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DRUG EDUCATION
LEONARDO T GARCIA
Oct 5, 2014
DRUGEDUCATION
A.RA 9165 An Overview
B.Drug introduction
C.Drug Abuse and Addiction
D.Rehabilitation of Drug Dependents
E. ...
DRUG INTRODUCTION
I.DRUG
II.PHARMACOLOGY
III.COMMON PARAPHERNALIA FOR
DRUG USE
IV.WHY DO PEOPLE DRUG ABUSE
V.COMMON SIGNS ...
I. DRUG
 any substance whether natural or synthetic that
stimulates, depresses or irritates specialized cells.
 any subs...
DRUG ADDICTION
 Addiction is a value-laden catchword popularly used to
described dependence on drug. Originally associate...
KINDS OF DRUG DEPENDENCE
1)PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE
 an adaptive state caused by repeated drug use that reveals
itself by deve...
POLYDRUG USE
 abuse by taking all sort of drugs.
TOLERANCE
 the increasing of dosage of drugs to maintain the desired
ef...
PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (HaNDS)
HALLUCINOGEN
 Also called “psychedelics”
 Drugs that affect thinking, se...
Legal definition of marijuana
 all parts of the plant whether growing or not, the seeds
thereof, the resin extracted from...
• inside similar to coconut meat
• ovoid in shape
Forms of Marijuana
1)Marijuana joint or cigarettes – made from dried lea...
4) Altered sense of time and disorientation
5) Forgetfulness
6) Inability to coordination and slower reflexes
Long term ef...
Ex 3: MESCALINE
 Primary ingredient of the peyote cactus, a plant known as
lophoria wiliamsii lemaire (a small, soft blue...
 usually comes as liquid in small pharmaceutical bottles
and is most often cooked into a white powder for snorting
 at l...
Ex 5: PSILOCYBIN
 derived from psilocibe mushroom grown by Indians for
centuries
 when the mushroom is eaten, it produce...
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HALLUCINOGEN
1) Strong emotional feeling
2) Recalling previously suppressed ideas and thoughts
3)...
Kinds of Narcotics:
1)Narcotics of natural origin – produced directly from the poppy
plant. Examples are: Opium, Morphine,...
Ex 2: MORPHINE
• A derivative of opium
• Comes from the name of Greek god of dreams, “
Morpheus”
• Most effective drug to ...
Comes from two forms:
1. Tablets (aspirin)
2. Liquid (Rubitussin AC and Cheracon)
Ex 4: THEBAINE
• principal alkaloid pres...
Ex 2: HYDROMORPHONE
• Commonly known as Dilaudid
• It is about eight (8) times as potent as morphine and is
sought after b...
Ex 2: METHADONE
• German scientists synthesized Methadone during
World War II because of the shortage of Morphine
• Althou...
4) Reduced vision
5) Respiratory depression
6) Nausea (a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit)
Withdrawal Symp...
4) Possible death
DEPRESSANTS/SEDATIVES
 Drugs which decrease body functions and nerve activities
 Also called “downers”...
• Larger dosage can cause sleep twenty to sixty minutes
after taking it orally
• An overdose of barbiturates may progress ...
2) The user of the drug had developed a tolerance to the
drug thus increasing dosage; and For added thrill, barbiturate
is...
Ex 3: MEPROBAMATE
• A muscle reluctant prescribed mainly for the relief of
anxiety tension and muscle spasms
• First synth...
EFFECTS OF DEPRESSANTS
1)A usual dose of a barbiturate causes a calming, relaxing effect
which promotes sleep
2)Relief of ...
• It take 125 pounds of dried leaves to produce one pound
of cocaine
• Medically used as a tropical local anesthetic
• Can...
• The following are its immediate effects:
1) dilated (become wider, larger, or more open )pupils
2) increase blood pressu...
• Also called “poor man’s cocaine” because it is
cheaper than cocaine
• White, colorless crystalline substance with a bitt...
