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Libraries, collections, technology
Lorcan Dempsey & Constance Malpas, OCLC Research
@LorcanD
Penn State University Library, State College, PA March 3 2016
https://collection1.libraries.psu.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/rabin/id/2363/
Complementary!
PSU Collections
Technology reshapes
practice; practice reshapes
technology
Web sightings
Collections and service
reconfiguration
The facilitated collection
Collection environment
Some notes about
assessment
1
52
4
63
PSU collections
4
1
Penn State in WorldCat
UPM – Penn State, University Park
MHY – Penn State, Hershey
GH4 – Penn State, Erie
UVC – Penn State, Harrisburg
PU9 – Penn State, Harrisburg - Marshall Collection
UPC – Penn State, Commonwealth
XO4 – Penn State, Berks
TODAY’S FOCUS
http://chronicle.com/interactives/peers-network
Penn State mostly compares itself to other
public doctoral universities (in the mid-west)
3,603,061
0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000
Purdue U
U of Pittsburgh
Michigan State U
U of Iowa
Penn State U, University Park
Ohio State U
U of Minnesota-Twin Cities
U of Wisconsin, Madison
U of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
U of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Holdings in WorldCat
Penn State Peers - Holdings in WorldCat
OCLC Research, data current as of February 2016
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Purdue U
U of Pittsburgh
Michigan State U
U of Iowa
Penn State U, University Park
Ohio State U
U of Minnesota-Twin Cities
U of Wisconsin, Madison
U of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
U of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Penn State Peers - Duplication in WorldCat
<5 libraries 5 to 9 10 to 24 25 to 99 >99 libraries
OCLC Research, data current as of February 2016
More distinctive More common or ‘core’
Median overlap = 34%
Penn State overlap = 35%
ARL HathiTrust Duplication October 2015
TitlesOCLC Research, data current as of October 2015
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
18%
20%
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Percentchange Change in Number of ARL Titles Duplicated in HathiTrust
Oct 2014 to Oct 2015
Avg. increase of 5% YOY in number
of titles duplicated in HathiTrust
OCLC Research, data current as of October 2015
Penn State saw the greatest increase
1,244,988
“Centers”
OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013
Penn State holds more titles
related to these topics than
any other library in WorldCat
… but holding ‘many titles’ does
not necessarily equate to
complete coverage of a topic
PSU holds more than 4,500
titles related to civil rights of
African Americans
“Coverage”
OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013
Subject areas for which Penn State’s
collection is most comprehensive
relative to other topics in the collection
Coverage is generally inversely
proportional to the size of the
global corpus
Despite holding more titles
about the civil rights of
African Americans, PSU is
more comprehensive with
respect to Civil rights
movements in general
31%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV
CLEVELAND PUB LIBR
UNIV OF S CAROLINA
BOSTON PUB LIBR
UNIV OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI
GEORGETOWN UNIV, LAW LIBR
AUBURN UNIV
UNIV OF WASHINGTON LIBR
PAPERS OF THE NAACP
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV
DUKE UNIV LIBR
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
UNIV OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
PRINCETON UNIV
WASEDA UNIV LIBR
Civil Rights Movements
total related works = 7,226
OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013
Top 15 most comprehensive
collections related to:
“Coverage requires
collaboration” – local
excellence can be enhanced
through partnerships
Technology reshapes practice;
practice reshapes technology
Citation management
Institutional repository
2
Citation management
So in a relatively short time, a solitary and manual
function has evolved into a workflow enacted in a
social and digital environment. In addition to
functional value, this change has added network
value, as individual users benefit from the community
of use. People can make connections and find new
work, and the network generates analytics which may
be used for recommendations or scholarly metrics. In
this way, for some people, citation management has
evolved from being a single function in a broader
workflow into a workflow manager, discovery engine,
and social network.
Dempsey & Walter, 2014
http://crl.acrl.org/content/75/6/760.full.pdf+html
Identity > workflow > content
Provide and promote reference manager
products.
Support – and help shape - emerging
practices around citation management,
research networking and profiles.
