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  1. 1. Chhatrapati Shiva ji International Airport MADE BY- RITU B.ARCH 7thsem
  2. 2. If airports reflect the Character and personality of a city, then the new Mumbai International Airport is proud to have created a gateway for the world that is truly a landmark of the future. Inspired by the dancing peacock, India’s national bird, terminal 2 seems picturesque (unique, pictorial) and resplendent icon of modern infrastructure.
  3. 3. Architects – SOM Design Partner - Roger Duffy Senior Design Architect - Scott Duncan Design Architect - Peter Lefkovits Technical Architect - Narin Gobindranauth Senior Aviation Planner - Derek Moore Project Year - 2014 Manufacturers - Lindner Managing Partner - Anthony Vacchione Structural Director - Charles Besjak Structural Engineer - Preetam Biswas Structural Engineering - Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Project Manager, Director - Laura Ettelman Architect and Engineer of Record - Larsen & Toubro Limited MEP Engineer - Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP Lighting Design - Brandston Partnership Inc. Acoustics - Cerami & Associates Communication, IT, Security & Special Sustems - Mulvey & Banani Baggage Handling - BNP Associates Verical Transportation - Van Deusen & Associates Cultural Design Collaboration - Abu Jani - Sandeep Khosla
  4. 4. • This project is inspired by the dreams ambitions, creativity and culture of the people of Mumbai. It is their collective imagination made real. Sanjay Reddy, Vice-Chairman, GVK CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. Inspiring architecture, meticulous (nice, notational) planning, state-of-the-art technology and excellent service standards all reflect the city’s ambition, imagination and future . The terminal offers passengers a series of wonderful experiences.
  5. 5. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT This project is inspired by the dreams, ambitions, creativity and resilience of the people of Mumbai. It is their collective imagination made real. MUMBAI Over the past decade, India has been transformed into one of the most dynamic and energetic countries in the world. It has seen extraordinary growths, wealth and education. As India’s business and creative capital Mumbai. The new terminal at Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is the perfect expression of Mumbai’s achievements, its ambition and its imagination. city of color & texture. a vibrant ambitious city that measures its success on a global scaleDESIGN VALUES:- The following pages present the values that have informed the design of the new terminal and the total experience we wish our customers to enjoy. Please take the time to reflect on them and consider how you might be able to bring them to life in all aspects of your submission. The stunning architecture of the new terminal is more than a decorative shell. It is a deep expression of Mumbai, and of India. It is a place inspired by a heritage of creativity, craft and innovation. It feeds the imagination and creates new possibilities. throughout the terminal, jalli filters direct sunlight, helping to keep the building cool and reinforcing the special Indian character. This is a place that changes with the light. A place that reveals something new on each occasion. This is a place that people look forward to returning to, time and time again. lush garden lounges and topiary features can be found throughout the terminal, creating many living, moving environments and restful spaces. The elegant charm to be experienced throughout the terminal is a natural expression of our people and culture. Our commitment to exceptional customer experiences reflect the pride that we feel for Mumbai and its future. The new terminal is a living environment that frames and supports moments of joy, delight, calm and exhilaration. And like every great journey it represents growth and an expression of life. The entire shopping, eating and drinking experience has been carefully planned throughout the terminal, with color and form used to create distinct spaces to relax and enjoy the experience. OPEN SPACE:- The layout of the international departure lounge is an elegant planning solution that balances circulation, seating and shopping needs in a unique Indian inspired format. The international departure lounge integrates a cool lighting concept to create a soothing retail environment. The international departure lounge offers quality dining of an international standard designed to create a relaxing environment for the frequent flyer. The entire retail, food and beverage experience has been carefully planned throughout the terminal to create a place of excitement, discovery and recreation. A central retail zone is at the heart of the domestic departure lounge creating a central focal point. Topiary and seating have been integrated to create relaxing waiting areas for the domestic. The domestic departure lounge creates an inviting environment by using a vibrant, warm lighting concept. •Mumbai is a cosmopolitan city – a city that welcomes people from all over India and the world. it comfortably respects tradition while celebrating the new.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Chhatrapati shivaji international airport formerly known as sahar international airport, is the primary international airport serving the mumbai metropolitan area, india. It is the second busiest airport in the country in terms of total and international passenger traffic after delhi, and was the 14th busiest airport in asia and 29th busiest airport in the world . The airport is operated by Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL), a Joint Venture (trades) between the Airports Authority of India and the GVK Industries Ltd which was CSIA is capable of Handling 40 million passengers and 1 million metric tonnes of cargo Annually. The 410 000 m2 building, being constructed At the site of the existing terminal. appointed in February 2006 to carry out the modernisation of the Airport. The new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for international operations on 12 February 2014. A dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway was also opened to the public the same day.