4) Produces chest pain, irregularity of heartbeat and
hypertension
The following are its long term effects:
1.Psychosis
2....
• The following are its long term effects:
1) Brain damage
2) Heart complications
3) Death
GENERAL EFFECTS OF STIMULANTS:
...
9. Chronic snorters suffer from irritation of the nose leading to
frequent nose bleeding
10. Injecting shabu using dirty n...
EFFECTS OF INHALANTS
1) Unsteadiness and restlessness
2) Drunkenness with depression leading to
unconsciousness
3) Irritab...
STAGES OF ALCOHOLISM
Early Stage
• Fatigue, filters and nausea
• Avoidance of contact with superiors
• Changes of behaviou...
Alcoholism
• continued drinking despite suffering alcohol-related
problems also known as alcohol dependence
• a disease th...
COMMON PARAPHERNALIA FOR DRUG USE
1.Spoon
2.Syringe
3.Eyedropper with rubber suction device
4.Needle
5.Tourniquet
6.Matche...
 Working at night
 For added strength
 To lose weight
COMMON SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE
 Change in attendance at work or scho...
DRUG SYNDICATE – any organized group of two or more
persons forming or joining together with the intention of
committing a...
2. THE MANUFACTURER
• The one responsible for the processing of the raw
materials supplied by the grower
• Maintains a man...
5. THE DISTRIBUTOR
• The source of drugs in their respective areas
• The smuggler has different distributors in different
...
DRUG CARTELS
CARTEL – an association of businesses in international
monopoly.
MEDELLIN CARTEL - Established in 1970’s in M...
- Lehder built a runway for the small airplanes
that were used in transporting illegal drugs to the US; the r
unway was pr...
3. Santacruz Londono
They conducted their operations quietly, reinvesting their profits
in legitimate businesses. As rival...
GOLDEN TRIANGLE (South East Asia)
Composed of Thailand, Myanmar and Laos
• World’s leading producer of heroin
• The geogra...
“IF YOU KNOW THE ENEMY AND KNOW
YOURSELF, YOU NEED NOT FEAR THE
RESULT OF A HUNDRED BATTLES. IF YOU
KNOW YOURSELF BUT NOT ...
THANK YOU AND HAVE A GOOD DAY AHEAD OF US!
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
Dangerous Drugs
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Dangerous Drugs

  1. 1. DRUG EDUCATION LEONARDO T GARCIA Oct 5, 2014
  2. 2. DRUGEDUCATION A.RA 9165 An Overview B.Drug introduction C.Drug Abuse and Addiction D.Rehabilitation of Drug Dependents E. The Role of the Citizens F. Examination
  3. 3. DRUG INTRODUCTION I.DRUG II.PHARMACOLOGY III.COMMON PARAPHERNALIA FOR DRUG USE IV.WHY DO PEOPLE DRUG ABUSE V.COMMON SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE VI.RA 6425 AND RA 9165
  4. 4. I. DRUG  any substance whether natural or synthetic that stimulates, depresses or irritates specialized cells.  any substance that brings about physical, psychological and behavioural changes in person taking it. ABUSE  use to bad effect or for a bad purpose. DRUG ABUSE  the use of drugs contrary to its purpose.  the use of any chemical substance, licit or elicit, which results in an individual’s physical, mental, emotional or social impairment.
  5. 5. DRUG ADDICTION  Addiction is a value-laden catchword popularly used to described dependence on drug. Originally associated with narcotics, the word “addiction” has become prejorative term because addiction has been used in so many different ways. It is being replaced by the term “Drug Dependence” in technical circles. ADDICTS  Are persons who abuse the use of drug. A drug dependent person. DEPENDENCE  the state of being dependent. DRUG DEPENDENCE  a state of psychic or physical dependence, or both, in a dangerous drug, arising in a person following administration or use of that drug on a periodic or continuous bases.
