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Libraries: technology as artifact and technology in practice

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Libraries: technology as artifact and technology in practice

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Research and learning workflows are increasingly enacted in data-rich network environments. New behaviors are emerging which are shaped by and in turn shape workflow and data tools and services. This means that library attention is shifting from not only providing support systems and services but to supporting those behaviors more directly as they emerge. This support may take the form of particular system or services, but will also involve consulting and advising about such things as publication venues, reputation management, profiles, research networking.

A keynote presentation given at the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities CITM and Library Deans meeting. Loyola University, Maryland.

Research and learning workflows are increasingly enacted in data-rich network environments. New behaviors are emerging which are shaped by and in turn shape workflow and data tools and services. This means that library attention is shifting from not only providing support systems and services but to supporting those behaviors more directly as they emerge. This support may take the form of particular system or services, but will also involve consulting and advising about such things as publication venues, reputation management, profiles, research networking.

A keynote presentation given at the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities CITM and Library Deans meeting. Loyola University, Maryland.

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Libraries: technology as artifact and technology in practice

  1. 1. Libraries: from technology artifacts to technology in practice 2015 AJCU-CITM / Library Deans Conference at Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, 18 May 15 Lorcan Dempsey @LorcanD https://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelfoleyphotography/8673516232
  2. 2. P Pix https://www.flickr.com/photos/27851954@N08/3888840197/
  3. 3. http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~bump/images/Hopkins/HopkinsRegis/statuesetting.jpg
  4. 4. http://rudr.coalliance.org/fedora/repository/codr:2850
  5. 5. 2 11. The network reshapes society and society reshapes the network 2. Cell phones and mobility as a service 3 library examples 1. Citation management 2. Institutional repositories and research workflow 3. Discovery and discoverability 3 The social and the technical 1. Organization 2. Rightscaling 3. The library in the life of the user 3 issues
  6. 6. Overview
  7. 7. Preamble: the AJCU collective collection (thanks to Constance Malpas for the analysis here)
  8. 8. 0 160 320 480 640 800 960 1,120 1,280 1,440 1,600 Thousands AJCU Library* Holdings in WorldCat March 2015 Collection size/scope varies widely *Lacking St Joseph’s and St Peter’s
  9. 9. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% WorldCat Duplication of Titles Held in AJCU Libraries <5 libraries 5 to 9 10 to 24 25 to 99 >99 libraries Systemwide duplication of holdings is high > 99 libraries median: 81% <5 libraries median : 1%
  10. 10. 15 most comprehensive collections related to: 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% SAINT LOUIS UNIV BOSTON COL WOODSTOCK THEOL CTR (GEORGETOWN UNIV) LIBRARY OF CONGRESS YALE UNIV HARVARD UNIV LOYOLA UNIV OF CHICAGO MARQUETTE UNIV FORDHAM UNIV UNIV OF NOTRE DAME DALTON MCCAUGHEY LIBR UNIV OF TORONTO REGIS COL UNIV OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY COLUMBIA UNIV PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY Saint Ignatius of Loyola, 1491-1556 Total related works in WorldCat = 1,681 6 of the top 15 collections are held by AJCU members
  11. 11. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE BIBLIOTHEQUE NAT & UNIV STRASBOURG BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE-GENEVIEVE BM LYON ECOLE NATIONALE DE CHARTES STATE RES LIBR, OLOMOUC MADRID-CASA DE VELÁZQUEZ PARIS-ENS-ULM LSH RENNES2-BU CENTRALE BOSTON COL CLERMONT FD-BCIU-PATRIMOINE UNIV OF MICHIGAN COLLEGE OF THE HOLY CROSS UNIV OF NOTRE DAME UNIV OF SAN FRANCISCO Carlos Sommervogel, 1834-1902 Total related works in WorldCat =74 15 most comprehensive collections related to: AJCU libraries hold the largest collections outside of Europe
  12. 12. 15 most comprehensive collections related to: 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% LIBRARY OF CONGRESS HARVARD UNIV GRADUATE THEOL UNION YALE UNIV SAINT LOUIS UNIV GEORGETOWN UNIV COLUMBIA UNIV DUKE UNIV LIBR NEW YORK PUB LIBR UNIV OF CALIFORNIA, SRLF STANFORD UNIV UCLA UNIV OF NOTRE DAME CORNELL UNIV PRINCETON UNIV Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 1881-1955 Total related works in WorldCat = 1,294 AJCU collections rival those of much larger research institutions
  13. 13. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% GONZAGA UNIV LIBRARY OF CONGRESS UNC, CHAPEL HILL NEW YORK PUB LIBR BOSTON COL UNIV OF OXFORD HARVARD UNIV CORNELL UNIV COLUMBIA UNIV YALE UNIV LIBR UNIV OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY BAKER & TAYLOR PRINCETON UNIV STANFORD UNIV CAMBRIDGE UNIV Gerard Manley Hopkins, 1844-1889 Total related works in WorldCat = 1,411 15 most comprehensive collections related to: Gonzaga University library provides unparalleled coverage