  7. 7. History RAF Santacruz was constructed in the 1930s. It was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres (610 ha) and initially had three runways. The apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, and the area, referred to today as the "Old Airport", houses, among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India and MIAL's General Aviation Terminal. By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operations,two old abandoned hangars of the Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic. One hangar was used as a domestic terminal and the other for international traffic. It had counters for customs and immigration checks on either side and a lounge in the centre. Air India handled its passengers in its own terminal adjoining the two hangars.In its first year, it handled six civilian services a day. Terminal 1B being expanded in 2006 A portrait of the Maratha Emperor, Chhatrapati Shivaji, after whom the airport is named, at one of the passenger terminals
  8. 8. Structure • The airport consists of two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 Santacruz for domestic flights and Terminal 2 Sahar for both international and domestic flights. While both terminals use the same airside facilities, they are physically separated 6km on the city side, requiring a 15–20-minute (landside) drive between them. MIAL operates coach shuttle services between the two terminals for the convenience of transit passengers. Airside works
  9. 9. Runways • The airport has two intersecting runways. Both runways have been upgraded to Code F, which means they can accommodate larger aircraft like the Airbus A380 the capacity of the airport can be increased, MIAL set a target of 48 aircraft movements an hour in an effort to reduce congestion at the airport. Both runways were operated simultaneously especially during peak hours to try and attain this target. MIAL scrapped simultaneous Cross-runway flight operations in mid-2013 after it found that single runway operations were more effective for increasing Aircraft movements per hour. Runway 14/32 is now used only when the main runway is unavailable due to maintenance or other reasons.The construction of new rapid exit taxiways helped in increasing flight handling capacity from 32 movements per hour to 44 in 2012. • Issues with utilising 14/32 are: • Trombay Hill, lies 8.3 km away from the 32 end, an approach that was temporarily made a No-Fly zone because the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) nuclear complex at Trombay lies within its flight path.
  10. 10. Runways DIRECTION LENGTH SURFACE M Ft 14/32 2,990 9,760 Asphalt 09/27 3,660 12,008 Asphalt Once the longest commercial runway in India, Runway 09/27 is the airport's main runway. 13 taxiways, including four rapid exit taxiways, connect it to a full-length parallel taxiway to its north. It intersects the secondary runway south of the terminal buildings. The reconstruction of the runway was completed in May 2011. The runway width was increased from 45 metres (148 ft) to 60 metres (200 ft) with a runway shoulder width of 7.5 m added on each side. Runway 14/32 has ten taxiways including three rapid exit taxiways that connect to a parallel taxiway running along its eastern flank. It runs between Terminals 1 and 2 and was reconstructed in 2010. The runway shoulders were widened from 7.5 to 15 metres (25 to 49 ft).