  6. 6. KINDS OF DRUG DEPENDENCE 1)PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE  an adaptive state caused by repeated drug use that reveals itself by developing intense physical symptoms when the drug is stopped; formerly called addiction. 2) PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE  an attachment to drug use, which arises from the drug’s ability to satisfy some emotional or personality need of an individual; formerly called habituation. DRUG EXPERIMENTER  one who illegally, wrongfully or improperly uses any drugs for reason curiosity, peer pressure or other similar reasons. POTENTIATION  is the combined action of two or more drugs whereby there is greater effect than the sum of effects of each drug rather when taken alone.
  7. 7. POLYDRUG USE  abuse by taking all sort of drugs. TOLERANCE  the increasing of dosage of drugs to maintain the desired effects of the drugs. WITHDRAWAL PERIOD  refers to the period from the point of drug dependence up to the point when the drug dependent is totally or gradually deprived of the drug. TREATMENT  a medical service rendered to client for the effective management of his total condition related to drug abuse. PHARMACOLOGY  the science of drug preparation, uses and effects.
  8. 8. PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS (HaNDS) HALLUCINOGEN  Also called “psychedelics”  Drugs that affect thinking, sensation, self-awareness and emotions.  Produces hallucination and delusion  Examples are: marijuana, LSD, mescaline, ketamine, psylocybin, phenicyclidine (PCP) Ex 1: Marijuana  Commonly called “grass”, “damo”, “tsongki” “ganja”, “bhang”  Botanical name is cannabis satival L  Has three major components: 1) Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – purple; the most active alkaloid; the one causing the hallucinogenic effect 2) Cannabinol – red (physiologically inactive) 3) Cannabidol – pink (physiologically inactive)
  9. 9. Legal definition of marijuana  all parts of the plant whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, the resin extracted from any parts of such plant, every compound, manufactured, salt derivative, mixture or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin. Identifying Marijuana 1)Leaves • green, spotted brown in color • with cystolith hairs on the underside • presence of effervescene (giving off bubbles) when diluted with hydrochroric acid 2) Lulls (deceptive) • green, brown or brownish-spotted in color • characteristically shaped • with cystolith hairs 3) Fruits (seeds) • greenish-yellow to brown in color
  10. 10. • inside similar to coconut meat • ovoid in shape Forms of Marijuana 1)Marijuana joint or cigarettes – made from dried leaves, tops and flowers of the plant; the most available form. 2)Hashish or hash – made from the extracted resin (a sticky flammable organic substance) of the plant; usually granular or solid chunky in form, ranging from a mustardly yellow (brownish) to dark brown; stronger than crude marijuana and may be smoke or eaten. 3)Hashish oil – higher form of marijuana and not usually available because it is expensive; brown in color; considered as concentrated cannabis. Immediate effects of marijuana use 1)Faster heartbeat and pulse rate 2)Blood eyes 3)Dry mouth and throat
  11. 11. 4) Altered sense of time and disorientation 5) Forgetfulness 6) Inability to coordination and slower reflexes Long term effects of Marijuana use 1) Chest pain 2) Irregular menstrual cycle 3) Temporary loss of fertility for both sexes 4) Premature babies and low birth weights 5) Cancer of the lungs Ex 2: LYSERGIC ACID DIATHYLAMIDE (LSD)  Colorless and tasteless semi-synthetic alkaloid substance extracted from ergot fungus which grown on rye, wheat and other grains  Popular in the 1960’s and 1970’s at the height of the hippie culture