  14. 14. Note: Georgetown University has the most comprehensive collections about Graham Greene. Gonzaga collections built around interests of Fr Anthony Bischoff, S.J.
  15. 15. The social and the technical
  16. 16. NetworkedAutomated Internet of Things Pervasive Sensors Mobile/Cloud Location Analytics Industrial internet Socio-technical Informationalization Socio-digitization ?
  17. 17. Technology as artifact Technology in practice Emergent workflow/behaviors The technical reshapes the social – the social reshapes the technical I borrow artifact/practice terms from Wanda Orlikowski, 2000. Using Technology and Constituting Structures: A Practice Lens for Studying Technology in Organizations
  18. 18. Technology in practice: an example Cell phone and mobility
  19. 19. Micro- coordination Ad hoc rendezvous Situational Tying place and network. Maps Visual Tying place, network and image Cell Phone
  20. 20. Vesco, the politician responsible for sustainable transport in Lyon, played a leading role in introducing the city’s Vélo’v bike- sharing scheme a decade ago. “Digital information is the fuel of mobility,” he says. “Some transport sociologists say that information about mobility is 50% of mobility. The car will become an accessory to the smartphone.” End of the car age: how cities are outgrowing the automobile http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/apr/28/end-of-the-car-age-how-cities- outgrew-the-automobile http://peterblade.blogspot.com/2012/05/inauguration-du-showroom-peter-blade.html
  21. 21. 22 http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-07/uber-is-winning-over-americans-expense-accounts Mobility as a service http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/apr/28/end-of-the-car-age-how-cities-outgrew-the-automobile
  22. 22. “Uber – has effectively become the vascular system for business … or think of it this way: it is the broadband pipe for atoms.” “Uber looks like a taxi business but really it's all about routing - it's trying to unbundle both car ownership and public transport and shift roads from circuit-switching to packet-switching.” B Evans. http://us6.campaign- archive2.com/?u=b98e2de85f03865f1d38de74f&id=ac5933501b “More and more, Uber is positioning itself as a logistics company. The goal is to deliver people and things within cities as quickly as possible — relying heavily on Google’s Maps in the process..” NYT May 7 2015
  23. 23. Uber drivers— and other “on-demand” workers— have become increasingly vocal as the question the rights of these enterprises to operate outside of minimum wage laws, anti-discrimination statutes, workers’ compensation laws, and union- organizing rights. … In a Wall Street Journal article about on-demand employment, One worker tells the WSJ, ‘We are not robots; we are not a remote control; we are individuals…” http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/the-digital-debate/shoshana-zuboff-on-the-sharing-economy-13500770-p4.html Shoshana Zuboff on the sharing economy.
  24. 24. http://www.log.com.tr/google-akilli-ev-urunleri-firmasi-nesti-satin-aldi/
  25. 25. Health, Education, Transport Systemwide, policy, …. Behaviors, firms Running on data: Activity trackers and the Internet of Things http://dupress.com/articles/internet-of-things-wearable-technology/
  26. 26. A communication device. Connecting identity, place and workflows to reshape industries and behaviors. This: And this:
  27. 27. 3 library examples Citation management Institutional repository > workflow is the new content Discovery and discoverability
  28. 28. Technology as practice Emergent behaviors/workflows Citation management
  29. 29. So in a relatively short time, a solitary and manual function has evolved into a workflow enacted in a social and digital environment. In addition to functional value, this change has added network value, as individual users benefit from the community of use. People can make connections and find new work, and the network generates analytics which may be used for recommendations or scholarly metrics. In this way, for some people, citation management has evolved from being a single function in a broader workflow into a workflow manager, discovery engine, and social network. Dempsey & Walter, 2014
  30. 30. Provide and promote reference manager products. Support – and help shape - emerging practices around citation management, research networking and profiles. This: And this:
  31. 31. Technology as practice Emergent behaviors/workflows Institutional repository > workflow is the new content
  32. 32. In a well-known article, Salo (2008) offers a variety of reasons as to why they have not been as heavily used as anticipated. These include a lack of attention to faculty incentives (‘prestige’) and to campus workflows. She concludes that IRs will not be successful unless developed as a part of “systematic, broad-based, well-supported data-stewardship, scholarly-communication, or digital-preservation program”. Providing technology as artifact > Supporting emerging practices
  33. 33. http://www.slideshare.net/repofringe/e-prints42y EPrints Update, Les Carr, University of Southampton, Repository Fringe, 2014
  34. 34. Framing the Scholarly Record …
  35. 35. In practice …
  36. 36. Her view is that publishers are here to make the scientific research process more effective by helping them keep up to date, find colleagues, plan experiments, and then share their results. After they have published, the processes continues with gaining a reputation, obtaining funds, finding collaborators, and even finding a new job. What can we as publishers do to address some of scientists’ pain points? Annette Thomas, (then) CEO of Macmillan Publishers A publisher’s new job description http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