  11. 11. Air traffic control tower India's tallest Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tower with a height of 85 m (279 ft) stands in a section of the parking area opposite terminal 1B. The triangular three-dimensional structure with soft vertices that won the Hong Kong Building Information Modeling (BIM) Award for the year 2009, has six storeys commencing from 62.1 m (204 ft). The tower was inaugurated on 18 October 2013 and took over operations on 1 January 2014. Features Built in a site area of 1200 sq.m, the tower consists of 3 floors at its base called the technical block for security and Airport Authority of India (AAI) staff for ATC operation. ATC sky tower
  12. 12. There are 4 floors at the top called the ‘Stalk and CAB’ that accommodates the ATC operational area, navigation equipment, etc. The rest of the tower between the technical block and stalk is only a RCC shaft housing lifts and staircases. PHE- UG sump works Domestic tank (2 nos) = 30,150 litres Fire storage tank = 4,24,000 litres Flush (grey water) = 30,552 litres Electrical Transformer (2 nos) = 1000 KVA each Diesel generator (2 nos) = 1000 KVA each HVAC Air cooled direct expansion type packaged air conditioning units for technical block and cab level with estimated cooling load of 190.6 KW for technical block and 175.5 KW for cab Level. The staircase and firemen lift has been provided with one duty and one stand-by pressurization fan for each area. During construction Side view plan
  13. 13. Terminals • Terminal 1 (A-B-C) or Domestic Terminal • History Some of the locals identify the Terminal 1 as Santacruz airport, because that was the name of the airport several years ago • 3 Buildings The terminal 1 is divided in 3 main buildings: A - B - C. • Terminal 1A Was first used in 1992. Currently the departures level is closed. • Terminal 1B Is used by SpiceJet, IndiGo and GoAir. Was the main building of the old airport Santa Cruz. • Terminal 1C It is the newest (opened at 2010). It is not used to departures/arrivals, only for boarding for all airlines from of Terminals 1A and 1B. Is used by SpiceJet, IndiGo and GoAir. • Domestic Terminal is busiest during the day.
  14. 14. View of terminal 1 Parking area of domestic terminal Slums area near terminal 1
  15. 15. Larsen & Toubro (L&T) was awarded the contract to construct the new Terminal 2. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) was the architectural designer of the project. SOM also provided the schematic design of structure and MEP and the detailed structural design of the roof. Detailed design of the foundations and the rest of the structure and civil works, the MEP, IT and airport systems, including the full construction documentation of the project was carried out by L&T's in house design team, EDRC (Engineering Design and Research Center). The terminal covers a land area of 210,000 square metres and has replaced the previous International Terminal (which has already been demolished). The entire project was estimated to cost 98 billion and employ over 12,000 workers. The X-shaped terminal has a total floor area of 450,000 square metres across four floors and handles both domestic and international passengers. It includes new taxiways and apron areas for aircraft parking designed to cater to 40 million passengers annually.The iconic structure has boarding gates on two piers extending southwards from a central processing building featuring a 42-metre high roof employing over 20,000 metric tonnes of fabricated steel covering 30 acres. The new T2 terminal building operates Multiple Aircraft Ramp System (MARS) stands and swing gates. Terminal 2
  16. 16. The new terminal has around 21,000 square meters of retail space, lounges and travel services, over 5,000 square meters of landscaping and a multi level car park for 5,000 cars. The parking Management System and Revenue control system for the entire MLCP has been designed and supplied by SKIDATA.[57] It has 192 check-in counters and 60 immigration counters for departing passengers, and 14 baggage carousels and 76 immigration counters for arriving passengers. To transfer passengers across its four levels, the building has 48 escalators and 75 elevators. The terminal also features 42 travelators. In the initial phase of development, the apron adjoining T2 provides a total of 48 stands including 3 Code F stands for the A-380) The GVK Lounge, the first common luxury lounge at an airport in India, opened in November 2014.[58] The lounge is open to First class and Business class travellers nd can accommodate 440 guests at a time.. It is spread over 30,000 square feet across two levels of the terminal and has a library, a business centre and fine-dining options, apart from the usual facilities like concierge services, smoking zone, Food and Beverage, bar, luxury spa, shower area and a relaxation area. The luxury lounge has won the ‘World’s Leading Airport Lounge – First Class 2015’ award at the World Travel Awards 2015 held in Morocco.
