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Research in Bio.Chem Diabetes

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Research in Bio.Chem Diabetes

  1. 1. LEIZEL A. DESPI BSED 2C ASSIGNMENT/RESEARCH 1. When is the person considered to be diabetic? The person is to be classed as diabetic if he/she suffering from diabetes mellitus or diabetes. There are occurrences in the individual which are the symptoms. There are different symptoms undergo such as the increased thirst, increased hunger , having to urinate more often – especially at night, feeling very tired, weight loss, blurry vision, sores that do not heal and the tingling/numbness in the hands and feet. The diabetic individual suffers regularly from hyperglycemia. The regular hyperglycemia is usually demonstrated by the following measures, such as fasting plasma glucose level equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/l), plasma glucose equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l two hours after a 75g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test and random plasma glucose - 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l. The body of a diabetic person no longer makes insulin because the body's own immune system has attacked and destroyed the cells where insulin is made or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. 2. What are two hormones responsible in keeping glucose concentration in the blood within normal range? Differentiate one from the other. The two hormones responsible for keeping glucose concentration in the blood at normal range are the insulin and glucagon. The effects of glucagon are the opposite of the effects induced by insulin. The two hormones need to work in partnership with each other to keep blood glucose levels balanced. These two hormones are secreted by endocrine pancreas. The first hormone is the insulin, it is released by beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood sugar, although a low level of insulin is always secreted by the pancreas while the second hormone which is the glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas or known as the islets of Langerhans, when blood glucose is low. The glucagon plays an active role in allowing the body to regulate the utilisation of glucose and fats while Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. Many of the body’s cells rely on insulin to take glucose from the blood for energy while the glucagon serves to keep blood glucose levels high enough for the body to function well. If blood glucose levels rise for example, during the fed or absorptive state, when a meal is digested and the nutrient molecules are being absorbed and used, the beta cells of the pancreas respond by secreting insulin and if blood glucose levels fall below normal levels for instance, during the post-absorptive or fasting state, when nutrients from a recently digested meal are no longer circulating in the blood, or during starvation, insulin secretion is inhibited and, at the same time, the alpha cells of the pancreas respond by secreting glucagon. 3. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 2 Diabetes? There are two types of diabetes the type1 Diabetes and type 2 Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes The Type 1 Diabetes often referred to as the “juvenile diabetes”. It is a form of diabetes mellitus that is most common in children but can be diagnosed at any age. It is an autoimmune disease that
  2. 2. permanently destroys beta cells in the pancreas, meaning that body can no longer produce insulin. People with this type of diabetes require regular insulin delivery to manage it. There are causes of type 1 diabetes and these are different than those of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is commonly thought to be caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger, which causes the immune system to target and kill off its own insulin producing cells. What triggers the immune system to behave in such a way is not fully understood. Theories include the possibility that a virus may stimulate the auto- immune response. There are symptoms occur upon acquiring the type 2 diabetes As more insulin producing cells in the pancreas are killed off, the body can no longer control its blood glucose levels and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. These symptoms are the above average thirst, feeling tired, needing to pee regularly, losing weight, skin infections and genital itchiness There are treatments that can be done in type 1 diabetes upon lack of insulin production by the pancreas make it particularly to control. Treatment requires a strict regimen that typically includes a carefully calculated diet, planned physical activity, home blood glucose testing several times a day, and multiple daily insulin injections. Staying physically active and exercising regularly, maintaining a constant weight and eating a healthy diet are all invaluable in type 1 diabetes treatment. Although diet and exercise have a role to play in type 1 diabetes management, they cannot reverse the disease or eliminate the need for insulin. Type 1 diabetes is a serious condition which can lead to complications. It includes heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, kidney disease and neuropathy. While the list of complications is a scary prospect, the chances of developing these can be significantly reduced by maintaining good control of your blood glucose levels and ensuring you attend all your diabetic complication screening appointments. Type 2 Diabetes The second type of diabetes is the type 2 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as non-insulin- dependent or adult-onset diabetes. It is a globally common metabolic disorder that results from the body's ineffective use of insulin. In the cases of diabetes, 90% is accountable that the type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with excess body weight and a lack of physical activity, and is now becoming more common in young adults, teens and children. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), more than 371 million people across the globe have diabetes and this figure is predicted to rise to over 550 million by 2030. Among the total global diabetes rate, 90% are living with type 2 diabetes but it is estimated that up to half of these people are unaware of their condition or undiagnosed diabetes. For example in the UK, more than 2.7 million people are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes while a further 750,000 people are believed to have the symptoms but are yet to be diagnosed with the disease. Type 2 diabetes is a serious medical condition that often requires the use of anti-diabetic medication, or insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. However the development of type 2 diabetes and its side effects or complications can be prevented if detected and treated at an early stage.
  3. 3. Following pre-diabetes or metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes can potentially be avoided through diet and exercise. There are causes of the type 2 diabetes, it occurs when the hormone insulin is not used effectively by the cells in your body. Insulin is needed for cells to take in glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream and convert it into energy. The ineffective use of insulin results in the body becoming resistant to normal levels of insulin which also known as insulin resistance, that turn causes blood sugar levels to rise or the hyperglycemia condition). In advanced stages, type 2 diabetes may cause damage to insulin producing cells in the pancreas, leading to insufficient insulin production for your body's needs. There are factors that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. It include the obesity or being overweight, having a waist size of 31.5 inches or more in women or more than 37 inches in men, eating an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, having a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes, having high blood pressure or raised cholesterol levels, being of South Asian and African-Caribbean descent and smoking. It can also influenced by genetics and environmental factors such as either parent has type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance of type 2 diabetes is 15% and if both parents have type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance is 75%. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes as it was primarily seen in middle- aged adults over the age of 40, in contrast to type 1 diabetes which is typically diagnosed at a much earlier stage. However, in recent years cases of type 2 diabetes have become more common in young adults, teens and children. This increase has been connected to increase number of obesity. There are symptoms and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are excessive thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, extreme tiredness and sudden loss of muscle mass. Some of these symptoms are the same for type 1 diabetes, but in type 2 diabetes they tend to develop more slowly over a period of week or months, making it hard for people to recognise them as signs of an underlying illness. In fact, many people have type 2 diabetes for a long period of time before being diagnosed with the disease. It is frequently diagnosed following the results of either a fasting plasma glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test. The condition can also be detected through a general health check with your GP. There are treatments presented for the type 2 diabetes, first line treatment is typically includes a combination of diet modification and control, regular and appropriate exercise and home blood glucose testing. If blood sugar levels remain elevated despite these measures then tablet medication is usually prescribed Recently a number of new and effective treatments have become available, it include the byetta, victoza and bydureon. Some people with type 2 diabetes, usually those who have had type 2 diabetes for a number of years, may also be moved onto insulin injections. Reference: http://www.diabetes.co.uk/body/immune-system.html