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Practice makes perfect?
Reviewing gives you
• DRILL METHOD
– Process of repetition to automatize a certain response or
mental association for ready use.
– It is one of the oldest type of teaching.
– It is a method of habit-formation.
– It can be effective if properly conducted, or it can be ineffective
if not properly distributed.
1. The drill should be conducted under definitely controlled or
standardized conditions so that results obtained in one period
may be compared with those obtained in others.
2. The purpose of drill should be made clear to the pupils.
3. The results of each period of drill should be measured
scientifically and objectively.
4. The results of each period of drill work should be noted and their
relations to appropriate and inappropriate techniques discovered.
5. The results of successive drill periods should be displayed in
such a way as to reveal the improvement made by the pupils.
6. Appropriate lengths of drill periods, of intervals between periods,
and other mechanical aids to learning should be adopted.
7. Drill materials should be so prepared that the pupil can himself
manage the whole learning process.
• Drill is nothing more then the application of the principle of
practice or the law of exercise.
• Drill work is essential in developing habits and skills.
― Ways of actions or the tendency to repeat activities of all kinds.
― Any refined pattern of performance.
1. Drill work must be well-planned.
2. Drill work must be properly motivated to assure retention.
3. Drill work must follow the development of understanding.
4. Drill work must be short and properly distributed.
5. Drill materials and devices should be selected and introduced to
save time in actual preparation for drill and during the drill
6. Provision should be made for frequent reviews, repetition, or
memorized materials to ensure retention.
7. Drill work should be adapted to individual’s need.
– It stimulates the interest and increase the attention of the pupils.
2. Games or Play
– Psychologists proved that pleasure or joy is an aid to drill work.
3. Songs and Rhythms
– Pupils can do more and better work when they are kept in a happy frame
4. Variety of Methods
– Different kind of activities should be brought to play in drill work to gain
interest and to maintain the attention of the pupils.
5. The Whole-Method
– Psychological studies have proved that the whole-method is much
superior to the part-method in memorizing.
– It will challenge the attention of the pupils.
The teachers should:
1. Know what habits are to be formed or practiced, or what
reactions are to be habituated.
2. Arouse the learner a strong desire to for a strong habit.
3. Apply appropriate procedures and devices so that the learner will
maintain a proper attitude through the period of repetition.
4. Bear in mind that the pleasant feeling facilitates progress in
5. Recognize a variation of methods in drill work to stimulate and to
maintain the interest and the attention of the pupils.
6. Not lose sight of the fact that bright pupils need less drill work
than the average or slow pupils.
7. Provide guidance in the selection of the correct response to be
8. Instruct the pupils to memorize by the whole-method rather than
by the part-method.
9. Seek the most specific information in planning his initial and
subsequent drill exercises so that over-learning and under-
learning could be avoided.
10. Make the pupils feel the need for practice.
11. Remember that the purpose of the drill is to fix certain facts
securely and accurately.
12. Bear in mind that drill is most effective when it furnishes multiple
associations to the concepts that are being fixed.
13. Bear in mind that by drill, a child learns the fundamental skills
required in the operations of all tool subjects.
• According to Risk, it means “new view”.
– This means that the old must be presented in a new view.
• It is a means of relating the old to new so that the growth
will be natural, gradual, and efficient.
1. To strengthen or fix in mind activities or materials learned.
2. To organize the important facts and experiences into a larger unit
3. To diagnose whether the lesson is adequately presented or
4. To motivate the pupils to future study.
5. To check up on the teacher’s teaching and the pupil’s learning
6. To give a finishing touch to the teacher’s work.
• Cumulative Review
– Daily review or short questioning as a part of lecture
• Problem Review
– Summary or organization of important points
• Socialized Review
– Generally given to prepare for examination & stimulate interest
• Review Quiz
– Given to check-up mastery
• Oral Report
– Essentially individualized
1. At the end of each unit of study.
2. Before the weekly, monthly, quarterly, semestral or final
3. As a part of the regular teaching procedure.
4. During the recitation.
5. At any time.
• Must be appropriate to the needed learning.
• Must be understood by the pupils.
• Must not only be needed and understood by the pupil but
it must be accepted to be worthwhile.
• Must put the results to some use.
• Must be used as a teaching device.
1. The teacher must have a clear perspective of the
meaning and nature of drill and review.
2. The teacher must make a thorough preparation for the
3. The teacher must teach the pupils how to review the
4. The teacher must see to it that new and interesting
experiences are utilized from time to time.
5. The teacher must make some provision for a review of
the entire unit or course before the final examination.
6. The teacher must use some kind of device to measure
the effectiveness of the review work.
7. The teacher must remember that the review which would
test his own teaching, as any good review would, is
valuable to the pupils.
• Review the past lesson as a preparation for the test.
• Review the points where you are weak.
• Review should help establish coherence and continuity between
different parts of the course.
• Make the review a check-up and a verification.
• Read previous notes and make an outline of the important points
in the course.
• Review both at short and long intervals.
• Use review questions as guides.