has had on their it expresses societies outrage. lives. Do Prisons work? Punishment Prison – key facts  Two –thirds of prisoners commit further crimes on  8.75 million people in their release from prison. prisons across the Do prisons work? world.  In 1993, the UK prison Transcarceration means population was 44,000.  The U.S has the when somebody enters Today it is over 83,000. highest prison prison or youth offending population compared  David Garland (2001) they are more than likely to with population argues the USA and the UK re-enter it again at some to a lesser extent are point be it with social  The U.K has the moving into the era of mass services or mental health highest prison incarceration. institutions. population in Europe.
  36. 36. Durkheim Marxism The function of punishment is to uphold social Society is divided into two solidarity and reinforce shared values. It also allows classes, ruling class exploit the people to express their outrage at rituals like trials working class. and re-set boundaries. Traditional close knit societies Marxists ask how does had a strong sense of right and wrong so had punishment serve the ruling Retributive justice as punishment was severe, cruel class? They argue that and public. Modern societies have Restitutive justice harsh punishments are part of which like restorative justice tries to restore broken the Repressive State relations and offer compensation. Apparatuses (RSA) which keep the working class in their place. Panopticon Sociological Prison is similar to the slave labour of capitalism, especially perspectives on A prison designed by Jeremy similar to strict discipline of Punishment factories in 20th century. Bentham, its design means inmates don’t know if they are being watched. The idea of surveillance turns into Michel Foucault – Postmodernism self-surveillance, it becomes internalised. This move Sovereign power – punishment before the 19th century towards self surveillance and was a public spectacle with hangings and stockades, its was self discipline is reflected a way of asserting the monarchs power over its citizens. not just in prisons but all Disciplinary power – punishment after 19th century was aspects of social life says not just about governance over the body but the mind or Foucault. soul, this is done through surveillance – Panopticon.
  37. 37. Definitions Positivist Victimology Hans Von Hentig . A person who suffers (1948) identified 13 It tries to identify why characteristics such physical, mental or psychological certain people are victims of as female, elderly or harm, economic loss or crimes. Early work focused on mentally subnormal. impairment of their rights. victim proneness meaning They imply that finding social and victims invite Victim is a concept like crime psychological characteristics victimisation by the that is socially constructed, who that made them more way they are. is and isn’t a victim changes vulnerable than non-victims. depending on the context. Problem Failure to label Victimology: The This approach has They are also interested in the study of victims been called victim way the state has the power to blaming as it attach or deny a label as a doesn’t count for victim. If the police decide not the motives of the to press charges then you are Critical Victimology perpetrator. denied the status of victim and Based on Marxism and any compensation. Feminism it wants to highlight structural factors like Problem: While it highlights poverty or patriarchy which the role of the powerful it put the powerless at greater denies the role victims risk of being a victim. themselves have in their own victimisation.
  38. 38. Class Patterns of victimisation Ethnicity The poorest groups are Minority ethnic most likely to be victims Age groups most at risk of all crimes. Homeless Younger people are most at of all crimes. Ethnic people are 12 times more risk of crimes like minorities most likely likely to experience assault, theft, sexual to feel under- violence than the general harassment. Infants under protected yet over population. one are at most risk of controlled. being murdered. Women who have been raped but whose cases Gender have failed in court are Victimology: The Males most at risk of also victims of the legal study of victims violent attacks system. especially by strangers. 70% of The impact of victimisation homicide victims are Fear male. The media has a large Research has found that a part to play when variety of effects such as Repeat victims stirring up fear but disrupted sleep, feelings of Once you have been a statistically speaking helplessness, increased security- victim once you are very men are more likely to consciousness and difficulties in likely to be again. be victims of violence socialising. Crime can also create Suggests people were yet some women fear fear in communities, these are victims for a going out late at night. referred to as indirect victims. reason, perhaps even targeted.
  39. 39. Common law Murder isn’t written Structure of the courts British law not originally in law anywhere but 1. European courts of decided upon and written based on precedents Justice down but based on a made years ago. 2. House of Lords series of judgements made by judges based on Oldest statute law in 3. Royal Courts of a series of facts. The England and Wales goes Justice courts must follow the back to 1297 originally part 4. Crown Court decisions of the of the Magna Carta and its precedent (previous about seeking damages. 5. Magistrates courts case). Courtroom The role of the Criminal  Judges seats – often 3 criminal justice These are cases that  Clerk & stenograph system have broken the law of (typist). the land and brought  Witness stand about by the state such Types of law as murder or rape.  The bar – behind which  Criminal – murder, rape. the prosecution and Civil defence solicitors and  Tort – These are cases that barristers sit negligence, nuisance, defamati have broken the law but on, trespass. are brought about by  The dock – The accused  Contract – sales & purchasing. people such as compensation against  Public viewing area  Trusts – Property and injury or land disputes. inheritance.