  37. 37. Support - and help shape - emerging practices around the complete research life cycle. Provide system to manage research outputs. This: And this:
  38. 38. Technology as practice Emergent behaviors/workflows Discovery and discoverability
  39. 39.  arXiv, SSRN, RePEc, PubMed Central (disciplinary repositories that have become important discovery hubs);  Google Scholar, Google Books, Amazon (ubiquitous discovery and fulfillment hubs);  Mendeley, ResearchGate (services for social discovery and scholarly reputation management);  Goodreads, LibraryThing (social description/reading sites);  Wikipedia, Yahoo Answers, Khan Academy (hubs for open research, reference, and teaching materials).  GalaxyZoo, FigShare, OpenRefine (data storage and manipulation tools)  Github (software management)
  40. 40. “...Google doesn’t judge you.” (UKF3, Male, Age 52) Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cubmundo/6184306158/
  41. 41. “I just type it into Google and see what comes up.” (UKS2) “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, “Don’t use Wikipedia.” (USU7, Female, Age 19) Learning Black Market Image: http://wp.me/pLtlj-fH
  42. 42. Discovery is not just … the discovery layer Discovery often happens elsewhere. Discovery is enacted in emerging behaviors/workflows. Put library resources in the workflow Make institutional resources more discoverable.
  43. 43. Resolver configuration. How do you engage with researcher profiling, reputation management, research information management, ….?
  44. 44. Expertise Special collections Research and learning materials In few collections In many collections A Licensed Purchased Outside, in OCLC Collections Grid Distinctive Library as broker Maximise efficiency Low Stewardship High Stewardship Available Inside, out Library as provider Maximise discoverability
  45. 45. Reputation management • Expertise and profiling • Identity • Make the institution, expertise, research outputs, discoverable, … • New Knowledge work ( Kenning Arlitsch)
  46. 46.  Are library resources visible where people are doing their work, in the search engines, in citation management tools, and so on?  Is library expertise visible when people are searching for things? Can a library user discover a personal contact easily? Are there photographs of librarians on the website? The University of Michigan has a nice feature where it returns relevant subject librarians in top level searches.  Are there blogs about special collections or distinctive services or expertise, which can be indexed and found on search engines? Are links to relevant special collections or archives created in Wikipedia. Can researchers configure a resolver in Scholar, Mendeley or other services?  As attention shifts from collections to services, are library services described in such a way that they are discoverable? On the website? In search engines? Is SEO a routine part of development? Schema?  Is metadata for resources shared with all relevant services? DPLA? WorldCat?  Do faculty have Orcids? Discovery is more than the discovery layer. Discovery often happens elsewhere. Make institutional resources discoverable (inside-out).
  47. 47. Provide a discovery product to facilitate access to library collections. Support – and help shape - emerging practices around discoverability of institutional, faculty and other resources. This: And this: Make links to library collections available in emerging user workflows.
  48. 48. 3 interesting issues Organization Rightscaling Users
  49. 49. Convergence, boundaries, cooperation IT and Library ‘Digital’ Network Compute Storage Security Workflow Data Learning management, Library, research support, Press, …. Older model of integration: Integration around artifact: IT and Library organization. Common in the UK and some other sectors in 90s. A new model of integration: Integrate around practices? Shared support for data management, research and learning workflows, ..
  50. 50. Rightscaling Collections, systems, services Local Shared Third party Every institution cannot do everything. At what level should things be done? Consortial? Network level third party services? Institutional? Institutions have to make decisions about where they can make a distinctive impact, and where they should share or outsource.
  51. 51. Our traditional model was one in which we thought of the user in the life of the library … but we are now increasingly thinking about the library in the life of the user as they enact new research and learning practices.
  52. 52. • Investigate & describe user-owned digital literacies – what people really do. • Visitors and residents. • Position the library to support emerging research and learning practices. http://www.oclc.org/research/themes/user-studies/vandr.html?urlm=168948
  53. 53. And …
  54. 54. 66
  55. 55. Manage systems and services to support research and learning. Support – and help shape - emerging research and learning behaviors enacted in data-rich network environments. This: And this:
  56. 56. Libraries: from technology artifacts to technology in practice 2015 AJCU-CITM / Library Deans Conference at Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, 18 May 15 Lorcan Dempsey @LorcanD https://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelfoleyphotography/8673516232

