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HKG18-223 - Trusted FirmwareM: Trusted boot

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HKG18-223 - Trusted FirmwareM: Trusted boot

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"Session ID: HKG18-223
Session Name: HKG18-223 - Trusted Firmware M : Trusted Boot
Speaker: Tamas Ban
Track: LITE


★ Session Summary ★
An overview of the trusted boot concept and firmware update on the ARMv8-M based platform and how MCUBoot acts as a BL2 bootloader for TF-M.

Trusted Firmware M

In October 2017, Arm announced the vision of Platform Security Architecture (PSA) - a common framework to allow everyone in the IoT ecosystem to move forward with stronger, scalable security and greater confidence. There are three key stages to the Platform Security Architecture: Analysis, Architecture and Implementation which are described at https://developer.arm.com/products/architecture/platform-security-architecture.

_Trusted Firmware M, i.e. TF-M, is the Arm project to provide an open source reference implementation firmware that will conform to the PSA specification for M-Class devices. Early access to TF-M was released in December 2017 and it is being made public during Linaro Connect. The implementation should be considered a prototype until the PSA specifications reach release state and the code aligns._
---------------------------------------------------
★ Resources ★
Event Page: http://connect.linaro.org/resource/hkg18/hkg18-223/
Presentation: http://connect.linaro.org.s3.amazonaws.com/hkg18/presentations/hkg18-223.pdf
Video: http://connect.linaro.org.s3.amazonaws.com/hkg18/videos/hkg18-223.mp4
---------------------------------------------------
★ Event Details ★
Linaro Connect Hong Kong 2018 (HKG18)
19-23 March 2018
Regal Airport Hotel Hong Kong

---------------------------------------------------
Keyword: LITE
'http://www.linaro.org'
'http://connect.linaro.org'
---------------------------------------------------
Follow us on Social Media
https://www.facebook.com/LinaroOrg
https://www.youtube.com/user/linaroorg?sub_confirmation=1
https://www.linkedin.com/company/1026961"

"Session ID: HKG18-223
Session Name: HKG18-223 - Trusted Firmware M : Trusted Boot
Speaker: Tamas Ban
Track: LITE


★ Session Summary ★
An overview of the trusted boot concept and firmware update on the ARMv8-M based platform and how MCUBoot acts as a BL2 bootloader for TF-M.

Trusted Firmware M

In October 2017, Arm announced the vision of Platform Security Architecture (PSA) - a common framework to allow everyone in the IoT ecosystem to move forward with stronger, scalable security and greater confidence. There are three key stages to the Platform Security Architecture: Analysis, Architecture and Implementation which are described at https://developer.arm.com/products/architecture/platform-security-architecture.

_Trusted Firmware M, i.e. TF-M, is the Arm project to provide an open source reference implementation firmware that will conform to the PSA specification for M-Class devices. Early access to TF-M was released in December 2017 and it is being made public during Linaro Connect. The implementation should be considered a prototype until the PSA specifications reach release state and the code aligns._
---------------------------------------------------
★ Resources ★
Event Page: http://connect.linaro.org/resource/hkg18/hkg18-223/
Presentation: http://connect.linaro.org.s3.amazonaws.com/hkg18/presentations/hkg18-223.pdf
Video: http://connect.linaro.org.s3.amazonaws.com/hkg18/videos/hkg18-223.mp4
---------------------------------------------------
★ Event Details ★
Linaro Connect Hong Kong 2018 (HKG18)
19-23 March 2018
Regal Airport Hotel Hong Kong

---------------------------------------------------
Keyword: LITE
'http://www.linaro.org'
'http://connect.linaro.org'
---------------------------------------------------
Follow us on Social Media
https://www.facebook.com/LinaroOrg
https://www.youtube.com/user/linaroorg?sub_confirmation=1
https://www.linkedin.com/company/1026961"

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HKG18-223 - Trusted FirmwareM: Trusted boot

