(digital) Game-Based Learning in
Manufacturing and Business
The many faces of
Philipp Brauner, Martina Ziefle
Human-Comput...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & t...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Context: Part of the Cluster of Excellence
“Integrative Producti...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Our research objective:
Optimize cross-company cooperation
n Opt...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
How can human decision making be investigated?
n Convergence bet...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Short definition of
(digital) Game-Based Learning (GBL)
n Use mo...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Our hypothesis:
Game-based learnings in manufacturing and busine...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Practical Example 1:
The Beer Distribution Game
Objective of the...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Game-Based Learning in Production Engineering:
The „Bullwhip eff...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Our study on the Beer Distribution Game:
Train current or prospe...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Practical Example 2:
A supply chain game with quality management...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Development of business simulation game
n Extension of „Beer Dis...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
n Continuous discussions with experts and users
n 1st prototype
...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
The Quality Management Game’s interface
n Web-based game environ...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Example – Interface evaluation through exchangeable user interfa...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Evaluation of user interfaces:
n Research question:
– Do interfa...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Discussion and Takeaway
n Game-Based Learnings
– Address Millenn...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
n Brauner P, Runge S, Groten M, et al (2013) Human Factors in Su...
RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center
Thank you four your attention!
Summary
n Human Factors Perspecti...
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The many faces of (digital) Game-Based Learning in Manufacturing and Business

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In today’s globalized world, cost pressure, the demand for higher production efficiency, and growing product diversity lead to increasing complexity of manufacturing and business processes. Insufficiently understood human and social factors further increase this complexity. Game-based learning environments and business simulation games can reduce this complexity by identifying and understanding the contributing human factor. Business simulation games can be used (1) to identify and quantify human as well as social factors influencing the effectivity and efficiency, (2) to assess the aptitude of prospective employees and identify suitable training interventions, (3) to improve management and production software, and (4) to present effective, efficient, and entertaining training environments. By allowing employees to investigate cause-and-effect relationships of simulated manufacturing and business environments, they can test and understand the consequences of their actions in safe environments. In this paper, we report a practical case of a business simulation game for conveying quality management strategies. The development of the game is presented along the definition of learning objectives, the underlying System Dynamics model, and the design of the user interface. The evaluation of the game reveals that human factors relate to the simulation’s metrics. Finally, we give guidelines to design and develop game-based simulation and training environments.

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The many faces of (digital) Game-Based Learning in Manufacturing and Business

  1. 1. (digital) Game-Based Learning in Manufacturing and Business The many faces of Philipp Brauner, Martina Ziefle Human-Computer Interaction Center RWTH Aachen University, Germany 6th International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing 2016 (COMA), Stellenbosch, South Africa Brauner P, Ziefle M. How to train employees, identify task-relevant human factors, and improve software systems with Business Simulation Games. Procedings of the 6th International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing 2016, COMA ’16. Stellenbosch, SA; 2016. p. 541–546.
  2. 2. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle page 2 n Human-Human & Human-Technology communication n Design, development, and evaluation of interactive systems – Requirements analysis – Usability & User Experience – Technology Acceptance and risk perception – Human Factors, User Diversity & Aging population Human-Computer Interaction Center at RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  3. 3. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Context: Part of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries” n Goal: Strengthen competitiveness of high wage countries n Engineering of future production systems – New materials and processes – Improved and smarter machinery – Optimize assembly cells, shop floor, cross-company cooperation n > 25 Institutes, > 100 researchers n Funded by German Research Foundation (DFG) page 3 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  4. 4. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Our research objective: Optimize cross-company cooperation n Optimize cross-company supply chains (SC) – Technical factors influencing performance of SCs – Human Factors influencing performance of SCs – Influence of Interface Factors on SCs – Interrelationship of technical, interface, and human factors n Why are humans considered? – Humans make final decision – Overview over not explicitly modelled relationships (e.g., closed-world assumption) – Complexity and uncertainty increases, less time for making decisions Information flow flow of goods Supply Chain page 4 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle Goal: Understand system and user factors that influence efficiency, effectivity, and user satisfaction in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems, Supply Chains and Quality Management.
