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November 19, 2014
PROBLEM: SERVICE AND
Problem: Service and Philanthropy
• Volunteer rates among students for community service is
declining (Moore, Warta, Erichsen, 2014).
• Fraternities and sororities receive incentives for their
philanthropic efforts both on the national level as well as
the local level (the university) by including a section to
document the service and philanthropy efforts in awards
packets (Parker, 2012).
Fraternity and sorority members at small, private,
liberal arts colleges and universities.
• Private liberal arts students in national or international
• Students in these organizations typically have requirements regarding
• They also sponsor or support a philanthropy either locally or
nationally through different events that they hold on campus
• Institutional Setting: Small, private liberal arts institution
(5,000 students or less)
• Most familiar with this type of institution
• Students who attend private-four year institutions have the highest
rates of service participation (Rockenbach, Hudson, Tuchmayer,
• Community service volunteer rate is declining with college
• Students over the age of 20 are more likely to volunteer than
traditional-aged first year students
• African-American, Latino and Asian American students- more likely to
volunteer than Caucasian students
• Higher academic achieving students more likely to volunteer
• Those that belong to Greek organizations- almost twice as likely to
• Students who live on-campus more likely to volunteer than those off
• The type of volunteering activity is the single most important
factor in a students’ decision to volunteer
• Defining volunteer
• Altruism must be central motive
• Must be selfless (motive)
(Moore, Warta, Erichsen, 2014)
• Student Philanthropy is a teaching strategy that colleges and
universities are increasingly using
• Similar to service-learning courses
• Students research problems and understand the grant writing
• Evident that students want to give
• Spend time volunteering or on Spring Breaks
• HOWEVER, they are rarely taught HOW to give.
• Often just see the end result and not the behind the scenes
• Learning that giving doesn’t have to happen later in their
lives. It can occur now.
• More involvement in service does not necessarily mean
students understand the importance of it or the value
• Acts of volunteerism may look similar on the surface for
many students, but the motivation and reasoning for
doing that service may be entirely different for each
(Rockenbach, et. all, 2014)
• A comprehensive study on Greek Life & Philanthropy
• Greek giving is more prevalent in the past (social media, etc).
• Incentives for philanthropic efforts
• Awards from the college or university
• Recognized nationally or internationally by organization
• 25% of participants stated that chapters on their campus includes
philanthropy in chapter programming (Parker, 2012, p. 4)
• Primary way chapter engage non-profits (locally) is by raising money,
followed by volunteering either directly or at special events
• Recording service hours
• National organization incentives
• Questions raised by study
• “It’s good that they’re raising all of this money and recording the hours,
but why aren’t the non-profits more involved?” (Parker, 2012, p.6)
Where will this program fall?
Office of Fraternity/Sorority Life or Office
of Student Involvement
• Director/Dean for this area would oversee the program
• Student leaders would also be able to help create the
program for internship credit
• Graduate assistants for Fraternity/Sorority life could also
help develop the program
• Professors and staff can volunteer to present or cultivate
conversation for the students about the importance of
philanthropy and service
How do we get students actively engaged with their
philanthropy and service efforts?
“Your path to Citizenship”
• Comprehensive engagement workshop series
• Similar to service-learning, but without the “classroom”
• Four different topics: based on each of the four years of
• Local Impact
• Global Impact
Year 1- Local Impact
• Understanding the importance of community service and philanthropy on the
local level. Establishing that dualistic thinking to go beyond just fulfilling
• 2 hour Program will take place in October
• Members are settled into their organizations, but are still in the new member
• Interactive workshop
• Speaker- professor or professional about initiative
• Pre-test will be administered to all students
• Students will break into groups based on similar interests, but separate from
their other chapter members
• Define philanthropy and service
• Identify 3 ways in which philanthropy impacts are seen on campus
• Identify local service impacts from fraternity and sorority community
Year 2- Global Impact
• Understanding how and why philanthropy and service is important
on a global scale
• 2 hour program in November of second year of school
• These members have now experienced a year of philanthropy and service
in fraternity/sorority life
• Non-profit speaker- Keynote
• Working together in chapter groups
• They have identified the local impact that they can make through their
• Students will then be asked to work together to create SMART goals that
they can attain in terms of philanthropy and service for the rest of their
Year 3- Reflection
• Looking back the previous three years and understanding all of the
work you’ve done and its importance for self-discovery
• 2 hour program in April of third year
• Selected students will present their experiences and their growth with
philanthropy and service
• There will be two (30 minute) workshops
• Workshops will be conducted by faculty and staff (career services and
director of Greek Life)
Year 4- Citizenship
• How to continue philanthropic efforts once students become alumni
• 2 hour program in April of fourth year
• Alumni panel of students
• First-Year group collaboration for reflection
• Reflection on what philanthropy and service are will also be decided upon
and presented from each group
• Developing personal and societal goals
• The post-test will be administered
• Develop and commit to a plan for after college involvement
What are the students hopefully going to gain from this?
