meaningful unit of language
sounds: a meaningful sound
or combination of sounds that
is a unit of language or its
representation in a text
-(Encarta Dictionaries & American Heritage Dictionary)
Base, original word
Can be added with either prefixes or suffixes
to create other words
Ex: benefit, benevolent
Each prefix and suffix has a meaning of its own; so
by adding one or the other –or both- to root words,
you form new words.
Ex. chron a Greek word means “time”
(time) (“the study of”)
chron + ology = chronology
(the study that deals
with time division and
that assigns events to
their proper dates)
WORD DEFINITION EXAMPLES
vis, vid see television, revise, envision, visible
vac empty vacant, vacuum, evacuate, vacate
tele far off, distant telephone, telegraph, telegram, television
phon voice, sound telephone, phonology, phonetics, phonograph
hydro water hydroelectric, hydropower, hydrate
audi hear inaudible, auditorium, audio
Cutting portion of the word at the beginning, at the end or
cutting both ends of the word and retaining part of the original
to stand for its meaning.
bra-brassiere taxi- taxicab hyper- hyperactive
cab- taxicab stereo-stereophonic lab- laboratory
nuke- nuclear photo- photograph demo- demonstration
flu- influenza fan- fanatic condo- condominium
plane- airplane promo- promotion
Lets give a shot!
Write the clipped form of the following terms and use them in meaningful sentences.
1. psychology - ________________________________
2. microphone - ________________________________
3. professor - ________________________________
4. schedule - ________________________________
ACRONYMS and INITIALS
Acronyms and initials are both techniques in
abbreviation which are always misconstrued to be the
same. New words created out of initial letters or sound
of words or names are called acronyms. The group of
initial letters used for a name or expression and
pronounced separately is classified as type of
abbreviation called initialism.
AWOL- absence without leave VIP- very important person
Capelco- Capiz Electric Cooperative MC- master of ceremony
CapSU- Capiz State University CAT- College Admission Test
COA- Commission on Audit UK- United Kingdom
Let’s give a shot!
Tell what the following acronyms and initials stand for. Then use the dictionary to
1. SOP stands for:_______________________________________
2. Laser stands for:_______________________________________
3. Scuba stands for:_______________________________________
4. ALS stands for:_______________________________________
5. DOLE stands for:_______________________________________
Another word formation process where portions of two words
are combined or fused together, thus creating a new word.
internet- inter and network heliport- helicopter and airport
cellphone- cellular and phone motel- motorist and hotel
emoticon- emotion and icon flare- flame and glare
Three ways of blending words:
The beginning of the word is added to the end of the other word.
Example: brunch – breakfast and lunch
Both the beginning of the words are added.
Example: cyborg – cybernetic and organism
Combining two words entirely without clipping or adding its parts
to form new word.
Example: thumbprint– thumb and print
Let’s give it a shot!
Find out where the following words came and give their meaning.
1. pixel __________________ ____________________
2. maxicare __________________ ____________________
3. telecast __________________ ____________________
Merge the following words and indicate what method is used in the combination. Write the letters only.
A. The beginning of the word is added to the end of the other word
B. Both the beginning of the words are added.
C. Two words are combined
Merged Word Method
1. camera and recorder ___________ ______
2. town and house ___________ ______
3. motor and cavalcade ___________ ______
4. Splash and surge ___________ ______
5. of the clock ___________ ______
A prefix is a group of letters that is added at
the beginning of a word (called a root) to
create a new word with a different meaning.
reunion insignificant preliminary
incorporate unfriend television
A hyphen separates the word
when prefix is joined to a proper
noun or a number.
The new word, if spelled
without a hyphen, could be
confused with another word.
re-creation [the creation of something for a second time]
recreation [an enjoyable activity]
re-sign [to sign again]
resign [to submit or relinquish]
The same vowel appears at the end
of the prefix and the beginning of
A suffix is a group of letters added to the end of
a word (called a root) to create a new word with
a different meaning or, more often, to indicate a
change in the root word’s function.
For example, adding the -ed suffix to the present
stem of a regular verb puts the verb in the past
talk + ed = talked
The addition of a suffix frequently
causes spelling errors because the
spelling of some roots must be
changed before a suffix can be
A group of letters added to the
end of the word to form a new
word, the meaning of which is
usually different from
the original word.
Eat – refers to the verb/action of taking in food
Eater – refers to a noun/person who eats
1.A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to form a
new word, the meaning of which is usually different from that of the original
2. Suffixes modify the root word to which they are added.
3. Suffixes are used to form plural of nouns.
Example: -s, -es, -ies and – er
4. Suffixes are used to change the tense of a verb.
Example: - s, -es, -d, ed, -t, - ing
5. Suffixes are used to form an adverb from adjectives.
Examples: - ly
6. The suffixes – er, -ful, and –less are some of the commonly used suffixes.
7. For root word ending in – e, only – r is added.
8. For root word ending in – y is dropped and replaced with – ier.
Suffix Definition Examples
-ly like happily, friendly
-wise in the direction of clockwise
-ness quality, degree relationship, intership
-less without mindless, helpless
-ize to make or cause to be emphasize, sterilize
-ism condition, manner capitalism, nationalism
-ful characterized by beautiful
-ess female goddess, actress
-er one who weaver, miner
- ee one who receives action employee, nominee
-able likely capable
Doubling a Consonant
When a root ends in a consonant, double the
consonant before adding a suffix if:
1) the root has only one syllable or is accented on
its final syllable; 2) the root ends with a single
consonant preceded by a single vowel; 3) the
suffix begins with a vowel.
red + est = reddest
begin + ing = beginning
Do not double the consonant if the root ends in w, x, or y.
tow + ed = towed
lax + est = laxest
play + er = player
The root ends with a single consonant preceded by two
bloat + ing = bloating
The root has two or more syllables and is not accented on the
suffer + ed = suffered
Dropping a silent e
If a root ends in a silent e, delete the e
before adding a suffix if:
1) the e is preceded by a consonant; 2) the
suffix begins with a vowel.
merge + ing = merging
the e is preceded by an o.
hoe + ed = hoed
Retain the silent e if
1) the e is preceded by a consonant; 2) the suffix
begins with a consonant.
like + ness = likeness
1) the e is preceded by a soft c (pronounced like an
s) or a soft g (pronounced like a j); 2) the suffix
begins with an a, o, or u.
notice + able = noticeable
courage + ous = courageous
Changing a Final ie to a y
If a root ends in ie, change the ie to a y
before adding ing.
die + ing = dying
Changing a Final y to an i
If a root ends in a consonant followed by a y,
change the y to an i before adding a suffix unless
the suffix begins with an i.
busy + ness = business
But: carry + ing = carrying
If a vowel precedes the y, however, retain the y.
obey + ing = obeying
Adding a k after a Final c
If root ends with a hard c (pronounced like
a k), insert a k before adding a suffix that
begins with an i, an e, or a y.
panic + ed = panicked
No k is needed if:
the suffix begins with an a, an o, a u, or a
frolic + some = frolicsome
the c at the end of the root becomes soft
(pronounced like an s) after the suffix is added.
critic + ism = criticism
When a suffix is added to a root, the
result is usually spelled as one word.
The suffixes elect and odd are
exceptions. They should always be
connected to a root word with a hyphen.
If a root is a proper noun, a
hyphen should usually be
inserted before adding a suffix.
Analyze the following words carefully and identify the
prefix, root word, suffix and its meaning and derivation.
word prefix root word suffix meaning derivation