  1. 1. Confidential © 2017 Arm Limited Trusted Firmware M Trusted Boot Tamas Ban Linaro 2018​ Arm
  2. 2. Non-Confidential © Arm 20182 Agenda • Concept of trusted boot • Bootloader in TF-M • Firmware upgrade • Alternatives for upgrade • Alternatives for crypto • Plans • Q&A
  3. 3. Non-Confidential © Arm 20183 What is trusted environment? An integrated execution environment(HW + SW) which can protect valuable assets against extraction: • Sensitive user data • Crypto keys • Firmware itself, etc. Hardware Trusted Env.
  4. 4. Non-Confidential © Arm 20184 Introduction to trusted bootloader concept What? Why? How? SW whose aim is to verify the origin and integrity of other SW components which run on the target system. • Bootloader runs as soon as system is released from reset prior any other SW. In case of successful authentication it passes execution to the runtime firmware. One wants to ensure that only a certain set of SW, without any external modification, can run on a particular device. • Device contains sensitive assets which could be extracted with the usage of malicious SW. Device contains immutable SW and data, which can be used for authentication: • Integrity of SW: – Checking hash value • Origin of SW: – Checking digital signature
  5. 5. Non-Confidential © Arm 20185 Considerations at selection of bootloader Secure boot requirements PSA spec defines boot and firmware update requirements: • Support for firmware upgrade • Support for chain-of-trust • Support for NIST or NSA approved cryptographic algorithm: SHA2, RSA, ECDSA, HMAC, KDF • Etc. Device constraints Device constraints mandate `yet-another` bootloader: • Usually less than 1 MB flash memory for code • Usually less than 256 KB RAM for data • Usage of cryptographic accelerator HW component • Computing power • No MMU, no memory virtualization • Power failure awareness • Etc.
  6. 6. Non-Confidential © Arm 20186 Bootloader in TF-M MCUBoot is utilized to act as BL2 in TF-M: • Open source project with Apache 2.0 licensing • Low memory footprint; designed for 32 bit microcontrollers • Running from flash(currently XIP) • Several secure boot features are supported for firmware authentication: SHA256, RSA- 2048, (ECDSA) • Usage of 3rd party libraries for cryptographic operations: mbedTLS, (TinyCrypt) • Firmware update with image swapping • Power failure resistant upgrade • Fallback mechanism to stable version
  7. 7. Non-Confidential © Arm 20187 First bootloader release MCUBoot integrated within TF-M repository: Customized to be OS agnostic Currently SHA256 and RSA-2048 are supported SPE and NSPE are concatenated to a single binary blob Hash and digital signature tooling and runtime check Software Upgrade prototype as proof of concept: • Emulating flash interface and behaviour over code SRAM System constraints: • No support for image size that does not fit in available RAM • CoT reduced to verify SPE and NSPE in the same go
  8. 8. Non-Confidential © Arm 20188 Immutable BL1 code Chain of trust Hash BL2 image SIP/OEM Root of Trust Public Key (ROTPK) OEM/Developer Public Key(s) Use CA public key if supporting certificate revocation Check signature Public image signing keys can be rotated Check integrity NSPE image SPE image Check signature Public key Public key(s) Check signature
  9. 9. Non-Confidential © Arm 20189 RTOS & Application Boot process Stage PSA (not mandatory) TF-M BL1 Immutable boot code in ROM Boot code in eFlash BL2 NSPESPE Secure runtime firmware Verify Load Start Core SPM Secure services TBD Verify Load Start Verify Load Start RTOS & Application BL2 MCUBoot Start Start Verify combined hash and signature
  10. 10. Non-Confidential © Arm 201810 Basic operation and memory layout
