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Word formation

  1. Lesson 1
  2. WORD meaningful unit of language sounds: a meaningful sound or combination of sounds that is a unit of language or its representation in a text -(Encarta Dictionaries & American Heritage Dictionary)
  3. Base, original word Can be added with either prefixes or suffixes to create other words Ex: benefit, benevolent unbeneficial, benediction ROOT WORD
  4. Each prefix and suffix has a meaning of its own; so by adding one or the other –or both- to root words, you form new words. Ex. chron a Greek word means “time”
  5. (time) (“the study of”) chron + ology = chronology (the study that deals with time division and that assigns events to their proper dates)
  6. WORD DEFINITION EXAMPLES vis, vid see television, revise, envision, visible vac empty vacant, vacuum, evacuate, vacate tele far off, distant telephone, telegraph, telegram, television phon voice, sound telephone, phonology, phonetics, phonograph hydro water hydroelectric, hydropower, hydrate audi hear inaudible, auditorium, audio ROOT WORDS
  7.  Cutting portion of the word at the beginning, at the end or cutting both ends of the word and retaining part of the original to stand for its meaning. CLIPPINGS Examples: bra-brassiere taxi- taxicab hyper- hyperactive cab- taxicab stereo-stereophonic lab- laboratory nuke- nuclear photo- photograph demo- demonstration flu- influenza fan- fanatic condo- condominium plane- airplane promo- promotion
  8. Lets give a shot! Write the clipped form of the following terms and use them in meaningful sentences. 1. psychology - ________________________________ Sentence___________________________________ 2. microphone - ________________________________ Sentence___________________________________ 3. professor - ________________________________ Sentence___________________________________ 4. schedule - ________________________________ Sentence___________________________________
  9. ACRONYMS and INITIALS Acronyms and initials are both techniques in abbreviation which are always misconstrued to be the same. New words created out of initial letters or sound of words or names are called acronyms. The group of initial letters used for a name or expression and pronounced separately is classified as type of abbreviation called initialism.
  10. Examples: Acronyms Initials AWOL- absence without leave VIP- very important person Capelco- Capiz Electric Cooperative MC- master of ceremony CapSU- Capiz State University CAT- College Admission Test COA- Commission on Audit UK- United Kingdom
  11. Let’s give a shot! Tell what the following acronyms and initials stand for. Then use the dictionary to define them. 1. SOP stands for:_______________________________________ It means:________________ 2. Laser stands for:_______________________________________ It means:________________ 3. Scuba stands for:_______________________________________ It means:________________ 4. ALS stands for:_______________________________________ It means:________________ 5. DOLE stands for:_______________________________________ It means:________________
  12. Blending  Another word formation process where portions of two words are combined or fused together, thus creating a new word. Examples: internet- inter and network heliport- helicopter and airport cellphone- cellular and phone motel- motorist and hotel emoticon- emotion and icon flare- flame and glare
  13. Three ways of blending words:  The beginning of the word is added to the end of the other word. Example: brunch – breakfast and lunch  Both the beginning of the words are added. Example: cyborg – cybernetic and organism  Combining two words entirely without clipping or adding its parts to form new word. Example: thumbprint– thumb and print
  14. Let’s give it a shot! Find out where the following words came and give their meaning. 1. pixel __________________ ____________________ _____________________________________________________ 2. maxicare __________________ ____________________ _____________________________________________________ 3. telecast __________________ ____________________ _____________________________________________________ Merge the following words and indicate what method is used in the combination. Write the letters only. A. The beginning of the word is added to the end of the other word B. Both the beginning of the words are added. C. Two words are combined Merged Word Method 1. camera and recorder ___________ ______ 2. town and house ___________ ______ 3. motor and cavalcade ___________ ______ 4. Splash and surge ___________ ______ 5. of the clock ___________ ______
  15. Prefixes A prefix is a group of letters that is added at the beginning of a word (called a root) to create a new word with a different meaning. Ex. reunion insignificant preliminary incorporate unfriend television
  16. A hyphen separates the word when prefix is joined to a proper noun or a number. neo-Freudian pre-1900s
  17. The new word, if spelled without a hyphen, could be confused with another word. re-creation [the creation of something for a second time] recreation [an enjoyable activity] re-sign [to sign again] resign [to submit or relinquish]
  18. The same vowel appears at the end of the prefix and the beginning of the root. anti-intellectual co-ownership
  19. Suffixes  A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of a word (called a root) to create a new word with a different meaning or, more often, to indicate a change in the root word’s function.  For example, adding the -ed suffix to the present stem of a regular verb puts the verb in the past tense. talk + ed = talked
  20. The addition of a suffix frequently causes spelling errors because the spelling of some roots must be changed before a suffix can be attached.