  40. 40. 1. Reporting 2. Investigation 3. Crown Prosecution Service A crime is committed The police will and reported to the investigate the scene The CPS must decide police. and question witnesses. whether a case is likely to The will either charge get a conviction in court. 8. Mental health the suspect, release them or given them a Those deemed to be warning. 4. Magistrates court without their mental Over 95% of cases are dealt faculty when committing with by the magistrates a crime are often sent Stages of the court. Because its usually for assessment and criminal justice less serious crimes there is a incarceration at system limit to the punishment that hospitals like Broadmoor can be imposed (6 months in or Ashworth, many will prison). never be released. 6. Prison With shorter sentences 5. Crown court prisoners remain in the 7. Probation service local area while longer More serious cases are Works to monitor sentences, prisoners passed to the crown court prisoners after their could be sent anywhere. which is served by a judge release. They help with They must be treated and jury. The jury will employment and housing with fairness and decide if the accused is guilt and advise the courts of humility and be given at which point the judge will a risk of re-offending. productive activities. decide upon the sentence.
  41. 41. 5. The study of suicide Key questions Key information 1. Is suicide just a  Positivism – Emile Durkheim psychological issue?  Interpretivism – Maxwell Atkinson 2. What social factors may  Realism – Steve Taylor cause suicide? 3. How do we define suicide? 4. Should we include people who have attempted suicide?
  42. 42. Emile Durkheim (1897) Findings 3 Objective: To look beyond the  Suicide rates were higher in Protestant countries individual act and towards the than Catholic ones. social factors which cause  Suicide rates for any given country remained more or suicide. He took a positivist less constant over time. methodology, as he wanted to establish Sociology as a  Rates were higher for childless and unmarried people. science. He collected suicide statistics from across  Rates rose during times of economic depression and Europe. prosperity and fell during times of war and political uncertainty. Social Facts The study of suicide Explaining findings For Durkheim social facts exist in the Durkheim concluded that world. Integration Types of suicide suicide must be the result and regulation are  Altruistic – Too much integration of the extent to which we social facts i.e. forces (Japan, Seppuka). are integrated and in the world that regulated into a group. constrain our  Egoistic – too little integration Integration is the extent behaviour. If (individualistic). to which a person is bound Durkheim could  Fatalistic – Too much by a society by norms and discover these facts regulation, you cant change things values (Japan). Regulation he would establish (China). is the extent to which a sociology as a science. society has control over its  Anomic – Too little members (China) regulation, norms and values
  43. 43. Maxwell Atkinson (1978) Suicide as socially Atkinson examined the constructed ways in which coroner’s Took an interactionist classified deaths. It (Ethnomethodology) Atkinson believed suicide had was based on the approach because he no objective reality. It’s observations of believes suicide is an societies that define suicide inquests, interview with expression of individual as something specific, the coroners and meaning rather than an act definition itself is varied. examinations of based on social forces. Atkinson wanted to find out coroner’s records. what this definition was and Atkinson claimed that how it was constructed. Criticises Durkheim coroners have a ‘common-sense theory’ Atkinson's work shows The study of suicide of suicide- meaning if that Durkheim didn’t find the facts fit the theory anything objective about then a verdict of suicide suicide just the corners is likely. Secondary cues theory (subjective). He highlights that using  History of mental Primary cues statistics is floored as we illness.  Suicide note. will never have access to  Disturbed childhood. those cases that were  Type of death – hanging. suicide but categorised as  Recent loss or divorce.  Place and circumstance death by misadventure  Financial problems. of death – garage, because the death didn’t windows and doors match the corners theory.  Lack of friends. closed.  Problems at work.
  44. 44. Steve Taylor (1988) Durkheim & Atkinson Wider definition As a realist taylor rejects Taylor agrees with A wider definition of Atkinson's view that Durkheim that we should suicide is needed in order suicide is socially look for the underline to explain the broad constructed, he argues it’s structural causes of suicide spectrum of suicidal a real problem that but believes case studies behaviour, he therefore requires a real solution. are more appropriate than defines suicide as ‘any statistics. deliberate act of self- Problems damage, or potential self- damage where the Case studies are individual cannot be sure unrepresentative. He fails of survival’. to find out what causes The study of suicide uncertainty or detachment. Categories Taylor said Suicide  Thanatation suicide – Uncertainty about the world and stems from an imbalance detached from people. in individuals sense of their own identity and  Appeal suicide – uncertainty about the world but attached their relationship with to people/person (jilted lover). others, this combines  Submissive suicide – certain about your future but both personal thoughts detached from people (terminal illness). and feelings and their position in wider society.  Sacrifice suicide – Attached to people and certain about future, but unliveable.
  45. 45. 6. Sociological methods and the study of crime Key questions Key information 1. What areas of crime are of  Crime as a research context interest to Sociologists?  Official statistics, BCS and self report studies. 2. What is the best way of  Questionnaires and crime studying crime?  Interviews and crime  Observations and crime 3. What problems do researchers face?  Experiments and crime  Secondary sources – statistics and documents 4. What factors influence the type of methodology a  P.E.R.V.E.R.T research will use?