This:
And this:
Institutional repository > workflow is the new content
In a well-known article, Salo (2008) offers a variety of
reasons as to why they have not been as heavily used
as anticipated. These include a lack of attention to
faculty incentives (‘prestige’) and to campus
workflows. She concludes that IRs will not be
successful unless developed as a part of “systematic,
broad-based, well-supported data-stewardship,
scholarly-communication, or digital-preservation
program”.
Providing technology as artifact >
Supporting emerging practices
http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/22088
http://www.slideshare.net/repofringe/e-prints42y
EPrints Update, Les Carr, University
of Southampton, Repository Fringe, 2014
1
2
3
2
3
1
Framing the Scholarly Record …
In practice …
Scholarly
publishing
Expertise
profiling
Research data
management
CRIS/Research
information
management
Institutional
repository
26
Support - and help shape - emerging
practices around the complete research
life cycle.
Provide system to manage
documentary research outputs.
This:
And this:
Her view is that publishers are
here to make the scientific
research process more
effective by helping them keep
up to date, find colleagues, plan
experiments, and then share
their results. After they have
published, the processes
continues with gaining a
reputation, obtaining funds,
finding collaborators, and even
finding a new job. What can
we as publishers do to
address some of scientists’
pain points?
Annette Thomas,
CEO of Macmillan
Publishers
(now Chief Scientific Officer
Springer Nature)
A
publisher’s
new job
description
http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
Web sightings:
Collections in a new
service configuration
3
Discovery at network
level
Support for research/creation Local collectionsPlace
Place Support for research/creationLocal collections Student success
Collection
environment
4
The logic of print distribution influenced
library development:
• Close to user – multiple library
collections.
• Big = good.
• Just in case.
1
The bubble of growth in
twentieth-century
printed collections has left …
librarians
with a tricky problem.
Barbara Fister
New Roles for the Road Ahead:
Essays commissioned for ACRL’s 75th Birthday
An abundance of resources in the network world
2
Discovery moved to the network level
• Peeled away from local collection
• “Discovery happens elsewhere”
• Discoverability very important
(WorldCat syndication)
3
From consumption to creation:
• Support process as well as product, making as
well as taking
• Workflow is the new content..
• Support for publishing and digital scholarship.
• An inside out perspective increasingly
important.
4
A PRINT LOGIC A NETWORK LOGIC
The user in the life of the library The library in the life of the user
Manage the products of research
(books, articles, …)
Make the whole life cycle of process of
research and learning more productive.
Value relates to locally assembled
collection.
Value relates to ability to efficiently meet
a variety of research and learning needs.
http://www.xkcd.com/917/
Product Process
Owned Facilitated
Outside in Inside out
Towards the facilitated
collection
5
The ‘owned’
collection
The ‘facilitated’
collection
A collections spectrum
Purchased and
physically stored
Meet research and
learning needs in best way
A network logic: a coordinated mix of local,
external and collaborative services are
assembled around user needs
A print logic: the distribution of
print copies to multiple local
destinations
The ‘external’ collection:
Pointing researchers at Google Scholar;
Including freely available ebooks in the catalog;
Creating resource guides for web resources.
The ‘owned’
collection
The ‘facilitated’
collection
The ‘borrowed’
collection
A collections spectrum
The ‘shared
print’
collection
The ‘shared
digital’
collection
The evolving
scholarly
record
Purchased and
physically stored
Meet research and
learning needs in best way
The ‘licensed’
collection
The ‘demand-
driven’
collection
Collaboration requires ‘conscious coordination’
Rightscaling – optimum scale?
The ‘borrowed’
collection
The ‘shared
print’
collection
The ‘shared
digital’
collection
The evolving
scholarly
record
Assessment questions
6
“Rather than
constructing
archipelagoes of
isolated collections,
increasingly libraries
are seeking to create
ecosystems of
shared collections.”