• By participating in this program, students will grow
intellectually by creating their own meaning out of the
work that they are doing with philanthropy and service.
• Throughout this program, students will be challenged in
their approach to philanthropy and service by learning
from their peers to understand and internalize the
importance of exceeded simple requirements.
• By sharing these experiences with students in similar
organizations, students will better understand the impact
that they can make on a local and global scale.
Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development
• Position 3: Mulitplicity legitimate but not subordinate
• Accept that there is human uncertainty not everything that has been told to
them is the “be-all-end-all” truth.
• However, they believe this uncertainty is temporary and does not
overshadow the Truth of the world
• Uncertainty is tolerated, but only to a certain point.
• Position 4: Late Multiplicity
• Students’ mindsets shifting from “what they want” (position 3) to the way
they want us to think.
• Evident in second and third year of program- as educators, we want
students to critically think about the world around them and in parts 2 and
3 of the program, they are asked to do just that.
• Position 5: Relativism
• “involves adopting a way of understanding, analyzing, and evaluating that
requires a radical re-perception of all knowledge and values as contextual
and relativistic” (“Perry”, 1999, p.12)
• Relativistic thinking becomes the norm for students
• See this in parts 2, 3, and 4: Students are critically thinking about the work
that they are doing and how it not only affects/benefits them, but also how
it relates on a global scale.
• Position 6: Commitment to Relativism
• Perry believed that “relativism one is threatened with unbearable
disorientation and that students had three alternatives: to go limp, become
an active opportunist, or transcend the disorientation through
commitment” (“Perry”, 1999, p.12)
• Students realize that commitments need to be made to establish their
bearings in the relativistic world.
• During part 4 of the program, students will have to decide if they are going
to continue with or follow through with the plan they have created to
implement philanthropy and service into their lives.
Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development
• Seeing duality in the world
• Students are able to understand the difference that they can make
• Making decisions for themselves and helping others
• Teaching themselves and one another
• Understanding their role as college students and developing the
intellectual aspect of philanthropy and service
Schlossberg Transition Theory
• 4 S’s
• Situation: What is their situation at the time of the transition?
• This can be evident in the first year students going through the program
• These students are just coming into college from all different
backgrounds and because of this, their approach to philanthropy and
service may differ drastically
• Self: How is the student’s inner strength in coping with this
• Students may be resilient to doing more than just the minimum
• Looking at how student reacts when working with the group
Schlossberg Transition Theory
• 4 S’s Continued
• Support: What type of support is the student receiving in this
• Students will be working in groups to answer the questions posed to
• Student affairs staff, professors and outside speakers
• Hopefully with this support, adaptation to the program will be more
progressive than if the students did not have this structured program.
• Strategies: How will the students cope with this transition?
• Students are going to have to learn how to do more than just fulfill the
requirements of their organizations.
• Students using the groups as a coping mechanism for service projects
• Moore, E.W. , Warta, S., Erichsen, K. (2014). College students’ volunteering: factors related
to current volunteering, volunteer settings, and motives for volunteering. College
Student Journal, 48(3), 386-396.
• Olberding, J. C. (2011). Does student philanthropy work? A study on long-term effect of
the “learning by giving” approach. Innovation for Higher Education 37, 71-87.
• Parker, P. (2012) Greek life and philanthropy: a student to determine the links,
challenges, and opportunities between Greek life leadership and community
goodwill. NP Catalyst, 1-25.
• Perry's intellectual scheme. (1999). New directions for Student Services, (88), 5.
• Rockenbach, A. B., Hudson, T. D., & Tuchmayer, J. B. (2014). Fostering meaning, purpose,
and enduring commitments to community service in college: A multidimensional
conceptual model. Journal of Higher Education, 85(3), 312-338.
• Schervish, P. G. (2006). The moral biography of wealth: philosophical reflections on the
foundation of philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(3),
• Schlossberg, N. K. (2011). The challenge of change: the transition model and its
applications. Journal Of Employment Counseling, 48(4), 159-162.
• Strickland, S. M. (2008). Learning how to give and how giving happens: the development
summer internship program at the university of Michigan teaches students the
business behind philanthropy. Phi Kappa Psi Forum 88(2), 9.