  11. 11. Non-Confidential © Arm 201811 6.) Copy scratch to Slot_0 3.) Erease Slot_1 Image swapping • Code linked to Slot_0 memory space • Divided into rounds • Scratch-sized data is moved in one go • Status info saved after each round • Power failure safe Slot_1_Sector_2 Slot_1_Sector_N Slot_1_Sector_3 Active image Slot_0 New image Slot_1 Slot_0_Sector_2 Slot_0_Sector_N Slot_0_Sector_3 Scratch area 1.) Erease scratch Sector_0 Sector_1 Slot_0_Sector_0 Slot_0_Sector_1 Slot_1_Sector_0 Slot_1_Sector_1 2.) Copy Slot_1 to scratch 4.) Copy Slot_1 to scratch 5.) Erease Slot_0 Slot_1_Sector_1 Slot_1_Sector_0 Save swap status info Slot_1_Sector_0 Slot_1_Sector_1 Slot_0_Sector_0 Slot_0_Sector_1 Slot_1_Sector_1 Slot_1_Sector_0
  12. 12. Non-Confidential © Arm 201812 Firmware upgrade • Upgrade is a task of runtime FW • Potentially split between NSPE and SPE • XIP images
  13. 13. Non-Confidential © Arm 201813 Image fallback • Store previous image • Health-check new image with BIST • Self confirmation • Reboot in case of failure • Revert back stable image • Set rollback after confirmation
  14. 14. Non-Confidential © Arm 201814 Design constraints Header size - VTOR alignment: • Device dependent 512-1024 bytes Image slot’s layout must be aligned Scratch area size: • Flash memory wear-out • At least as the largest block size Real image size smaller than image slot: • Image header, TLV, swap status info, etc. No recovery option, if both images are faulty
  15. 15. Non-Confidential © Arm 201815 Common threats Threat Mitigation Implemented Malicious firmware sent to device Signed firmware images Yes Downgrade to old vulnerable version Version or fallback counters check Not yet* Persistent malware(rootkits) Immutable boot code and data(BL1) Not yet Remote bricking of the device Backup image Yes Attacker gets signing key Key revocation support Not yet* *: Planned to be addressed in 2018
  16. 16. Non-Confidential © Arm 201816 Alternatives to image swapping Position independent code Pros: • Reduced P/E cycle leads to longer lifetime • Reduced BL complexity and code footprint • Reduced boot-up time(no swapping) Cons: • Might lead bigger firmware code footprint • Some compiler switches are not compatible with PIC code • Some C lib (Microlib) cannot be compiled to be PIC • Other constraints when compiling code to be PIC Dual image build Pros: • Reduced P/E cycle leads to longer lifetime • Reduced BL complexity and code footprint • Reduced boot-up time(no swapping) Cons: • More complex build process • Extra logic in update client
  17. 17. Non-Confidential © Arm 201817 Alternatives to image swapping Execute from RAM Pros: • Reduced P/E cycle leads to longer lifetime • Faster firmware execution • Reduced BL complexity and code footprint Cons: • Usually infeasible: less RAM than ROM Off-chip storage Pros: • Reduced P/E cycle leads to longer lifetime • Reduced BL complexity and code footprint Cons: • Might be a security risk: when to verify signature? • Might require image encryption, increased code footprint(include AES) and boot-up time
  18. 18. Non-Confidential © Arm 201818 Alternatives to image swapping Overwrite Pros: • Reduced P/E cycle leads to longer lifetime • No need for scratch space • Reduced BL complexity and code footprint Cons: • Risk of bricking the device because no revert possible
  19. 19. Non-Confidential © Arm 201819 MCUBoot as PIC code Experiment to compile PIC code: • RO and RW position independent( --ropi, --rwpi) • Vector table and IRQ handlers must be in RAM • IRQ handling unavailable until vectors and handlers relocated to RAM • Image size increased: • 29KB -> 38KB; More std. C lib was compiled-in • Limitations on source code: • Constant pointer cannot be used • CMSE armclang flag is not compatible with ROPI • Microlib cannot be compiled to be position independent
