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c.school January 2015 - community development presentation

A potted history of community development shared as part of Civic Systems Lab c.school session on 23 January 2015.
(Apologies for the lack of visual content, I struggled to find open licensed images.)

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c.school January 2015 - community development presentation

  1. 1. A potted history of community development … and some pretty cool quotes on radical community development
 I have engineering degrees. I don’t fully understand some of the words used by social science-y people. Apparently the ‘Golden Age’ of community development in the UK was 1968 to the mid 1970’s. I was born in the mid 1970’s. And I’ve never applied myself to learning history.
 The following is from a handy document created by Jill Bedford of ‘changes’ (@jillbed)
  4. 4. REFORMIST A charitable, philanthropic approach. Self-help. ‘Doing-to’. Model of deficiency. Pathologising groups and communities. RADICAL Philosophy of liberation. Power relations and analysis of power at the centre. Challenging people and structures. A radical and revolutionary approach CD IN RELATION TO POLITICAL PURPOSE
  5. 5. REFORMIST Workers Educational Association University Settlements movement The deserving poor RADICAL Women’s suffrage Women’s health clinics Glasgow rent strikes 1900’s - 1920’s
  6. 6. REFORMIST Urban clearances - new council estates New community centres built to foster sense of community Employment of community workers tied to social work practice RADICAL Unemployed workers movement Jarrow marches General strikes 1930’s
  7. 7. REFORMIST Ideas around neighbourhood work and interagency work and collaboration from Murray Ross bought from Canada to the UK RADICAL 1940’s - 1950’s
  8. 8. REFORMIST Younghusband report - community work as a key component of social work Gulbenkain report - community work needs to be a full time professional job in neighbourhoods Skeffington report - importance of public participation in planning and the role CD can play RADICAL Critique of Gulbenkian report: - glosses over /igore political nature of community development - ignoring the root causes of oppression - social work/community work can be seen as ‘soft policing’ of communities 1960’s
  9. 9. REFORMIST Urban Programme scheme started Community Development Projects started in specific communities to ameliorate effects of poverty RADICAL Staff in Community Development Projects became disenchanted with the little they could do working with system and started to challenge the vary basis of their work (they became radicalised) The writings of Friere, Gramsci and Alinsky became well known Late 1960’s - 1970’s
  10. 10. REFORMIST Concepts of self help and service provision tied in to state funding of voluntary and community sector, and linked to business model of operating - quality systems, targets and managerialism. Focus on small scale neighbourhood changes often associated with physical environment. RADICAL Feminist and black critiques of community development approaches ‘In or against the state’ arguments - the state as employer/funder and oppressor. Inherent tensions especially when community workers are employed by local authorities. Late 1970’s - 1990’s
  11. 11. REFORMIST Partnerships between VCS and governance, VCS starting to deliver local services Place-shaping and Neighbourhood Renewal Community cohesion Social capital Community engagement Community empowerment RADICAL Rise of ‘idelogical confusion’ - to naively support policies around participation rather than social justice and equality The co-option of radical community work - the professionalisation of community action - replaces critical analysis with sustainability and social inclusion 1997 - 2010
  12. 12. 2010 - 2020
  13. 13. Community development begins in the everyday reality of people’s lives by “extraordinarily re-experiencing the ordinary”. In a process of action and reflection, community development grows through a diversity of local projects that address issues faced by people in a community. Through campaigns, networks and alliances, this action develops a local:global reach that aims to transform the structures of oppression that diminish local lives. Margaret Ledwith Community Development: A critical approach (2005)
  14. 14. Community development starts from the principle that there is a wealth of knowledge and experience which, if used in creative ways, can be channelled into collective action to achieve the communities’ desired goals. Community Development Exchange Lorna Prescott Senior Development Officer Dudley CVS @dosticen (CDX Trustee 2007-2011)