  12. 12. Ex 3: MESCALINE  Primary ingredient of the peyote cactus, a plant known as lophoria wiliamsii lemaire (a small, soft blue-green spineless cactus)  Produces illusions and hallucinations lasting from 5 to 12 hours Ex 4: KETAMINE  Chemical name is hydrochloride  Common name include “special K” or “K”  Getting popular as “Party Drug” that produces tripping effects the whole night teenagers who are fond of “techno parties” or “raves” take the drug because the user feels uncontrollable urge to dance upon hearing sound of music  originally created for use of human anaesthetic and is still used as a general anaesthetic for children, persons of poor health and veterinary medicine
  13. 13.  usually comes as liquid in small pharmaceutical bottles and is most often cooked into a white powder for snorting  at lower doses produce hallucinogenic effect and may cause the user to feel very far away from his body; such experience is referred to as entering “k” hole  when snorted, the effect comes on within 5 to 10 minutes when ejected into the muscle, effect can be felt within 4 minutes; it is never injected into vein  if ingested, effect can be felt within 10 to 20 minutes  Effects when taken in large dose are as follows: dizziness, Impairment of motor function, breathing problem resulting to death, convulsion and depression resulting to death  Recently, Ketamine Hydrochloride is mixed with Shabu and marketed as” KETABU”
  14. 14. Ex 5: PSILOCYBIN  derived from psilocibe mushroom grown by Indians for centuries  when the mushroom is eaten, it produces effect similar to mescaline and LSD Ex 6: PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP)  sold under different names such as: Angel, Dust, Crystal, Superglass, Killer Weed, Rocket Fuel, Embalming Fluid and many others GENERAL EFFECTS OF HALLUCINOGENS: 1)Increased heart rate and pulse rate 2)Elevated or increase blood pressure 3)Increase activity of the body due to the effect on the brain 4)Enlarge or dilated pupils of the eyes 5)Increased body temperature 6)Paleness of the face and skin of the body
  15. 15. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HALLUCINOGEN 1) Strong emotional feeling 2) Recalling previously suppressed ideas and thoughts 3) A feeling of great creativity and imagination 4) Very lucid and astonishingly clear thoughts 5) Intensification of sensory impressions 6) Changes in sensation. Sounds are “seen”, simple things appear very beautiful and colors seems to be “heard” 7) A mood of joy and strong feeling of religious awareness 8) A feeling of oneness with the universe 1.NARCOTICS  In its medical meaning refer to opium and opium derivatives or synthetic substitutes  Drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep
  16. 16. Kinds of Narcotics: 1)Narcotics of natural origin – produced directly from the poppy plant. Examples are: Opium, Morphine, Codeine and Thebaine) Ex 1: OPIUM • Derived from the plant opium poppy, botanical name is papaver somniferum • Papaver is Greek for poppy, somniferum is Latin for “ to dream or induce sleep” • Originally intended for medicinal purposes • Opium poppy grows from 2 to 5 feet with flowers of different colors • Raw opium is obtained by making incision either vertically or horizontally which allows the milky juice to seep from the plant • Raw opium is then formed into balls or chunks and shipped to a laboratory for cooking • Raw opium is then refined into morphine
  17. 17. Ex 2: MORPHINE • A derivative of opium • Comes from the name of Greek god of dreams, “ Morpheus” • Most effective drug to relief pain. Its legal use is restricted in hospitals. • It is odourless, tasteless and darkens with age • Approximate 10 kilograms of raw opium will produce 1 kilogram of morphine • Addicts administer it intravenously, but can be smoked or taken orally • Both physical and psychological dependence is rated high Ex 3: CODEINE • The chemical compound derive from morphine • It produces less analgesic, sedation and respiratory depression than morphine.
