1. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN
ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS
TOPIC: Adverbs: Use and Form
STUDENTS: Erika Yamasque
TEACHER: Magdalena Ullauri
2. ADVERBS: USE AND FORM
What is an Adverb?
Adverb (noun): a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another
adverb, expressing manner, place, time or degree; a word that can
modify a phrase, clause or sentence.
An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb.
The Difference between Adjectives and Adverbs
An Adjective is a word or set of words
that modifies (i.e., describes) a noun or
pronoun. Adjectives may come before
the word they modify.
An adverb is a word or set of words that
modifies verbs, adjectives, or other
That is a cute puppy.
She likes a high school senior.
He speaks slowly. (modifies the verb speaks)
He is especially clever. (modifies the
Fanny is a careful girl. Fanny drives carefully
She is very careful. She drives carefully
Fanny is a ceraful driver. This sentence is about Fanny, the driver, so use the
Fanny drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the
1. - Adverb: We use adverb a bit more flexible because it describes or
modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
Verb + adverb
The adverb describes a verb.
3. Example: He drove carefully.
She sold her house quickly
Adjective + adverb
The adverb describes an adjective
Example: Her necklace was horribly expensive.
She was terribly sorry.
Adverb + adverb
The adverb describes an adverb
Example: They played terribly badly.
He did his homework absolutely correctly.
2. - An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and
answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
Adverb of time (when or where): An adverb of time tells us when
something is done or happens. We use it at the beginning or at the end
of a sentence. We use it as a form of emphasis when we place it at the
beginning. Adverbs of time include afterwards, already, always,
immediately, last month, now, soon, then, and yesterday.
He collapsed and died yesterday.
His factory was burned down a few months ago.
4. Last week, we were stuck in the lift for an hour.
Adverb of place (when or where): An adverb of place tells us where
something is done or happens. We use it after the verb, object or at the
end of a sentence. Adverbs of place include words such as above,
below, here, outside, over there, there, under, upstairs.
We can stop here for lunch.
The schoolboy was knocked over by a school bus.
They rushed for their lives when fire broke out in the floor below.
Adverb of degree (how much or how strongly): An adverb of degree
tells us the level or extent that something is done or happens. Words of
adverb of degree are almost, much, nearly, quite, really, so, too, very,
It was too dark for us to find our way out of the cave. (Before adjective)
Her daughter is quite fat for her age.
The accident victim nearly died from his injuries.
Adverb of frequency (how often): An adverb of frequency tells us how
often something is done or happens. Words used as adverbs of
frequency include again, almost, always, ever, frequently, generally,
hardly ever, nearly, nearly always, never, occasionally, often, rarely,
seldom, sometimes, twice, usually, and weekly.
They were almost fifty when they got married.
Peter seldom reads the Bible.
Sometimes he stays late in the office to complete his work.
Adverb of manner: An adverb of manner tells us how something is done
or happens. Most adverbs of manner end in –ly such as badly, happily,
sadly, slowly, quickly, and others that include well, hard, fast, etc.
The brothers were badly injured in the fight.
They had to act fast to save the others floating in the water.
At the advanced age of 88, she still sang very well.
3. There are other types of adverb.
Linking Adverbs: Linking adverbs show a relationship between two
clauses or sentences (e.g. A sequence in time, cause and effect,
contrast between two things):
I left my house in the morning [sequence] then I went to pick up Leanne
at her house.
[cause]We talked until the early hours and [effect] consequently I
overslept the next morning. (the result of the late night is that I was late
the next morning)
The sun will be shining in France. [contrast] However, heavy rain is
expected in Spain.
Comment Adverbs: Comment adverbs are usually placed before the
verb, but may also appear before the subject of the sentence. If the
comment adverb comes before the subject, separate the adverb and the
subject with a comma.
Subject | adverb | verb | object: I foolishly agreed to meet my
Adverb | subject | verb | object: Foolishly, I agreed to meet my
Clearly, Paul had no idea what he was doing.
Paul had no idea what he was doing, clearly.
Paul clearly had no idea what he was doing.
