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Lessons From Copyright in Action for Copyright Reform

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Talk given at the conference "Balancing Intellectual Property Claims and the Freedom of Art and Communication",
 March 30 - April 1, 2016, Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF), Universität Bielefeld, Germany

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Lessons From Copyright in Action for Copyright Reform

  1. 1. LESSONS FROM COPYRIGHT IN ACTION FOR COPYRIGHT REFORM Leonhard Dobusch
 Universität Innsbruck - Department of Organization and Learning Balancing Intellectual Property Claims and the Freedom of Art and Communication
 March 30 - April 1, 2016, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Universität Bielefeld
  2. 2. #0 PROLOGUE
  3. 3. the growth of intellectual property in recent years has been uncontrolled to the point of recklessness. (p. 147) » The [copyright] law seemed suddenly to metastasize. (p. 153) The field of intellectual property can begin to resemble a game of conceptual Pac Man in which everything in sight is being gobbled up. (p. 156) David Lange (1981): Recognizing the Public Domain, In: Law and Contemporary Problems, 147
  4. 4. SHIFTING BASELINE Shifting environmental baselines are inter- generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people’s perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species Sáenz-Arroyo et al. (2005: 1957) »
  5. 5. #1 COPYRIGHT IN THE BOOKS
  6. 6. CORNERSTONES OF COPYRIGHT IN THE BOOKS (1) RIGHTS CLEARING IN EACH INDIVIDUAL CASE (2) NO REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS (3) EVER LONGER PROTECTION TERMS
  7. 7. Using a copyrighted work… …on a private, not-for- profit website
 (e.g., personal blog) …for private purpose on a commercial platform 
 (e.g., YouTube, Twitter) …for commercial, 
 for-profit purposes …in small parts for creating a new work 
 (e.g., remix, sampling) Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights …as a whole for 
 a new work 
 (e.g., background music) Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights …as whole without creating a new work
 (e.g., illustrative image) Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights Prohibited without clearing copyrights COPYRIGHT IN THE BOOKS
  8. 8. #2 COPYRIGHT IN ACTION
  9. 9. Forty-four per cent of all internet users aged 12+ claimed to be either ‘not particularly confident’ or ‘not at all’ confident in terms of what is legal and what isn’t online. » Online copyright infringement tracker benchmark study, commissioned by the Office of Communications (Ofcom) UK, 2012
  10. 10. VIDEO: https://youtu.be/hpYg4u18IXk
  11. 11. Of course, we don't have any special rights. We only used free YouTube material. And the YouTube terms allow anyone to use, to reproduce and to create derivative works including their public display on Youtube for free. For more, see here in the YT terms. - Best regards, the online editorial office »
  12. 12. DO COPYRIGHT EXPERTS KNOW?
  13. 13. ILLEGAL IN SPITE OF NON-INFRINGING PRACTICES? Arista v. Limewire (2010)A&M Records v. Napster (2001)
  14. 14. LEGAL IN SPITE OF INFRINGING PRACTICES? Viacom v. YouTube (2007)
  15. 15. 3% 3% 4% 5% 5% 5% 6% 12% 32% 53% 0% 25% 50% N.B.: Survey predates launch of Apple Music PERCENTAGE OF INTERNET ADULTS, PAST 3 MONTHS RADIO LEGAL IN SPITE OF INFRINGING PRACTICES?
  16. 16. YOUTUBE AS A MUSIC LIBRARY Views of No-1-Hits from the USA, France & Brazil from 1930-1960 Source: Heald, P.J. (2013): How Copyright Keeps Works Disappeared, 
 http://ssrn.com/abstract=2290181
  17. 17. ENFORCEMENT AND MONETIZATION
  18. 18. COPYRIGHT IN THE BOOKS (1) RIGHTS CLEARING IN EACH INDIVIDUAL CASE (2) NO REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS (3) EVER LONGER PROTECTION TERMS
  19. 19. THE »YOUTUBE COPYRIGHT« (1) ONE STOP SHOP (2) MANDATORY REGISTRATION (3) USE IT OR LOSE IT
  20. 20. #3 CONCLUSION
  21. 21. #1 WITHOUT REFORM, GOOGLE WINS #2 YOUTUBE SHOWS THE WAY FOR REFORM #3 REGISTER, ONE-STOP-SHOP, USE IT OR LOSE IT
  22. 22. #4 EPILOGUE
  23. 23. Using a copyrighted work… …on a private, not-for- profit website
 (e.g., personal blog) …for private purpose on a commercial platform 
 (e.g., YouTube, Twitter) …for commercial, 
 for-profit purposes …in small parts for creating a new work 
 (e.g., remix, sampling) legal due to quotation and remix exception legal due to quotation and remix exception legal with standardized collecting society fee (analogous to covers) …as a whole for 
 a new work 
 (e.g., background music) legal due to remix exception, lump-sum compensation legal due to remix exception, compen- sation by platform Prohibited without clearing copyrights …as whole without creating a new work
 (e.g., illustrative image) notice free of charge, capped fee („ticket“) notice free of charge, compensation by platform Prohibited without clearing copyrights REFORMED COPYRIGHT
  24. 24. CONTACT E-Mail: 
 Leonhard.Dobusch@uibk.ac.at ! Twitter: @leonidobusch ! Homepages:
 http://bit.ly/LD_UIBK
 http://www.dobusch.net ! Blog:
 http://www.governancexborders.com

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