Karla Strieb
“Collaboration: The
Master Key to Unlocking
Twenty-First-Century
Library Collections” in
Shared Collections:
Collaborative
Stewardship (ALCTS,
2016)
Collections Assessment -- Issues
• Value closely associated with size, scope of local
inventory
• Just-in-case acquisitions model favors volume
counts over use or utility metrics
• Purchased/owned = institutional assets
• Collection excellence relies on partnerships
(licensed, DDA, shared print, shared digital)
• Continuous de-selection and “re-selection”
maintains collection value
• Curation of locally created content is growing in
importance
THEN:
NOW:
PRINT LOGIC
NETWORK LOGIC
Collections Assessment -- Scale
• How can patterns in the system-wide
collection inform local decision-making?
LOCAL:
GLOBAL:
• Are we maximizing the value of existing
partnerships? EZ-Borrow, CIC, HathiTrust
etc.
GROUP:
• Do we have the right balance of ‘outside-in’
and ‘inside-out’ attention and investment?
Conclusion
The practices of research and learning are changing.
Research and learning outputs are diversifying.
Some emerging themes:
Creation and Curation
• Libraries are supporting the process as well as the products
of research.
Inside out
• Management and disclosure of institutional materials.
Facilitated collection
• Coordinated mix of local, external and collaborative services
are assembled around user needs
Conscious coordination
• The print and digital scholarly record needs conscious
coordination at the network level.
@LorcanD
@ConstanceM
http://www.oclc.org/research
Credits
This presentation reflects ongoing shared work with our
colleague Brian Lavoie. Thanks to our colleague JD
Shipengrover for graphics.
• The Evolving Scholarly Record
http://oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-evolving-scholarly-record-2014.pdf
• Understanding the Collective Collection
http://oclc.org/research/publications/library/2013/2013-09r.html
• Collection Directions
http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-collection-directions-preprint-
2014.pdf
• Stewardship of the Evolving Scholarly Record
http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-esr-stewardship-2015.html
53

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Libraries Reshape Collections Practices

  • 1. Libraries, collections, technology Lorcan Dempsey & Constance Malpas, OCLC Research @LorcanD Penn State University Library, State College, PA March 3 2016 https://collection1.libraries.psu.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/rabin/id/2363/
  • 3. PSU Collections Technology reshapes practice; practice reshapes technology Web sightings Collections and service reconfiguration The facilitated collection Collection environment Some notes about assessment 1 52 4 63
  • 5. Penn State in WorldCat UPM – Penn State, University Park MHY – Penn State, Hershey GH4 – Penn State, Erie UVC – Penn State, Harrisburg PU9 – Penn State, Harrisburg - Marshall Collection UPC – Penn State, Commonwealth XO4 – Penn State, Berks TODAY’S FOCUS
  • 6. http://chronicle.com/interactives/peers-network Penn State mostly compares itself to other public doctoral universities (in the mid-west)
  • 7. 3,603,061 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 Purdue U U of Pittsburgh Michigan State U U of Iowa Penn State U, University Park Ohio State U U of Minnesota-Twin Cities U of Wisconsin, Madison U of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign U of Michigan, Ann Arbor Holdings in WorldCat Penn State Peers - Holdings in WorldCat OCLC Research, data current as of February 2016
  • 8. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Purdue U U of Pittsburgh Michigan State U U of Iowa Penn State U, University Park Ohio State U U of Minnesota-Twin Cities U of Wisconsin, Madison U of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign U of Michigan, Ann Arbor Penn State Peers - Duplication in WorldCat <5 libraries 5 to 9 10 to 24 25 to 99 >99 libraries OCLC Research, data current as of February 2016 More distinctive More common or ‘core’
  • 9. Median overlap = 34% Penn State overlap = 35% ARL HathiTrust Duplication October 2015 TitlesOCLC Research, data current as of October 2015
  • 10. 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percentchange Change in Number of ARL Titles Duplicated in HathiTrust Oct 2014 to Oct 2015 Avg. increase of 5% YOY in number of titles duplicated in HathiTrust OCLC Research, data current as of October 2015 Penn State saw the greatest increase 1,244,988
  • 11. “Centers” OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013 Penn State holds more titles related to these topics than any other library in WorldCat … but holding ‘many titles’ does not necessarily equate to complete coverage of a topic PSU holds more than 4,500 titles related to civil rights of African Americans