  18. 18. Comes from two forms: 1. Tablets (aspirin) 2. Liquid (Rubitussin AC and Cheracon) Ex 4: THEBAINE • principal alkaloid present in a specie of poppy. By it self it is not used medically, but it is converted into a variety of medically important compounds including codeine 2) Semi-synthetic Narcotics – Synthesized from narcotics of natural origin. Examples are: Heroin, Hydromorphone and Oxycodone Ex 1: HEROIN • The chemical compound derived from morphine • Chemical name is diacetylmorphine • Pure heroin is white powder with a bitter taste • Method of administering are injected, sniffed or smoked
  19. 19. Ex 2: HYDROMORPHONE • Commonly known as Dilaudid • It is about eight (8) times as potent as morphine and is sought after by drug addicts Ex 3: OXYCODONE • It is synthesized from thebaine • More potent than codeine 3) Synthetic Narcotics – produced entirely in the laboratory. Examples are: Meperidine, Methadone,and Pentazocine (Talwin) Ex 1: MEPERIDINE • The first synthetic narcotic produced a generation ago. • It is chemically different from morphine but resembles its pain killing effect. • It is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain
  20. 20. Ex 2: METHADONE • German scientists synthesized Methadone during World War II because of the shortage of Morphine • Although chemically unlike Morphine and Heroin, it produces many of the same effects as pain killer • Also used as a treatment of narcotic addict Danger of Narcotic Abuse: 1)Narcotic Abusers neglect themselves and usually suffer from malnutrition, infections, diseases and injuries. 2)The body of the abuser is prone to toxic reactions due to impurities in the narcotic 3)Fatal infections can be readily transmitted to the abuser’s body. Effects of the use of Narcotics: 1)Pen point pupils (sharp vision) 2)Drowsiness (sleepy) 3)Exphoria (excited)
  21. 21. 4) Reduced vision 5) Respiratory depression 6) Nausea (a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit) Withdrawal Symptoms: 1) Watery eyes 2) Runny nose 3) Yawning 4) Loss of appetite 5) Irritability 6) Tremors (shake or tremble with a slight rapid motion) 7) Panic 8) Chills and sweating 9) Nausea Effects of overdose: 1) Shallow breathing 2) Clammy (slightly wet and sticky) skin 3) Convulsions
  22. 22. 4) Possible death DEPRESSANTS/SEDATIVES  Drugs which decrease body functions and nerve activities  Also called “downers” which are drugs that act on the nervous systems promoting relaxation and sleep.  Used in excessive amounts, depressants induce a state of intoxication similar to that of alcohol  Intoxication doses result in impaired judgement, disorientation, slurred (unclear) speech, drunken behaviour without the odor of alcohol, and loss of motor coordination. Examples are: barbiturates, methaqualone, meprobamate and benzodiazepines Ex 1: BARBITURATES • Prescribed to induce sedation and sleep (Sleeping pills) • small dosage tends to calm down nervous conditions
  23. 23. • Larger dosage can cause sleep twenty to sixty minutes after taking it orally • An overdose of barbiturates may progress through stages of sedation, sleep and comatose to death from respiratory arrest to cardiovascular complications • Can produced both physical and psychological dependence • Classified as: 1) Ultra Short-Acting (Hexobarbital) 2) Intermediate-Acting (Secobarbital/Seconal) 3) Short-Acting (Pentobarbital/Nembutal) 4) Long-Acting (Methobarbital/Mebaral) (Phenobarbital/Luminal) • Barbiturate are abused in two ways: 1) The user of the drug had developed a tolerance to the drug thus increasing dosage; and
  24. 24. 2) The user of the drug had developed a tolerance to the drug thus increasing dosage; and For added thrill, barbiturate is injected as a substitute to other drugs being abused, especially Amphetamines. Ex 2: METHAQUALONE • A synthetic sedative which has been widely abused and often cause serious poisoning • It is taken orally and is rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract • Large doses can cause comatose accompanied by convulsion • Heavy use of this drug leads to tolerance and dependence • It is known in the US as Qualude, Parest, Mequin, Optimol, Somnafac and Sofor • Its European equivalent is Mandrax • It is widely-abused because it was once mistaken taught of to be non-addictive and very effective as aphrodisiac