  21. Eat Eaten Eating
  22. A group of letters added to the end of the word to form a new word, the meaning of which is usually different from the original word.
  23. Eat – refers to the verb/action of taking in food Eater – refers to a noun/person who eats Sandwich - Daisy -
  24. 1.A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to form a new word, the meaning of which is usually different from that of the original word. 2. Suffixes modify the root word to which they are added. 3. Suffixes are used to form plural of nouns. Example: -s, -es, -ies and – er 4. Suffixes are used to change the tense of a verb. Example: - s, -es, -d, ed, -t, - ing 5. Suffixes are used to form an adverb from adjectives. Examples: - ly 6. The suffixes – er, -ful, and –less are some of the commonly used suffixes. 7. For root word ending in – e, only – r is added. 8. For root word ending in – y is dropped and replaced with – ier.
  25. Suffix Definition Examples -ly like happily, friendly -wise in the direction of clockwise -ness quality, degree relationship, intership -less without mindless, helpless -ize to make or cause to be emphasize, sterilize -ism condition, manner capitalism, nationalism -ful characterized by beautiful -ess female goddess, actress -er one who weaver, miner - ee one who receives action employee, nominee -able likely capable
  26. General Rules that govern the most common spelling changes required by adding a suffix
  27. Doubling a Consonant When a root ends in a consonant, double the consonant before adding a suffix if: 1) the root has only one syllable or is accented on its final syllable; 2) the root ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel; 3) the suffix begins with a vowel. red + est = reddest begin + ing = beginning
  28. Do not double the consonant if the root ends in w, x, or y.  tow + ed = towed lax + est = laxest play + er = player The root ends with a single consonant preceded by two vowels.  bloat + ing = bloating The root has two or more syllables and is not accented on the final one.  suffer + ed = suffered
  29. Dropping a silent e If a root ends in a silent e, delete the e before adding a suffix if: 1) the e is preceded by a consonant; 2) the suffix begins with a vowel. merge + ing = merging the e is preceded by an o. hoe + ed = hoed
  30. Retain the silent e if 1) the e is preceded by a consonant; 2) the suffix begins with a consonant. like + ness = likeness 1) the e is preceded by a soft c (pronounced like an s) or a soft g (pronounced like a j); 2) the suffix begins with an a, o, or u. notice + able = noticeable courage + ous = courageous
  31. Changing a Final ie to a y If a root ends in ie, change the ie to a y before adding ing. die + ing = dying
  32. Changing a Final y to an i If a root ends in a consonant followed by a y, change the y to an i before adding a suffix unless the suffix begins with an i. busy + ness = business But: carry + ing = carrying If a vowel precedes the y, however, retain the y. obey + ing = obeying
  33. Adding a k after a Final c If root ends with a hard c (pronounced like a k), insert a k before adding a suffix that begins with an i, an e, or a y. panic + ed = panicked
  34. No k is needed if: the suffix begins with an a, an o, a u, or a consonant. frolic + some = frolicsome the c at the end of the root becomes soft (pronounced like an s) after the suffix is added. critic + ism = criticism
  35. Hyphens Before Suffixes
  36. When a suffix is added to a root, the result is usually spelled as one word. -twofold -handbook The suffixes elect and odd are exceptions. They should always be connected to a root word with a hyphen. -governor-elect -twenty-odd
  37. If a root is a proper noun, a hyphen should usually be inserted before adding a suffix. American-like Miami-wide
  38. Analyze the following words carefully and identify the prefix, root word, suffix and its meaning and derivation. word prefix root word suffix meaning derivation irreplaceable donated adventurous Intangible impotency numerology unconditional
  39. References  Antonio, Maria Theresa M.,2012. Building Vocabulary and Grammar Skills. Mutya Pub. House, Inc. 105 engineering Road, Araneta University Village, Potrero, Malabon City. pp.4-21.  (Encarta Dictionaries & American Heritage Dictionary)  Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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  41. END. Thank you!!!