  • 12. “Coverage” OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013 Subject areas for which Penn State’s collection is most comprehensive relative to other topics in the collection Coverage is generally inversely proportional to the size of the global corpus Despite holding more titles about the civil rights of African Americans, PSU is more comprehensive with respect to Civil rights movements in general
  • 13. 31% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV CLEVELAND PUB LIBR UNIV OF S CAROLINA BOSTON PUB LIBR UNIV OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI GEORGETOWN UNIV, LAW LIBR AUBURN UNIV UNIV OF WASHINGTON LIBR PAPERS OF THE NAACP JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV DUKE UNIV LIBR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS UNIV OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN PRINCETON UNIV WASEDA UNIV LIBR Civil Rights Movements total related works = 7,226 OCLC Research, based on analysis of FAST headings and WorldCat holdings as of March 2013 Top 15 most comprehensive collections related to: “Coverage requires collaboration” – local excellence can be enhanced through partnerships
  • 14. Technology reshapes practice; practice reshapes technology Citation management Institutional repository 2
  • 16. So in a relatively short time, a solitary and manual function has evolved into a workflow enacted in a social and digital environment. In addition to functional value, this change has added network value, as individual users benefit from the community of use. People can make connections and find new work, and the network generates analytics which may be used for recommendations or scholarly metrics. In this way, for some people, citation management has evolved from being a single function in a broader workflow into a workflow manager, discovery engine, and social network. Dempsey & Walter, 2014 http://crl.acrl.org/content/75/6/760.full.pdf+html
  • 17. Identity > workflow > content
  • 18. Provide and promote reference manager products. Support – and help shape - emerging practices around citation management, research networking and profiles. This: And this:
  • 19. Institutional repository > workflow is the new content
  • 20. In a well-known article, Salo (2008) offers a variety of reasons as to why they have not been as heavily used as anticipated. These include a lack of attention to faculty incentives (‘prestige’) and to campus workflows. She concludes that IRs will not be successful unless developed as a part of “systematic, broad-based, well-supported data-stewardship, scholarly-communication, or digital-preservation program”. Providing technology as artifact > Supporting emerging practices http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/22088
  • 21. http://www.slideshare.net/repofringe/e-prints42y EPrints Update, Les Carr, University of Southampton, Repository Fringe, 2014 1 2 3 2 3 1
  • 22. Framing the Scholarly Record …
  • 24.
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Support - and help shape - emerging practices around the complete research life cycle. Provide system to manage documentary research outputs. This: And this:
  • 28. Her view is that publishers are here to make the scientific research process more effective by helping them keep up to date, find colleagues, plan experiments, and then share their results. After they have published, the processes continues with gaining a reputation, obtaining funds, finding collaborators, and even finding a new job. What can we as publishers do to address some of scientists’ pain points? Annette Thomas, CEO of Macmillan Publishers (now Chief Scientific Officer Springer Nature) A publisher’s new job description http://www.against-the-grain.com/2012/11/a-publishers-new-job-description/
  • 29. Web sightings: Collections in a new service configuration 3
  • 30. Discovery at network level Support for research/creation Local collectionsPlace
  • 31. Place Support for research/creationLocal collections Student success
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 36. The logic of print distribution influenced library development: • Close to user – multiple library collections. • Big = good. • Just in case. 1
  • 37. The bubble of growth in twentieth-century printed collections has left … librarians with a tricky problem. Barbara Fister New Roles for the Road Ahead: Essays commissioned for ACRL’s 75th Birthday
  • 38. An abundance of resources in the network world 2
  • 39. Discovery moved to the network level • Peeled away from local collection • “Discovery happens elsewhere” • Discoverability very important (WorldCat syndication) 3
  • 40. From consumption to creation: • Support process as well as product, making as well as taking • Workflow is the new content.. • Support for publishing and digital scholarship. • An inside out perspective increasingly important. 4