  46. 46. Researching Domestic Violence Researching violent crimes Difficult to study due to being Few observational under represented in statistics. opportunities unless a The act itself has few public researcher manages to witnesses and many victims infiltrate a gang. Great choose to not report the danger can be posed to any incident to the police. Greater researcher who explores this Researching corporate confidentiality is needed for and high crime areas. Victims crime that take part in the research of violent crimes are unlikely for fear of further abuse. to want to be Likely to be under- interviewed, unless by the reported in statistics police. and by the media. The Researching Criminal justice crimes themselves have Crime as a The police maybe open to research context low visibility and are research but aware of public often difficult to scrutiny. Studies of senior Researching Young offenders investigate, they may officers is rare. Although even go beyond national courts are public places, Studying these groups maybe borders. Perpetrators judges, jurors and lawyers are be difficult to observe and are powerful and often beyond study. Prisons interview due to suspicion organised and enjoy are closed environments (police officer in disguise and political protection. where researcher safety is the age, class, gender and paramount. Prisoners often ethnicity of the researcher. co-operate due to boredom Researchers must be aware of but are no stranger to the vulnerability of this group deception. and their use of language, literacy and cognitive
  47. 47. Official statistics Recorded crime Lack of crime reporting Complied from A crime, which has Crimes may not be reported due government departments been recorded by to:- the police as a like the police and crime. (Only 40%  fear of reprisal. courts. of reported crime is then recorded Lack of awareness (fraud). due to discretionary Fear it may not be taken Reported crime powers of the seriously. A crime, which the police).  Crime is too trivial. public has reported to the police. (90% of all crime the Crime statistics Inaccurate picture of police deal with is crime reported to them by the public).  White collar crime dealt with administratively. Official crime statistics are  Only serious crimes the tip of the iceberg, BCS from incidences is and self-report studies recorded. show there is more crime Rules for counting always than what can be seen on change. the surface. This is known as the dark figure of crime Lack of recording makes (what is recorded vs. clear up rates look higher. reported).
  48. 48. British Crime Survey The study is based on a representative sample of adults A victim study which asks Self-report studies living in private households in people if they have been a England and Wales. In 2002 over Anonymous victim of a crime and the 36,000 surveys were conducted. questionnaires which circumstances of that Certain crimes are excluded due ask respondents if they crime. It was conducted to low reporting such as murder, have committed a crime every two years from drug possession or dealing, fraud, over the past year. 1982 -2000 then every offences against businesses. year since. They are usually based Trends and patterns on self-completed BCS and Self- questionnaires or  BCS says 10.7 million crimes committed, OS (4.7 million. report studies interviews which contain a list of The majority of crime is BCS: includes unreported offences. property related. and unrecorded crime but Respondents are asked  Violent crime accounts for only 75% is comparable with to highlight which they 1/5 of all crime police statistics. have committed. Self report studies show us  Overall crime peaked in 1995 Self-report: Mainly street that most people and has declined ever since. crime (working class) commit crime at some excludes hidden crimes like point in their lives so  Men aged 16-24 most likely domestic violence. Only to be a victim of violence. crime is normal. gives a small picture of criminal activity.
  49. 49. Positivist Written questionnaires Closed questions Respondents are asked to The respondent must choose Generally used by complete and return by post their answer from a limited positivists due to their or e-mail. range of possible answers like ability to generate yes, no or don’t know. statistical data that is Interviews reliable, representative Either face-to face or by Open questions and generalisable telephone. These allow the respondent to answer freely in their own Quantitative words. Social Surveys Large amounts of Questionnaires Hypothesis statistical data A theory or idea to test Primary Sampling techniques This data has not been Pilot study 1. Random – people selected collected before by chance A trial run to test for 2. Systematic – every problems with questions 5th, 10th or 100th person is Sample chosen. Operationalising concepts Not all of the 3. Stratified – a sample that population can be Putting concepts like God reflects societies diversity or class into categories studied so researchers select a sample of it to 4. Quota – researchers have a (pre-set answers) that study quota (amount) of can be easily analysed requirements to fill
  50. 50. Advantages Disadvantages 1. Quick, cheap and easy 1. The data is limited and to gather. superficial. 2. Reliable – can be 2. Postal questions have a replicated. low response rate, in 3. Can test a hypothesis. some studies it is as low as 40%. 4. Detached and objective way of collecting the 3. Very inflexible as Social surveys - hypothesis cannot be data. Questionnaires changed or adapted. 5. Representative; due to the large amount of data 4. A lack of validity that can be gathered, means Questionnaires especially if a good don’t gives us any real sampling method is used. insight into people behaviour. 6. Fewer ethical issues as questions aren’t in depth 5. Using closed questions and people can refuse to constrains people’s answer. answers. 7. No issue of deception as informed consent has been gained.