  5. 5. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center How can human decision making be investigated? n Convergence between field and laboratory study n Simplified & controllable (game-based) environment n Experimentally manipulate complexity and interface n Empirical methodology to quantify human influence on decision making and performance – Identify and measure influencing personality factors – Build a formal model that explains performance n Side-effect: Usable for game-based learning (GBL) in professional trainings etc. Test in the field (ecological validity) Controlled experiment in laboratory (internal validity) We are here page 5 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  6. 6. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Short definition of (digital) Game-Based Learning (GBL) n Use motivational potential of (computer) games to convey learning [Prensky 2001] n Benefits – Increased motivation – Understanding in context – Increases Network Thinking abilities – Explore and understand cause-and effect relationships – Safe and inexpensive n Very successful in medical contexts – Physiotherapy and rehabilitation – Knowledge dissemination – Change attitudes and behavior “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result in a quantifiable outcome.” [Salen & Zimmerman, 2003] page 6 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  7. 7. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Our hypothesis: Game-based learnings in manufacturing and business can be used to… n Understand task relevant human factors n Measure aptitude of potential employees n Train current or prospective employees* n Benchmark User Interfaces* Human Factors Personnel selection Training intervention Usability studies page 7 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  8. 8. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Practical Example 1: The Beer Distribution Game Objective of the game: Train prospective employees page 8 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  9. 9. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Game-Based Learning in Production Engineering: The „Bullwhip effect“ and the Beer Distribution Game n “Bullwhip Effect” described by [Forrester] in the 1960’s – Increasing customer demand leads to exaggerated demand along supply chains – Resulting stock level graphs look like a bullwhip n Beer Distribution Game: – 4 players / 4 positions in 4-tier supply chain – Costs for out-of-stock and stock keeping – Time lag between order and delivery – Goal: Keep costs minimal – Small variance in customer order function – Learning objective: Sensitize and train FactoryDistributor purchase order forwarded immediatly order delivered immediately 1 week 1 week 1 week 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks WholesaleRetailer purchase orders shipments Imagesource:ft.com page 9 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  10. 10. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Our study on the Beer Distribution Game: Train current or prospective employees n Results: – Bullwhip effect clearly present – Delayed with position in chain – Increases with position in chain [F3,117=7,941,p<.001**] – Strong correlation between multiple rounds [r2,112-2=.628, p<.001**] – Players get sig. better [F1,111=4.204, p<.05*] n Conclusion: – Replication of similar studies ⇒ concept works – Stables results ⇒ underlying factors – Performance increases ⇒ learnability -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 1 5 10 15 20 Average Stock Level Week Retailer Wholesale Distributor Factory Remember: Small variance in customer’s orders page 10 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle Empirical study, n=112 players, 1 of 4 positions randomly assigned, 2 rounds played Week Order 5 10 15 20 48 Customer order function order(round) ⇒
  11. 11. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Practical Example 2: A supply chain game with quality management aspects – “QI-Game” Objective of the game: Benchmark for user interfaces (e.g., usability, efficacy of decision support systems, business intelligence) page 11 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  12. 12. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Development of business simulation game n Extension of „Beer Distribution Game“ n Based on System Dynamics model n Includes product quality – Product intact or broken – Supplier's quality varies – Internal production quality varies n Increased complexity (tradeoff 3 parallel tasks) – Management of stocks – Investment in incoming goods inspection – Investment in internal quality management n Over 20 variables in the user interface n Players must infer state of the production Part of the game’s simulation model: Stock level at a given time t: S(t) = S(t-1) + O(t-1) – D(t) Net profit: P(t) = R(t) – cStock×S(t) – Iigi(t) – Iipq(t) – C(t-1) – … page 12 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  13. 13. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center n Continuous discussions with experts and users n 1st prototype – Based on SD model – Paper based – Layout arrangement n 2nd prototype – Spreadsheet-based – Definition of game model, indicators, … – Quick optimization of simulation parameters – Simplified discrete event simulation n 3rd prototype – Web-based interface Agile design and development process page 13 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  14. 14. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center The Quality Management Game’s interface n Web-based game environment – Accessible across the world (scale) – Laboratory studies (scope) n Captures all metrics and interactions n Controllable conditions – Varying supplier’s quality, own production quality, customer’s demand, user interface, … n Map game performance and other metrics to Human-Factors – Identification of attitude, aptitude & motivation – Evaluation of the game, interface, … page 14 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  15. 15. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Example – Interface evaluation through exchangeable user interfaces: Model-View-Controller pattern (MVC) n Separation of simulation model, data, and user interface n User Interface interchangeable P(t), S(t), … QA PR MODEL CONTROLLER VIEW Interface ➝ Profit(t) Profitt > Profitt ? page 15 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  16. 16. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Evaluation of user interfaces: n Research question: – Do interfaces influence player’s performance? n Interface optimizations based on user feedback – Better spatial layout – Key Performance Indicators (e.g., stock level) n Method – Study (N=40) with old vs. new interface, surveys n Results – Users preferred revised user interface – Higher profits and higher product quality w. new interface n Conclusion: – Good interfaces crucial for performance (V = 0.263, F1, 38 = 13.548, p = .001 < .05*) revised interface first interface page 16 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  17. 17. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Discussion and Takeaway n Game-Based Learnings – Address Millennials / Generation Y – Training for Network Thinking, complexity, and uncertainty – Assessment of personnel, Identify task relevant Human Factors – Evaluate User Interfaces n Studies on Beer Distribution Game & QI-Game – Replication of known effects ⇒ concept works – Good players & bad players ⇒ underlying human factors – Players learn ⇒ training intervention – Good interface lead to higher performance ⇒ Usability competitive advantage n Our next steps – Influence of Business Intelligence & Decision Support on performance page 17 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  18. 18. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center n Brauner P, Runge S, Groten M, et al (2013) Human Factors in Supply Chain Management – Decision making in complex logistic scenarios. In: Yamamoto S (ed) Proceedings of the 15th HCI International 2013, Part III, LNCS 8018. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp 423–432 n Brauner P (2014) Understanding Human Factors in Supply Chains and Quality Management by Using Business Simulations. In: Brecher C, Wesch-Potente C (eds) Proceedings of the Conference of the Cluster Of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology For High Wage Countries” 2014/1, 1st edn. Apprimus Verlag, Aachen, Germany, Aachen, Germany, pp 387–396 n Hering N, Meißner J, Runge S, Brauner P (2014) Exzellenzcluster: Was bestimmt die Performance meiner Supply-Chain? – Eine Untersuchung technischer und menschlicher Einflussfaktoren im Hinblick auf die Effizienz von Lieferketten. Unternehmen der Zukunft - Zeitschrift für Betriebsorganisation und Unternehmensentwicklung 27–28. n Philipsen R, Brauner P, Stiller S, et al (2014a) The role of Human Factors in Production Networks and Quality Management. – How can modern ERP system support decision makers? First International Conference, HCIB 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, LNCS 8527. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 80–91 n Philipsen R, Brauner P, Stiller S, et al (2014b) Understanding and Supporting Decision Makers in Quality Management of Production Networks. Advances in the Ergonomics in Manufacturing. Managing the Enterprise of the Future 2014 : Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, AHFE 2014. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 94–105 n Stiller S, Falk B, Philipsen R, et al (2014) A Game-based Approach to Understand Human Factors in Supply Chains and Quality Management. Procedia CIRP 20:67–73. doi: 10.1016/j.procir.2014.05.033 n Brauner P, Ziefle M (2015) Human Factors in Production Systems – Motives, Methods and Beyond. In: Brecher C (ed) Advances in Production Technology. Springer International Publishing, pp 187–199 n Mittelstädt V, Brauner P, Blum M, Ziefle M (2015) On the visual design of ERP systems – The role of information complexity, presentation and human factors. 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015. pp 270–277 n Calero Valdez A, Brauner P, Schaar AK, et al (2015) Reducing Complexity with simplicity - Usability Methods for Industry 4.0. 19thTriennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2015). n Ziefle M, Brauner P, Speicher F (2015) Effects of data presentation and perceptual speed on speed and accuracy in table reading for inventory control. Occupational Ergonomics 12:119–129. doi: 10.3233/OER-150229 n Brauner P, Ziefle M. How to train employees, identify task-relevant human factors, and improve software systems with Business Simulation Games. Procedings of the International Conference on Competitive Manufacturing 2016, COMA ’16. Stellenbosch, SA; 2016. p. 541–6. Publications page 18 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle
  19. 19. RWTH Aachen University, Human-Computer Interaction Center Thank you four your attention! Summary n Human Factors Perspective increasingly important n Business Simulation Games – Address Millennials – Training environment for onboarding / production ramp-ups – Assessment of personnel & Identification of crucial factors – Identification and quantification of interface costs Dipl.-Inform. Philipp Brauner Human-Computer Interaction Center Chair for Communication Science RWTHAachen University, Germany eMail: brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de Funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrated Production Technology for High Wage Countries” (EXC 128). page 19 2016-01-29 Game-based Learning in Manufacturing and Business & the Quality Intelligence Game Philipp Brauner (brauner@comm.rwth-aachen.de), Martina Ziefle

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