  • 41. A PRINT LOGIC A NETWORK LOGIC The user in the life of the library The library in the life of the user Manage the products of research (books, articles, …) Make the whole life cycle of process of research and learning more productive. Value relates to locally assembled collection. Value relates to ability to efficiently meet a variety of research and learning needs. http://www.xkcd.com/917/ Product Process Owned Facilitated Outside in Inside out
  • 43. The ‘owned’ collection The ‘facilitated’ collection A collections spectrum Purchased and physically stored Meet research and learning needs in best way A network logic: a coordinated mix of local, external and collaborative services are assembled around user needs A print logic: the distribution of print copies to multiple local destinations
  • 44. The ‘external’ collection: Pointing researchers at Google Scholar; Including freely available ebooks in the catalog; Creating resource guides for web resources. The ‘owned’ collection The ‘facilitated’ collection The ‘borrowed’ collection A collections spectrum The ‘shared print’ collection The ‘shared digital’ collection The evolving scholarly record Purchased and physically stored Meet research and learning needs in best way The ‘licensed’ collection The ‘demand- driven’ collection
  • 45. Collaboration requires ‘conscious coordination’ Rightscaling – optimum scale? The ‘borrowed’ collection The ‘shared print’ collection The ‘shared digital’ collection The evolving scholarly record
  • 47. “Rather than constructing archipelagoes of isolated collections, increasingly libraries are seeking to create ecosystems of shared collections.” Karla Strieb “Collaboration: The Master Key to Unlocking Twenty-First-Century Library Collections” in Shared Collections: Collaborative Stewardship (ALCTS, 2016)
  • 48. Collections Assessment -- Issues • Value closely associated with size, scope of local inventory • Just-in-case acquisitions model favors volume counts over use or utility metrics • Purchased/owned = institutional assets • Collection excellence relies on partnerships (licensed, DDA, shared print, shared digital) • Continuous de-selection and “re-selection” maintains collection value • Curation of locally created content is growing in importance THEN: NOW: PRINT LOGIC NETWORK LOGIC
  • 49. Collections Assessment -- Scale • How can patterns in the system-wide collection inform local decision-making? LOCAL: GLOBAL: • Are we maximizing the value of existing partnerships? EZ-Borrow, CIC, HathiTrust etc. GROUP: • Do we have the right balance of ‘outside-in’ and ‘inside-out’ attention and investment?
  • 51. The practices of research and learning are changing. Research and learning outputs are diversifying. Some emerging themes: Creation and Curation • Libraries are supporting the process as well as the products of research. Inside out • Management and disclosure of institutional materials. Facilitated collection • Coordinated mix of local, external and collaborative services are assembled around user needs Conscious coordination • The print and digital scholarly record needs conscious coordination at the network level.
  • 53. Credits This presentation reflects ongoing shared work with our colleague Brian Lavoie. Thanks to our colleague JD Shipengrover for graphics. • The Evolving Scholarly Record http://oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-evolving-scholarly-record-2014.pdf • Understanding the Collective Collection http://oclc.org/research/publications/library/2013/2013-09r.html • Collection Directions http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/library/2014/oclcresearch-collection-directions-preprint- 2014.pdf • Stewardship of the Evolving Scholarly Record http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-esr-stewardship-2015.html 53

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Penn State is represented by 7 (or more…) symbols in WorldCat. Some of these have only a handful of holdings or represent a subset of special collections. For the purposes of discussion today, we will focus on collection under the ‘UPM’ symbol, which represents (by far) the largest share of the university library holdings.
  2. NB: based on 2012 IPEDS data
  3. Traditional view of library value: collection size For analysis, we selected the libraries of institutions of PSU’s ‘mutual peers’ – i.e., institutions that PSU identified as a comparator and that PSU had also identified as a comparator. NB: holdings for PSU based on symbol UPM. The Penn State system is represented by multiple symbols in WorldCat. If all PSU symbols were included in this analysis, the figures would look different – but would also be less representative of collection strengths at University Park.