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • http://global.oup.com/uk/orc/busecon/economics/carlin/
  • “And also the fact that Google doesn’t judge you.” Digital Visitors and Residents (UKF3 0:16:35 Male Age 52)

    “I don’t know, it’s habit. I know what it looks like and how to use it.” Digital Visitors and Residents (UKU9 0:19:06  Male Age 27) (speaking about Google)
     
    “I find Google a lot easier than going to the library website because I don’t know, it’s just like sometimes so many journals come up and when you look at the first ten and they just don’t make any sense I, kind of, give up.” Digital Visitors and Residents (USU7 0:34:11 Female Age 19)
  • Image: http://wp.me/pLtlj-fH
    Covert online study habits
    Wikipedia
    Don’t cite
    Widely used
    Guilt
    Students & teachers disagree
    Quality sources

    There is a “Learning Black Market”: learners use non-traditional sources but feel they cannot talk about them in an institutional context. Wikipedia usage is an example of this. (White & Connaway, 2011)

    White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049
     
     “I mean if teachers don’t like using Wikipedia they don’t want you to use Wikipedia. A lot of students will still use Wikipedia and then cite another source. As long as it has the same information and it is not word for word or anything they’ll use Wikipedia because it is the easiest thing to go look up on Wikipedia. It will give you a full in-depth detailed thing about the information. Teachers don’t just like it because it’s not the most reliable source since anyone can post something on there even though the site is monitored, it’s because it’s too easy.” (USU3 0:30:59, Male Age 19)
      
    Students’ Perceptions of Teachers’ opinions of Wikipedia:
    “Avoid it.” (UKS8 0:28:28.3, Female Age 16)
      
    “They say it’s because anyone can make up – I mean, anyone can add information on there but I mean when I’ve actually looked into information it seemed the same as any information I find anywhere else. I mean, it’s not like if you look up fourth of July, it’s not like it gives you like some weird explanation of aliens or something.” (USU7 0:33:14, Female Age 19)
     
    Students’ on Wikipedia:
    “I use it, kind of like, I won't cite it on my papers but I, kind of, use it as a like, as a start off line. I go there and look up the general information, kind of, read through it so I get a general idea what it is. Then I start going through my research.” (USU7 0:33:49, Female Age 19)
     
    “Everyone knows that you try not to use Wikipedia as a source because it is a cardinal sin.” (UKU3 0:31:03, Female Age 19)
  • Not just about ‘special’ collections
  • In the UK in the 80s and 90s it was common for Libraries and IT to merge. At one stage over 50% of universities had this model. It was also adopted elsewhere. This belongs to an earlier stage, when it was thought possible to isolate technology-as-artifact – all the ‘digital’ stuff was being put together.

    As the digital has become more pervasive I had thought we would see a differently structured integration emerge, where the ‘infrastructure’ was managed by one group (network, compute, storage, security, …), and research and learning workflows were managed in a more integrated way in some new organizational contexts. For example, think about learning management, research support, data curation, university press, and so on.

    In practice we have not see this happened widely. It will be interesting to see how services do emerge to meet the needs of research and learning behaviors increasingly enacted in data-rich, network environments.

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