  17. 17. Arrivals forecourt Headhouse: departure, arrivals, immigration and baggage claim Concourse, retail and baggage handling Pier gates
  18. 18. Terminal Phasing Plan
  19. 19. CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI AIRPORT, MUMBAI Mumbai is a major business hub in India with many Indian corporation head offices and foreign financial company branches located within the city. Mumbai also hosts a prosperous entertainment industry and is one of a few prominent locations for the media industry in India. Chhatrapati Shivaji Airport is located approximately 34km north of the central city area.
  20. 20. FACILITIES • 14 baggage carousels • 192 check-in counters • 60 immigration counters for departing passengers, • 76 immigration counters for arriving passengers. • 5 levels of security screening • 87 elevators • 55 escalators • 42travelators • 52 passenger boarding bridges • 1,98,000 sq.m granite for flooring • 161 58 self-check-in kiosks • 50 feet high check-in hall • 70 m wide departure bay • 40,000 sq.m canopy • 21,000 sq.m of retail shopping • Material sourced from 25 countries • elevators check-in counters Mumbai International airport T2 boarding gates
  21. 21. Vertical & horizontal transportation ELEVATORS There are 87 elevators with stops ranging from 2 to 20 landings with a handling capacity of 544 to 5000 kg and speeds varying from 0.5 to 1 m/s. A high capacity elevator is installed exclusively for moving large show pieces and automobiles into the retail area. Six scenic elevators made entirely of glass greatly enhance the ambience of the terminal. Escalator With a capacity to handle 9000 persons/ hour, the heavy duty escalators have a rated speed of 0.5 m/s and rise range from 3 to 11.6 m. Among the 55 escalators installed is ‘India’s tallest airport escalator’ which rises to 11.6 meters going all the way from the 6th to 10th level of the multi-level car parking (MLCP). Eight escalators are exclusively for the transportation of passengers between MLCP and the terminal building. Travelators Travelators a.k.a ‘moving walkways’ have been thoughtfully provided around the terminal to improve passenger mobility. MIAL features 41 of such equipment with a handling capacity of 16,200 persons / hour and a rated speed of 0.65 m/s. If installed one behind another, the travelators would measure a whopping 1.3 km in length. MIAL also features the first ‘Pit-less Travelator’ installed in Asia which eliminates the need for a ‘travelator pit’ and simply rests on the finished floor.
  22. 22. Baggage Handling System Passenger baggage reclaim area The baggage handling system of the Mumbai International Airport has been designed and executed, embracing many new features and services, to make the processing of hold baggages easier, less stressful and reassuring for passenger Aerial view of tilt tray sorter Vertical sorting unit FIDs screen of baggage handling system
  23. 23. • The GVK Lounge, the first common luxury lounge at an airport in India, opened in November 2014. It is spread over 30,000 square feet across two levels of the terminal and has a library, a business centre and fine-dining options, apart from the usual facilities like concierge services, smoking zone, Food and Beverage, bar, luxury spa, shower area and a relaxation area. The luxury lounge has won the ‘World’s Leading Airport Lounge – First Class 2015’ award at the World Travel Awards 2015 held in Morocco. View of interiors of Mumbai Airport T2
  24. 24. Multi-level car park The Multi-level Car Parking (MLCP) at MIAL could easily be India’s largest at an airport packed with some of the most passenger-friendly conveniences. The 10 floor MLCP has a 5000 car and 400 two wheeler capacity and can be accessed from both the elevated and at graderoad levels. Built on a 2.32 lakh sq.m area, it connects to every level of the terminal via 8 elevators and 8 escalators for hassle-free movement. The MLCP is also stacked with adequate trolleys for baggage handling and wheelchairs for the differently abled. The HVAC system includes 3324 fans for ventilation and the entire building features a world-class fire detection and protection system apart from CCTV surveillance and public announcement systems for enhanced safety of passengers. Facilities current earlier Car parking 5,000 3,600 View of the state-of-the-art floor decking system at the MLCP View of Multi-Level Car Parking of Mumbai Airport T2
  25. 25. Electrical works Powering-up with passion View of one of the substations The conceptualisation of lighting and power distribution system for theterminal area went through substantial contemplation for it plays a major rolein enhancing the ambience and providing well-spread power availability. The entire focus was therefore on enhancing the ‘WOW’ factor. Control panels in substation An array of control panels Diesel generators for back-up power
  26. 26. Lighting works Highlighting the features Chandeliers resembling lotus petals Aesthetically bright The Lighting Control & Monitoring System (LCMS) features advanced innovations such as day-light harvesting, lumen maintenance, time scheduling and scene setting to optimise energy efficiency using DALI, DMX & circuit switching controllers. Mono-colour LEDs, RGB LEDs in retail, landscape and water-feature areas are grouped and controlled through DMX for dimming and creating sequences to create a vibrant atmosphere. Lighting that integrates skylight and electrical light Decorative ceiling lights at retail area Lighting at the head house roof
  27. 27. MATERIALS USED IN CSIA INTERIORS • Materials such as natural stone, • backpainted glass, laquered wood, • metal, detailed pre-sprayed metal and • timber are encouraged.