When the comment adverb is placed after the subject, commas are often used
around the adverb:
- Paul, clearly, had no idea what he was doing.
4. – when a phrase acts as an adverb, we call it an:
Adverbial phrases: are so-called because they can occur in the same
range of positions as single adverbs; but many such adverbial phrases,
paradoxically, do not contain an adverb.
Adverbial phrase (or adverb phrase) is the term for two or more words
which play the role of an adverb.
I will sit in silence. (adverbial phrase)
On Friday night, I'm playing squash
Their marriage broke up in the most painful way.
6. When used to modify a verb, an adverb (including an adverbial phrase and an
adverbial clause) will usually describe when, where, or how something
When (Adverbial Phrase of Time)
An adverbial phrase of time states when something happens or how often. For
I'll do it in a minute.
After the game, the king and pawn go into the same box. (Italian
Do not wait for the last judgment. It takes place every day. (Albert
Where (Adverbial Phrase of Place)
An adverbial phrase of place states where something happens. For example:
I used to work in a fire-hydrant factory. You couldn't park anywhere near
the place. (Steven Wright)
Opera is when a guy gets stabbed in the back and, instead of bleeding,
he sings. (Ed Gardner)
How (Adverbial Phrase of Manner)
An adverbial phrase of manner states how something is done. For example:
He would always talk with a nationalistic tone.
He sings in a low register.
People who say they sleep like a baby usually don't have one. (Leo J.
Prepositional Phrases: Prepositional phrases are groups of words
containing prepositions. Remember that prepositions are words that
indicate the relationships between various elements within a sentence,
and you’ll never have difficulty identifying prepositional phrases. It
normally consists of a preposition and a noun or a preposition and a
Remember the following rules for prepositional phrases and you will find that
using them becomes much easier.
Prepositional phrases always consist of two basic parts at minimum: the
object and the preposition.
In formal English, prepositions are almost always followed by objects.
Adjectives can be placed between the prepositions and objects in
7. Prepositional phrases can act as adverbs or adjectives. When they are
used as adjectives, they modify nouns and pronouns in the same way
single-word adjectives do.
When prepositional phrases are used as adverbs, they at the same way
single-word adverbs and adverb clauses do, modifying adjectives, verbs,
and other adverbs.
The cupcake with sprinkles is yours.
The cupcake with colorful sprinkles is yours.
We climbed up the hill.
We climbed up the very steep hill.
Noun Phrases: A noun phrase is a phrase that plays the role of a noun.
The head word in a noun phrase will be a noun or a pronoun.
I like singing in the bath.
I know the back streets.
I've met the last remaining chief.
Many adverbs end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have
-ly added to its adjective form, place it there to form an adverb.
Adjective + ly
sad sadly quiet quietly
nervous nervously soft softly
The mouse nervously scurried
Adjectives ending in –le form adverbs by changing –le to –ly
Adjectives ending in -le »»» ly
8. terrible terribly capable capably
Adjectives ending in –y form adverbs by changing –y to –ily.
Adjectives ending in -y »»» ily
happy happily angry angrily
Adjectives ending in –y form adverbs by adding =ally
Adjectives ending in –ic >>>>> -ally
Automatic automatically Heroic heroically
The machine gives you your money back automatically.
The soldiers fought heroically.
Some adverbs which end in –ly come from nouns
Adjectives ending in -ly
friendly in a friendly way / manner daily daily
lively in a lively way / manner early early
lonely in a lonely way / manner monthly monthly
9. lovely in a lovely way / manner weekly weekly
silly in a silly way / manner yearly yearly
Some words have the same form whether they are used as adjectives or
good well low low
fast fast straight straight
hard hard extra extra
long long doubtless doubtless
(Adjective) — That is a fast speedboat.
(Adverb) — He stood up so fast he knocked his chair over.
(Adjective) — The ground was hard.
(Adverb) — They all worked hard to meet the project deadline
Some words have double forms
hard hard hardly = kaum
near near nearly = beinahe
late late lately = in letzter Zeit
1. (Jame R. Hurford, Grammar: A Student's Guide. Cambridge Univ. Press,