  4. But character of collection also matters. In general, larger libraries will tend to have a greater proportion of rare/distinctive materials – Purdue’s collection is “more common” than Michigan’s. Penn State’s collection is in the middle range of its peers with respect to duplication in WorldCat. It looks most similar to Michigan State on this single (and very broad) parameter. We don’t think that size or ‘distinctiveness’ of a collection are good metrics for judging value or fit with institutional mission, but it is a useful starting point for identifying institutions that face similar kinds of management challenges.
  5. HathiTrust is a good example of a partnership formed around a common need: shared stewardship of digitized collections. Penn State is a member and contributor to HathiTrust. As HT shared print efforts ramp up, understanding the level of duplication between member libraries and the collective HT collection will become more important.
  6. We typically look at the rate of increase in HathiTrust duplication as it relates to the institutional collection – so as the local collection grows or shrinks, the rate of duplication with HathiTrust will change. If we instead look at the absolute number of titles duplicated for each ARL library, we see that there is a healthy growth rate of about 5% year over year. For Penn State, the increase was much greater – almost 19% over the prior year. This is presumably a result of HathiTrust ingesting a large number of titles contributed by PSU.
  7. For the past several years, we have been experimenting with the use of FAST and VIAF identifiers as a tool for clustering institutional holdings. Using FAST (a faceted version of LCSH), we can compare the subject strengths of institutional holdings based on both the total number of titles held and in terms of relative coverage of published literature. Based on a data snapshot from 2013, Penn State ranks first in total number of titles in a wide range of subjects. This word cloud shows a sampling of some of those topics. It is important to recognize that this kind of analysis is based on cataloging data – in some cases the ‘center’ of excellence reflects less about intentional acquisitions than intensive cataloging activity on a small part of the collection. As an example of this, we typically find that flagship campuses of state universities are the ‘center’ of library holdings for publications produced by the university. This is partly because local cataloging practices will tend to include a reference to the corporate identity (corporate name) of the university to improve discoverability in the local system.
  8. We can use our FAST and VIAF data to compare the coverage of institutional holdings in different subject areas. Here, we are looking at a range of subject areas in which PSU’s holdings are relatively comprehensive, compared to other parts of the library collection. This kind of analysis will tend to reveal relatively small pockets of highly-specialized topic areas. For broad topical subjects (American History, English Literature, Political Science), where the global literature is vast, it is quite difficult to achieve substantial coverage. Thus we see that PSU’s coverage of publications by and about PSU is very high. On a title basis, the library will have much larger collections related to other topics in the core curriculum, but its relative coverage of those topics will be quite small. This kind of analysis is most useful as a window into areas where the local collection is ‘coherent’ -- even if the topical areas do not necessarily align with major institutional priorities.
  9. To compute coverage, we first cluster all of the related titles with a given FAST or VIAF heading into FRBR-like worksets. Thus, for the subject area “Civil Rights Movements” we identified more than 7000 related works in WorldCat. The total number of related titles will be somewhat higher than that, since some works are represented by multiple editions. Institutional holdings are then compared to the total related works in WorldCat and ranked against other institutional collections. [More details on how centers and coverage are computed are provided in this blog post by Thom Hickey: http://outgoing.typepad.com/outgoing/2013/05/centers-and-coverage.html] As shown here, based on data from our 2013 snapshot, PSU’s holdings ‘cover’ about 30% of the published works related to Civil Rights Movements. This means that PSU holdings at least one edition (and possibly more) of 30% of the works in this topical area. An institution that has collected every edition of a given work in a topical area, rather than collecting one example of multiple works in that same subject, will be disadvantaged in this kind of analysis because we are measuring coverage of works rather than editions. This kind of analysis can be helpful in identifying institutions with shared collection strengths that might benefit from coordinated curation.
  10. http://global.oup.com/uk/orc/busecon/economics/carlin/
  11. Network logic demands a new kind of collections assessment. Evaluating ecosystems becomes at least as important as analyzing local holdings.
  12. Systemwide perspective for collections assessment – not just about identifying sources of duplication or benchmark collections, but identifying potential partners for collaborative sourcing.
  13. Assessment is increasingly about understanding institutional/group/global context for local collection?