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Principles Underlying Drill and Review Methods

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Principles & Methods in Teaching

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Principles Underlying Drill and Review Methods

  1. 1. Lorilyn Barnuevo PSY3Y2-1
  2. 2. Practice makes perfect? Or not… Reviewing gives you higher grades?
  3. 3. THENATUREOFDRILLMETHOD • DRILL METHOD – Process of repetition to automatize a certain response or mental association for ready use. – It is one of the oldest type of teaching. – It is a method of habit-formation. – It can be effective if properly conducted, or it can be ineffective if not properly distributed.
  4. 4. FEATURESOFTHEDRILLEXERCISE 1. The drill should be conducted under definitely controlled or standardized conditions so that results obtained in one period may be compared with those obtained in others. 2. The purpose of drill should be made clear to the pupils. 3. The results of each period of drill should be measured scientifically and objectively. 4. The results of each period of drill work should be noted and their relations to appropriate and inappropriate techniques discovered.
  5. 5. 5. The results of successive drill periods should be displayed in such a way as to reveal the improvement made by the pupils. 6. Appropriate lengths of drill periods, of intervals between periods, and other mechanical aids to learning should be adopted. 7. Drill materials should be so prepared that the pupil can himself manage the whole learning process.
  6. 6. USESOFDRILLMETHOD • Drill is nothing more then the application of the principle of practice or the law of exercise. • Drill work is essential in developing habits and skills. o HABITS ― Ways of actions or the tendency to repeat activities of all kinds. o SKILL ― Any refined pattern of performance.
  7. 7. PRINCIPLESTOBEOBSERVEDIN DRILLWORK 1. Drill work must be well-planned. 2. Drill work must be properly motivated to assure retention. 3. Drill work must follow the development of understanding. 4. Drill work must be short and properly distributed. 5. Drill materials and devices should be selected and introduced to save time in actual preparation for drill and during the drill process. 6. Provision should be made for frequent reviews, repetition, or memorized materials to ensure retention. 7. Drill work should be adapted to individual’s need.
  8. 8. DEVICESUSEFULINDRILLWORK 1. Competition – It stimulates the interest and increase the attention of the pupils. 2. Games or Play – Psychologists proved that pleasure or joy is an aid to drill work. 3. Songs and Rhythms – Pupils can do more and better work when they are kept in a happy frame of mind 4. Variety of Methods – Different kind of activities should be brought to play in drill work to gain interest and to maintain the attention of the pupils.
  9. 9. 5. The Whole-Method – Psychological studies have proved that the whole-method is much superior to the part-method in memorizing. 6. Flashcards – It will challenge the attention of the pupils.
  10. 10. FUNCTIONSOFTEACHERSIN HABIT-FORMATION The teachers should: 1. Know what habits are to be formed or practiced, or what reactions are to be habituated. 2. Arouse the learner a strong desire to for a strong habit. 3. Apply appropriate procedures and devices so that the learner will maintain a proper attitude through the period of repetition. 4. Bear in mind that the pleasant feeling facilitates progress in learning. 5. Recognize a variation of methods in drill work to stimulate and to maintain the interest and the attention of the pupils.
  11. 11. 6. Not lose sight of the fact that bright pupils need less drill work than the average or slow pupils. 7. Provide guidance in the selection of the correct response to be made. 8. Instruct the pupils to memorize by the whole-method rather than by the part-method. 9. Seek the most specific information in planning his initial and subsequent drill exercises so that over-learning and under- learning could be avoided.
  12. 12. 10. Make the pupils feel the need for practice. 11. Remember that the purpose of the drill is to fix certain facts securely and accurately. 12. Bear in mind that drill is most effective when it furnishes multiple associations to the concepts that are being fixed. 13. Bear in mind that by drill, a child learns the fundamental skills required in the operations of all tool subjects.
  13. 13. REVIEW AND DRILL IDENTICAL? Or not…
  14. 14. NATUREANDIMPORTANCEOF REVIEW REVIEW • According to Risk, it means “new view”. – This means that the old must be presented in a new view. • It is a means of relating the old to new so that the growth will be natural, gradual, and efficient.
  15. 15. PURPOSESOFREVIEW 1. To strengthen or fix in mind activities or materials learned. 2. To organize the important facts and experiences into a larger unit of understanding. 3. To diagnose whether the lesson is adequately presented or properly discussed. 4. To motivate the pupils to future study. 5. To check up on the teacher’s teaching and the pupil’s learning 6. To give a finishing touch to the teacher’s work.
  16. 16. TYPESOFREVIEW • Cumulative Review – Daily review or short questioning as a part of lecture • Problem Review – Summary or organization of important points • Socialized Review – Generally given to prepare for examination & stimulate interest • Review Quiz – Given to check-up mastery • Oral Report – Essentially individualized
  17. 17. TIMETOREVIEW 1. At the end of each unit of study. 2. Before the weekly, monthly, quarterly, semestral or final examination. 3. As a part of the regular teaching procedure. 4. During the recitation. 5. At any time.
  18. 18. MAKINGREVIEWWORTHWHILE • Must be appropriate to the needed learning. • Must be understood by the pupils. • Must not only be needed and understood by the pupil but it must be accepted to be worthwhile. • Must put the results to some use. • Must be used as a teaching device.
  19. 19. PRINCIPLESTOBEOBSERVED INREVIEW 1. The teacher must have a clear perspective of the meaning and nature of drill and review. 2. The teacher must make a thorough preparation for the review. 3. The teacher must teach the pupils how to review the subject-matter. 4. The teacher must see to it that new and interesting experiences are utilized from time to time.
  20. 20. 5. The teacher must make some provision for a review of the entire unit or course before the final examination. 6. The teacher must use some kind of device to measure the effectiveness of the review work. 7. The teacher must remember that the review which would test his own teaching, as any good review would, is valuable to the pupils.
  21. 21. SUGGESTIONSTOSTUDENTS CONCERNINGREVIEW • Review the past lesson as a preparation for the test. • Review the points where you are weak. • Review should help establish coherence and continuity between different parts of the course. • Make the review a check-up and a verification. • Read previous notes and make an outline of the important points in the course. • Review both at short and long intervals. • Use review questions as guides.

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