  25. 25. Ex 3: MEPROBAMATE • A muscle reluctant prescribed mainly for the relief of anxiety tension and muscle spasms • First synthesized in 1950 and introduced as mild tranquilizers (i.e.: Miltown and Equanil) Ex 4: BENZODIAZEPINES • Relieve anxiety, tension and muscle spasms as well as producing sedation and preventing convulsions • Have slow onset but have long duration of action • To obtain “high”, they are taken with marijuana or alcohol i.e.: Diazepam (Valium); Lorazepam (Ativan) and Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Valium and Librium are widely prescribed in the Philippines
  26. 26. EFFECTS OF DEPRESSANTS 1)A usual dose of a barbiturate causes a calming, relaxing effect which promotes sleep 2)Relief of anxiety and excitement 3)Reduced mental and physical activity 4)A marked decreased in breathing 4. STIMULANTS  Drugs which increases alertness, mental activity and physical disposition, relieve fatigue and offset drowsiness  Also called “uppers” Examples are: cocaine, shabu and ecstacy Ex 1: COCAINE • It is called “the king’s habit” because it is expensive • White crystalline alkaloid found in the leaves of the coca bush • Erythroxylon coca is the botanical name of the plant coca bush
  27. 27. • It take 125 pounds of dried leaves to produce one pound of cocaine • Medically used as a tropical local anesthetic • Can be taken by ingestion, by rubbing it directly to gums, by applying it directly to sex organs during intercourse, by injection or snorting • When ingested, the “high” can last from 15 to 30 minutes • When injected, the “high” can last from 45 to 90 minutes • Comes from different forms: 1) cocaine hydrochloride – the most readily available from, fine, white crystal –like powder that is medically known as anesthetic 2) street or rock – largest pieces of cocaine hydrochloride 3) freebase – purified substance of rock 4) coca paste – crude product smoked in South America; more dangerous because it has contaminants such as kerosene
  28. 28. • The following are its immediate effects: 1) dilated (become wider, larger, or more open )pupils 2) increase blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature 3) euphoric (a feeling of intense happiness and elation) effect/light feeling 4) feeling of being energetic 5) loss of appetite 6) slurred speech • The following are its long term effects 1)Psychosis (mental disorder) 2)lung damage 3)runny nose and ulcerated mucous membrane of the nose 4)confusion Ex 2: METHAMPHETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE • Commonly called “shabu” • Other names such as: Ubas, S, Siopao, Sha and Ice
  29. 29. • Also called “poor man’s cocaine” because it is cheaper than cocaine • White, colorless crystalline substance with a bitter, numbing taste • First synthetic stimulant developed by the Japanese • Originally called “kakuzeizai”, from the Japanese term “kakuzei”, which means “waking” and “zai”, which means drug “kakuzeizai” – waking drug • Can be ingested, snorted or injected (intravenous or intramuscular) The following are its immediate effects: 1)Produce anxiety (nervous disorder), irritability, irrational behaviour, talkativeness and loss of self-control 2)Loss of appetite and inability to sleep 3)Produces violent and destructive behaviour and recklessness
  30. 30. 4) Produces chest pain, irregularity of heartbeat and hypertension The following are its long term effects: 1.Psychosis 2.Convulsion 3.Death from cardiac arrest Ex 3: METHYLENE DIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA) • Commonly referred to ecstacy, “X” and party drug • Also known as XTC, ADAM, or Eden tablet. “hug drug” or “yuppie drug” • A designer drug • It is usually marketed in tablet form, but it also available in liquid or powder form • The following are its immediate effects: 1)Euphoria 2)Feeling energetic and hyperactive 3)Sense of well being
  31. 31. • The following are its long term effects: 1) Brain damage 2) Heart complications 3) Death GENERAL EFFECTS OF STIMULANTS: 1.Gives a feeling of being stronger, more decisive and self- possessed 2.Extended wakefulness and increased mental alertness 3.It may induce irritability, anxiety and fear 4.Loss of appetite resulting in decreased of body weight 5.Pregnant women who abused shabu can cause mental retardation to their unborn babies 6.Loss of sexual desire; lack of interest towards work 7.User suffers “Schizophrenia” or split personality leading to violent behaviour 8.Chronic user experience loss of memory