  28. 28. FACILITIES Exterior view of utility complexCozy interiors that give a soothing experience FIDs screen at the check-in counter area Interior view of Airport Operations Control Center
  29. 29. IT systems • 25 airport IT systems • 1560 km of CAT 6 cabling • 333 km of OFC cabling • 15,600 IT ports • 2190 CCTV cameras • 747 access control devices • 3500 speakers for announcement • 1026 flight information screens • 931 antenna systems Other highlights • 5,000 capacity multi-level car parking • 3.3 km long, 6 lane, elevated corridor • 83.8 meter ATC sky tower • 6.5 km of runway and 12 km of taxiway • 1 million sq.m of apron area
  30. 30. Airside Works Soaring above the superlative The journey towards creating a world-class airport at Mumbai started in mid 2007. The challenge was to strike a balance between undertaking a complex construction project whilst maintaining operations in one of India’s busiest airports. Being a brownfield project, it was absolutely necessary to envisage the complexities involved in executing airside works without disturbing operations Bird’s eye view of the airside View of runway after up-gradation works
  31. 31. Illuminated view of apron Veiw of remote stand for parking Terminal trials started in May 2013 with single process trials where the focus was on a single process liketerminal entry, trolley movement,check-in, staff entry, delivery of goods and waste management. Once the single process trials were completed successfully, integrated trials started where different processes were simulated in an integrated manner like departure trial involving the check-in process, security screening, immigration and boarding.
  32. 32. Planning and phasing of airfield works: were divided into ‘Seasons’with one season defined as the working duration from 1st October to 31st May of a particular year. Season 2008-09: During this season, the projects executed included the delta taxiway stage 1 & 2, apron H, central loop, 14 end loop, 32 loop and T1C apron, selected for multiple work front creation and improving the efficiency of the runway. Season 2009-10: Projects taken up and completed were the runway 14/32 upgradation, runway intersection works, T2 apron, delta taxiway stage 3 to 6 and runway 09 west end Season 10-11: The projects handled included the runway 09/27 upgradation, T2 apron, delta taxiway stage 7 to 9 and Mithi River phase 1. Season 11-12: The Mithi River phase 2, Mithi River bridge strengthening work, taxiway N1, taxiway E3, taxiway N1- N3 junction, engine run-up bay and T2 apron were handled. DIRECTION LENGTH WIDTH SURFACE M Ft M 14/32 2,990 9,760 60 Asphalt 09/27 3,660 12,008 60 Asphalt
  33. 33. Airfield Ground Lighting View of air field ground lighting The Runway and Taxiway Lighting System have been designed to handle Code F Aircraft Airbus (A 380-800) which is presently the biggest flying aircraft and in aviation history too. PAPI system Being one of Asia’s busiest runways, Mumbai’s airport is equipped with an advanced Precision Approach Path Indicator System, also known as ‘Instrumental landing’ that ensures displaced threshold design to clear obstacles around the airport. View of PAPI lights
  34. 34. Major Quantities • HT / PCC Panels - 3 nos • Transformers - 2 nos • UPS - 2 nos • HT/LT Cables - 6 km • Distribution Boards - 55 nos • Conduiting - 29 km • Light Fixtures - 1624 nos Illuminated view of NACIL hangar Power and control network for AGL • India’s tallest ATC has a sandwich busduct from ground to the top floor (level 22) along with tapping provisions at all floors. • External lights are provided at level 1, level 4 and level 20 to add to aesthetics and grandeur. •LCMS is provided at all levels to reduce the intensity of lights •according to the requirement of the user and to reduce power consumption to save costs. • All the necessary access control systems, CCTV cameras and building management systems guard this important and security Sensitive installation.