  20. 20. Non-Confidential © Arm 201820 Comparison of crypto algorithms RSA • Big key size: up to 15KB • 128 bit level of security: RSA-3072 • ROM size(mbedTLS): ~14KB • RAM usage(mbedTLS): ~7KB • Key generation: slower • Signature generation: slower • Signature verification time: faster ECC • Small key size: up to 512 bits • 128 bit level of security: ECC-256 • ROM size(mbedTLS): • RAM usage(mbedTLS): ~13KB • Key generation: faster • Signature generation: faster • Signature verification : slower Moving from RSA to ECC
  21. 21. Non-Confidential © Arm 201821 „Speed up asymmetric crypto” Signature verification with RSA or ECC is time consuming Symmetric crypto can spare clock cycles Replace asym. crypto with symmetric: HMAC, CMAC, etc: • Previously verified images(upgrade time) can get a MAC, generated based on Hardware Unique Key(HUK) • At boot time this MAC is verified instead of original signature • Boot time can be significantly reduced Download new firmware Verify signature Deploy in flash Generate MAC Save to flash Reset device Bootloader checks MAC
  22. 22. Non-Confidential © Arm 201822 Alternatives for crypto libraries HW accelerator: • Improved performance / reduced code footprint CryptoCell-312: • Symmetric and asymmetric crypto • Runtime library: use mbedTLS API • Boot library: – Signature verification – X509 certificate parsing – Image verification and optional decryption • Asset provisioning to OTP memory • Rollback counters
  23. 23. Non-Confidential © Arm 201823 Bootloader plans PSA compliance: • Anti-rollback protection • Create interface between SPE and bootloaders • Add support of multiple chains of trust and might be certificates Explore possibilities to make BL2 updatable Integrate crypto HW accelerator (CC312) with BL2
  24. 24. Non-Confidential © Arm 201824 How to get involved TF-A and TF-M master codebases • https://git.trustedfirmware.org/ TF-M Team @ Connect HKG18 • Abhishek Pandit • Ashutosh Singh • Tamas Ban • Miklos Balint Get in touch • Come round LITE hacking room between 3-4 pm Wednesday • Schedule a meeting via hkg18.pathable.com More info on developer.arm.com
  25. 25. 2525 Confidential © 2017 Arm Limited Thank You! Danke! Merci! 谢谢! ありがとう! Gracias! Kiitos! 감사합니다 धन्यवाद
  26. 26. Non-Confidential © Arm 201826 Supported platforms MCUBoot with TF-M can run on: • In simulator environment(FVP) on PC. • MPS2 development board with AN521 (Castor) FPGA image • MPS2 development board with AN519 (M23) FPGA image • Musca_A porting is in progress
  27. 27. Non-Confidential © Arm 201827 Trailer(Swap status) BL2 - Bootloader Secure firmware Non-secure firmware Header TLV(SHA, DS) Secure firmware Non-secure firmware Header TLV(SHA, DS) SLOT_1 Placeholder for new image SLOT_0 Active image Scratch area Currently not updatable 0x0000... 0xXXXX... Used during image swapping
  28. 28. Non-Confidential © Arm 201828 BL2 - Bootloader started Erase SLOT_1 Finalize aborted swap Initialize phase Authenticate SW in SLOT_1 Swap images between SLOT_0 and SLOT_1 Finalize image status info Pass execution to SPE in SLOT_0 CPU released from reset Is new SW in SLOT_1 Is there aborted swap? yes no yes Valid SW? no no
  29. 29. Non-Confidential © Arm 201829 SPENSPE Update Client Trusted Update Function Firmware Storage Server Runtime firmware BL2 - Bootloader Slot_0 – Active Image Slot_1 – New imageLocal Storage 1. Download: - firmware - manifest 2. Authentication: - send manifest Keys NV counters 3. Provison new image 4. Reboot 5. Authenticate and swap images, start image in slot_0 Remote server
  30. 30. Non-Confidential © Arm 201830 Old image New image Reboot New image Old image Test NOK New image Old image New image Old image Test OK Confirm New image Old image Reboot Old image New image Set rollback

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Assumes a two stage bootloader
    Assumes
    Assumes certain kind of certificate chain, e.g. updating validation certificate for NSPE images requires updating BL2.

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