  32. 32. 9. Chronic snorters suffer from irritation of the nose leading to frequent nose bleeding 10. Injecting shabu using dirty needles can lead to various infections, such as Hepatitis-B (infection of the liver), Blood Poisoning and AIDS 5. OTHER SUBSTANCES ABUSED  INHALANTS • Are volatile substances derived from ether or chloroform (a pleasant-smelling, volatile, highly flammable) • It is inhaled through the nose to experience intoxication • These substances include the following: 1) Quick-drying glue or plastic cement like rugby 2) Paint remover and lacquer as thinner and solvent 3) Gasoline and gasoline-based products 4) Kerosene 5) Nail polish or polish remover “acetone” 6) Lighter fluid and dry cleaning fluid
  33. 33. EFFECTS OF INHALANTS 1) Unsteadiness and restlessness 2) Drunkenness with depression leading to unconsciousness 3) Irritability and highly-agitated condition 4) Initial excitement thereby losing emotional control 5) Irritation of throat and nasal passages ALCOHOL • Refers to beverages whose effects are related to their substance contents which are extracted from chemical compound ethyl and hydrocarbon that triggers the control nervous system and may damage vital human organs through misused • It is the most abused recreation drug • Physical dependence exist if taken regularly in large quantities
  34. 34. STAGES OF ALCOHOLISM Early Stage • Fatigue, filters and nausea • Avoidance of contact with superiors • Changes of behaviour style by the person – more outgoing and increased self confidence Middle Stage • Increase nervousness, irritability, red or bleary eyes and flushed face • Individual working in performance cycles where some cycles have great output and others have very little. Last Stage • Prolonged absences • Further decline in work performance with many different kinds of excuses being offered • Increase financial problems
  35. 35. Alcoholism • continued drinking despite suffering alcohol-related problems also known as alcohol dependence • a disease that includes alcohol craving • commonly available to the convenient store i.e.: wine, vodka, brandy, whisky, gin, beer, etc • considered drug because of its depressing effects in the body. MAJOR SYMPTOMS OF ALCOHOLISM • Craving – strong compulsion to drink • Impaired control • Inability to control drinking urge • Physical withdrawal symptoms like sweating, shakiness, anxiety and nausea • Need for increased doses of Alcohol to maintain same level of intoxication
  36. 36. COMMON PARAPHERNALIA FOR DRUG USE 1.Spoon 2.Syringe 3.Eyedropper with rubber suction device 4.Needle 5.Tourniquet 6.Matches 7.Lighter 8.Razor blades 9.Foil 10.Wine bottle cap WHY DO PEOPLE DRUG ABUSE  Peer pressure  Curiosity  Pleasurable feeling  Want to forget  Pain killer
  37. 37.  Working at night  For added strength  To lose weight COMMON SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE  Change in attendance at work or school  Change from normal capabilities (work habits, efficiency etc.)  Poor physical appearance including inattention to dress and personal hygiene  Wearing sunglasses constantly at inappropriate times  Unusual effort made to cover arms in order to hide needle marks  Association with known drug abusers  Stealing items which can readily be sold for cash 9to support drug habit)  Changes in mood-depending on the drug taken. Ex: depressed or elated and euphoric
  38. 38. DRUG SYNDICATE – any organized group of two or more persons forming or joining together with the intention of committing any offense prescribed under RA 9165. DRUG TRAFFICKING – the unauthorized manufacture, distribution or unlawful possession of any controlled substance, for the purpose of selling. DRUG DISTRIBUTION PROCESS 1.THE GROWER • The one responsible for the planting, harvesting and maintenance of the original plant from which the drug is derive from . • The source of crops or contact to other sources from whom crops can be obtained. • Sees to it that the plant produced in the highest quality possible in sufficient quantity.