  35. 35. STRUCTURE Beyond typical gravity and seismic loads on the roof, special loading considerations were taken for the cable wall which applies a significant wind load to the roof structure and whose cables are pre-stressed against the roof trusses at the northern end of the terminal. The wind loading also presented challenges as a significant portion of the Headhouse Roof is open to the outdoors and behaves as a canopy. In order to create one of the largest roofs in the world without an expansion joint, the roof mega-columns and steel roof structure were kept completely independent from the base concrete structures below. Large openings in the concrete base structure allow the mega-columns to pass through as well as create architectural design features. In response to the functional requirement . of the space below the roof, the entire Headhous e Roof is supported on just 30 composite mega-columns. Headhouse Roof construction photographs: top, terminal buil ding panorama; Headhouse roof to left, May 2012; middle, Headhouse Roof over departure level roadway, February 2012; bottom, stages of column pod installation
  36. 36. Unidirectional Cable Wall System Another unique feature of this project is the cable wall exterior cladding system. The Terminal Buildin g features two separate cable wall systems totaling over 1 km in length and 11 000 m2 in area, making it the longest and largest cable wall in the world. It includes a number of unique features that create various challenges in the design and detailing of the structure. Both cable walls comprise unidirectional cables spanning vertically between two levels of the terminal Structure. After establishing the appropriate gravity and wind loads, a finite element was built including the cables and support structure.Wrapping metal deck slabs in-filled between concrete moment frame systems. At all locations , the regular grid system has resulted in the repetitive use of concrete formwork and economy in construction. Cable wall corner condition Expansionjoint 15 M High cable wall with vestibules Expansion joint Cble wall corner condition Expansion joint Expansion joint Variable height cable wall with backup system Curved cable wall as clearstory 1. Cable wall plan and support conditions; 2. Headhouse Roof and cable wall wind tunnel study model; 3. cable wall structural analysis model with back-up systems 1 2 3
  37. 37. Cable wall construction photographs (clockwise from top left) varying-height cable wall with steel column back-up system; cable wall at entrance vestibule; departure level cable wall with column pod beyond; curved cable wall along cleresto ry zone; departure level cable wall connected directly to Headhouse Roof
  38. 38. Three-dimensional structural model of Headhouse Roof framing; (b) section through Headhouse Roof 4 m Truss depth 9 m Truss depth 40 m Cantilever64 m Truss span Waffle slab 40 m Cantilever 64 m Span 34 m Span
  39. 39. SCOPE AND SCALE • The size and scale of the project is difficult to appreciate by photography alone. The components manufactured were unusually large and complex. Standard coffers were 2.8M x 2.7M (9’-2L” x 8’-9W”). • Column shafts were 3M (10’-0”)W x 4M (13’-0”)L x 8M tall (26’-0”) • Column capitals were 7M tall (22’-0”) and 34M (111’-0) in diameter, and made up of 320 pieces • The scope of components supplied included: – Standard coffers – 3,055 – Coffer caps – 1,249 – Capital perimeter parts – 879 – Capital parts – 5,017 – Column shafts – 2,470 – Domes and troughs – 183 – Perimeter coffers – 326 – Skylights – 1,969 •
  40. 40. • Shell and Core • 10 lakh cu.m of concrete • 58,000 t of reinforcement bar • 36,000 t of structural steel • 36,000 sq.m of skylight • 1.4 lakh sq.m of membrane roofing • 28,000 sq.m of façade • 12,000 sq.m of cable net wall • 30 free-standing mega columns