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The Environmental Impacts of Marinas and Recreational Boating: Management Measures and How to Reduce Them

  1. The Environmental Impacts of Marinas and Recreational Boating: Management Measures and How to Reduce Them CRISTINA I. MALDONADO MORALES CIAM 6117 NOVEMBER 4, 2015
  2. Oil Spills
  3. Sewage Discharges
  4. Boat Painting/Repair
  5. Introduction • Marinas and boating are very popular uses of coastal waters. • Its growth in popularity has increased awareness in the need to protect the environmental quality of these waterways. • Marinas located in coastal areas, have a strong potential to become contaminated with pollutants generated from various activities that occur at marinas or from the entry of nonpoint sources of pollution.
  6. Definitions • Nonpoint Source Pollution: Results from rainwater or snow carrying pollutants picked up from the atmosphere or land to surface and ground water. • Point Source Pollution: Contaminants that enter a receiving waterbody at some identifiable site (e.g. pipe, channel, well, boat…).
  7. Types and Nonpoint Sources of Water Pollution from Marinas and Recreational Boating Types Sources Nutrients/Pathogens Overboard sewage discharge Sediments Parking lot runoff, shoreline erosion Petroleum Hydocarbons Fuel, oil drippings, solvents Toxic Metals Boat maintenance debris Liquid/Solid Wastes General marina activities
  8. Definitions • Management Measures: Best available, economically achievable practices or combination of practices that can be used to address nonpoint source pollution. • Best Management Practices: Individual activities or structures that can be used alone or in combination to achieve the management measures.
  9. Laws and Source Pollution Control • Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments 1990 • Amended the Coastal Zone Management Act 1972. • Intended to address the impacts of nonpoint source pollution on coastal water quality. • Requires EPA to publish management measures: Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters • Requires states/territories to develop Coastal Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Programs that ensure the implementation of EPA’s management measures in their coastal areas.
  10. Laws and Source Pollution Control • Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act) • Enacted in 1972. • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Program • Prohibits the discharge of any pollutant to waters of the United States from a point source unless the discharge is allowed under the NPDES permit. • Amendments of 1987 • Requires states/territories to develop and implement Nonpoint Source Management Programs. Federal funding is provided.
  11. Laws and Source Pollution Control • Oil Pollution Act: • Enacted in 1990. • Requires: • Vessels: Owners must report any hazardous waste spill and are responsible for any costs of an environmental cleanup and any damage that might result from the spill. • Marinas: Are responsible for any oil contamination resulting from their facilities, including dumping or spilling of oil or oil-based paint and the use of chemically treated agents.
  12. Laws and Source Pollution Control •Clean Vessel Act: • Enacted in 1992. • To reduce pollution from vessel sewage discharges . • Clean Vessel Act Pump out Grant Program: • Federal funds used for: • Public outreach, installation, renovation, operation and maintenance of pump out and dump stations. • Marinas can be reimbursed by these funds for up to 75% of project costs.
  13. Laws and Source Pollution Control • The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78): • International treaty to reduce marine pollution of discharges of wastes of all kinds from ships. • Signed in 1973, modified by the Protocol of 1978. • U.S. Coast Guard is responsible for promulgating and enforcing the treaty. • Annex V requires marinas to have trash reception facilities capable of receiving plastics/trash from vessels.
  14. Management Strategies • Measures for Marinas and Recreational Boating: • Marina flushing • Water quality assessment • Habitat assessment • Shoreline stabilization • Storm water runoff
  15. Management Strategies • Measures for Marinas and Recreational Boating: • Fueling station design • Petroleum control • Liquid material management • Solid waste management • Fish waste management
  16. Management Strategies • Measures for Marinas and Recreational Boating: • Sewage facilities • Maintenance of sewage facilities • Boat cleaning • Boat operation • Public education
  17. Shoreline Stabilization BMP Examples Environmental Benefits Use of vegetative plantings, wetlands, beaches. Effective shoreline stabilization. Filters pollutants from runoff. Provides wildlife hábitat. Rip rap reventment. Reduces sedimentation. Provides habitat for aquatic plants and and animals. Dissipate wave action.
  18. Vegetative Planting/Wetland
  19. Rip rap Reventment
  20. Storm Water Runoff BMP Examples Environmental Benefits Use of vacuum sanders to remove paint frfrom hulls and to collect paint dust and i chips. 98% effective at keeping paint dust and and chips out of the environment. Plant grass between impervious areas a and the marina basin. Effective buffer. Retains and filters pollutants from run runoff. Absorbs nutrients from storm water. Stabilizes the shore.
  21. Vacuum sander to remove paint from boat
  22. Grass buffer
  23. Boat Operation BMP Examples Environmental Benefits Restrict boater traffic in shallow water arareas. Protect habitats of aquatic organisms. Establish and enforce no-wake zones to dedecrease turbidity, shoreline erosion and dadamage in marinas. Reduces shoreline erosion. Preserves nearshore habitats and orga organisms.
  24. References • Fact Sheets and Reports • Nonpoint Pointer No. 9 - Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution from Boating and Marinas Information on managing boat operations, sewage, waste and maintenance as well as a listing of related publications and resources can be found in this legacy fact sheet. • Clean Marinas - Clear Value - Environmental and Business Success Stories This study focuses on the economic benefits realized by marina managers who have implemented management measures at their marinas. • Guidance Documents and Manuals • National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Marinas and Recreational Boating National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Marinas and Recreational Boating is a technical guidance and reference document for use by state, local and tribal managers in the implementation of nonpoint source pollution management programs. It contains information on the best available, economically achievable, means of reducing pollution of surface water runoff from marinas and recreational boating. (Final Version - November 2001, EPA 841-B-01-005). • Shipshape Shores and Waters: A Handbook for Marina Operators and Recreational Boaters (PDF) (22 pp, 1.9MB, About PDF) This is a companion piece to the National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Marinas and Recreational Boating. It is a quick reference handbook for actions that marina operators and recreational boaters can take to help prevent polluting waters. (January 2003, EPA-841-B-03-001).
  25. References • Management Measures for Marinas and Recreational Boating (PDF) (82 pp, 5.2MB, About PDF) This is the marina and boating management measure chapter of the document Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. • EPA Office of Mobile Sources - Marine Engine Emissions and Control This Web site provides general and technical information on EPA's marine diesel engine rulemakings. • Special Programs • Clean Marina Initiative The Clean Marina Initiative is a voluntary, incentive-based program promoted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and others that encourages marina operators and recreational boaters to protect coastal water quality by engaging in environmentally sound operating and maintenance procedures.
  26. Discussion Questions • What is your opinion about the management measures recommended by the EPA? • Do you have new ideas on how to manage, protect, conserve coastal zones? • Should these management measures be enforced? • Should new marinas be built in Puerto Rico?
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