  39. 39. 2. THE MANUFACTURER • The one responsible for the processing of the raw materials supplied by the grower • Maintains a manufacturing laboratory • The one who makes contact or is contacted so that the distribution can begin 3. THE IMPORTER • The client or contact of the manufacturer • The primary seller of the drugs • The importer devices the plan or procedure by which the now-refined drug will reach its destination, whether that be another country, state or other geographical area. 4. THE SMUGGLER • Has the task of smuggling the drugs into the designated area • Must device techniques by which the drugs evade the scrutiny of inspection
  40. 40. 5. THE DISTRIBUTOR • The source of drugs in their respective areas • The smuggler has different distributors in different geographical areas 6. THE DEALER • Most commonly called “PUSHERS” • They make drugs easily available to users • Some dealers are satisfied with selling drugs to already known addicts, while some engage in addicting new customers 7. THE CONSUMER • The buyer and user of drugs • The “drug addicts” • The reason why the business of illegal drugs continue to thrive
  41. 41. DRUG CARTELS CARTEL – an association of businesses in international monopoly. MEDELLIN CARTEL - Established in 1970’s in Medellin, Columbia Its key members were: Pablo Escobar – the leader of Medellin Cartel; a common street thief who mastermined the criminal enterprise. Jose Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha – had prior illegal movement in the emerald trade Jorge Ochoa, Fabio Ochoa and Juan David Ochoa – belong to a well-respected ranching family Carlos Lehder – marijuana smuggler who owned land properties and air strip in Norman’s clay Norman’s clay is a small island in Bahamas
  42. 42. - Lehder built a runway for the small airplanes that were used in transporting illegal drugs to the US; the r unway was protected from radar - The island became the stop-over and re- fuelling hubs for the planes transporting illegal drugs Its operations started to deteriorate when it started getting violent due to Escobar’s power-hungry activities against the Columbian government. Eventually, both Pablo Escobar and Rodriguez Gacha were gunned down by the Columbian Police, while the Ochoa brothers turned themselves in exchange for lenient prison terms. The Medellin Cartel was neutralized in the early 1990’s CALI CARTEL- Established in 1970’s in Cali, Columbia Its key members were: 1.Gilberto Rodriguez OrejuelaM 2.iguel Rodriguez Orejuela
  43. 43. 3. Santacruz Londono They conducted their operations quietly, reinvesting their profits in legitimate businesses. As rivals of the Medellin Cartel, they secretly supplied information against Escobar to the Columbian Police. In the mid-1990’s, the leaders were arrested and are currently serving prison terms however, it is believed that operations are still going on GOLDEN CRESCENT (Middle East)  Composed of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan  One of the world’s biggest sources of opium  The geographical location is conducive to growing opium poppies  The fields are said to be protected by the Taloban Afghanistan
  44. 44. GOLDEN TRIANGLE (South East Asia) Composed of Thailand, Myanmar and Laos • World’s leading producer of heroin • The geographical location of said countries are conducive to growing crops • The fields cover a vast area impossible to monitor completely • Poor farmers choose to plant opium poppies because it is more lucrative • The fields are said to be protected by the rebel groups, especially in Myanmar FIRST IMPORTANT DRUG TRAFFIC ROUTE Middle East – discovery, plantation, cultivation and harvest (Grower) Turkey – operation for distribution (Distributor) Europe – manufacture, refine and synthesis (Manufacturer) US – marketing (Dealer/Pusher)
  45. 45. “IF YOU KNOW THE ENEMY AND KNOW YOURSELF, YOU NEED NOT FEAR THE RESULT OF A HUNDRED BATTLES. IF YOU KNOW YOURSELF BUT NOT THE ENEMY, FOR EVERY VICTORY GAINED YOU WILL SUFFER A DEFEAT. IF YOU KNOW NEITHER THE ENEMY NOR YOURSELF, YOU WILL SUCCUMB IN EVERY BATTLE.” --SUN TZU--
  46. 46. THANK YOU AND HAVE A GOOD DAY AHEAD OF US!

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