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Animal husbandry

  1. I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported me throughout my project. I respect and thanks to MRS. PRACHI RAI, principal of Milton Public School and I am grateful to my biology teacher, MS. RITU JAIN for his continuous support for the project from initial advice & contacts in the early stages of conceptual inception & through ongoing advice & encouragement to this day. I wish to thank my parents for their undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I would be unable to complete my project. A special thank of mine goes to my best friend who helped me in completing the project & he exchanged his interesting ideas, thoughts & made this project easy and accurate. At last but not the least I want to thank my friends who appreciated me for my work and motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible. Thanking You !
  2. This is to certify that the project on "Animal Husbandry" submitted by "YAYATI SINGH" of class 12th Science is a pursue and sincere work of his intelligence and deep study of the topic. He has been working under my supervision during the session 2018-19. The material involved in his report is entirely his contribution. The results are satisfactory and has been checked by me.
  3. •Introduction of Animals Husbandry. •Types of Farming (A) Cattle Forming •Quality of buffalo milk. •Form management practices. •Components of cattle feed. •Diseases of cattle and buffalo. (B) Poultry forming. •Variety improvement. •Egg and Broiler Production. •Poultry care. •Diseases of Poutty. (C) Fish Production •Types of Fisheries •Bee-keeping •Bibliography
  4.  The Branch of agriculture that deal with the feeding caring & breeding of domestic animal is called animal husbandry. Husbanding means to use a resource carefully & without waste. Thus, animal farming or animal husbandry requires planning for domestic animals shelter breeding health disease control & proper economic utlisation. Our domestic animals or livestock includes those animals which are raised for farming, e.g., cattle(cow, bull or ox), buffalo, yak, horse, ass, goat, sheep, camel etc.  As the population increase & as living standard increase, the demand for milk egg & meat is also going up. also, the growing awareness of the need for humane treatment of livestock has brought in limitation in livestock farming. Thus, livestock production also needs to be improved.
  5. Types :- A. CATTLE FARMING  Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes- Milk & draught labor for agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation & carting. Indian cattle belong two different species, Bos indicus, cow & Bos bubalius, buffaloes. Milk-producing females are called milch animal (dairy animal), while the ones used for farm labour are called draught animals. B. QUALITY OF BUFFALO MILK Buffalo is most productive economics animal. buffalo milk is richer in fat, tocopherol (vitamin E), protein, calcium, phosphorus, contain low sodium potassium cholesterol. Buffalos milk is ideal for making milk product such as khoa, rabri, dhai ghee, etc., is always in great demand. Certain vitamins such as vitamins A&D are also present in milk.
  6.  The requirement of proper cleaning & shelter for cow & buffaloes is must due two reasons. (1). for the production of clean milk; (2) for the health of animal. Both cow & buffalo require regular brushing to remove dirt & loose hairs. They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofed sheds that protect them fro rain, heat, cold. The floor of the cattle shed needs to be sloping so as to stay dry & to facilitate cleaning. Maintenance requirements : the food is required by the animal to perform the basic function of life. Milk producing requirement : it include the type of food require during lactation period.  The animal feed includes two type of substance: 1. Roughage : It argey contains fibers such as greeth fodder, etc. 2. CONCENTRATES : Which are low in fiber and contain relatively high level of proteins and other nutrient. 3. Cattle need balance containing all nutrients in proportionate amounts.
  7.  Cow & buffalo suffer from various diseases. The diseases adversely affect the production of milk & causes mortality of sick animal.
  8.  The poultry farming industry with its production in the form of egg & meat is of particular importance in providing a balanced diet for the human population. The word poultry has originated from the old French word 'poult' means chickens the young one common domestic fowl. So this word should have been used only for domestication of chicken or fowls. However, poultry also includes ducks, gees, turkeys, guinea-fowls and pigeons. Poultry is the choice of million has staple food world over. In our country also chicken and egg are choiced poultry products of large section of non-vegetarian population, since it serve as a cheep source of animal protein. India is the fifth largest country in the world in poultry production after China, former, USSR, USA and Japan. The programmes of cross breeding between Indian & foreign breeds for verity improvement are focused to developed new varieties for the following desirable traits: 1. Quantity & quality of chicks: 2. Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production for summer adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature: 3. Low maintenance requirement: 4. Reduction in the size of the layer with ability to utilize more, cheap diet formulated using agricultural by products.
  9.  Broiler chicken are fed with vitamin-rich supplementary feed for good growth rate & better feed efficiency. Care is taken to avoid mortality & to maintain feathering & carcass quality. They are produced as broiler & sent to market for meat purposes.  For good production of poultry birds goods good management practices are important. These includes maintenance of temperature & hygienic condition in house & poultry feed, as well as prevention & control of diseases & pests. The housing nutritional & environmental requirement of broiler are somewhat different from those of eg layers. The ration (daily food requirement) for broiler is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A & K is kept high in the poultry feed. Infectious diseases of Poultry Internal Parasites Bacteria Viruses FungiProtozoa External Parasites
  10.  Poultry fowl suffer from a number of diseases caused by virus, Bactria fungi, parasites, as well as from nutritional deficiencies. These necessitate proper cleaning, sanitation, spraying of disinfectants at regular intervals. Appropriate vaccination can prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases & reduce loss of poultry during an outbreak of diseases.
  11.  Fish is an important aquatic food which is rich in proteins. A large section of Indian population uses fish food, particularly the one living in coastal area. It is highly nutritious & easily digestible. Fish can be used for eradicating problem of malnutrition. Fish liver oil is rich in vitamin A & D.  There are two ways of obtaining fish. One is from the natural resource, which is called capture fishing. The other way is by fish farming, which is called cultural fishery. Out of the total fish obtain from the Indian oceans, 45% is produced by India.  India's marine fishery resources include 7500km of coastline & the deep seas beyond it. Popular marine fish verities include pomphret, mackerel, tuna sardines, & Bombay duck. Marine fish are caught using many kind of fishing nets from fishing boats. Yield are increased by locating large schools of fish in the open sea using satellites & echo-sounders. Some marine fish of high economic value are also farmed in seawater. As marine fish slock get depleted, the demand for male fish can be met by such culture fishers, a practice called mariculture.
  12.  Fresh water resources includes canal, pond, reservoirs & river, brackish water resources, where sea water & fresh water mix together, such as esturies & lagoons are also important fish reservoirs. While capture fishing is also done in such inland water bodies, the yield is not high. Most fish production from these resources is through aquaculture  Fish culture is sometimes done in combination with a rice crop, so that fish are grown in the water in the paddy field. More intensive fish farming can be done in composite fish culture system. Both local & imported fish species are used in such system.  In such system, a combination of five or six fishes spices is used in a single fishpond. These species are selected so that they do not complete for food habits. As a result, the food available in all the part of the pond is used & this increase the fish yield from the pond.
  13.  One problem with such composite culture is that many of these fish breed only during monsoon. Even if fish seed is collected from the wild, it can be mixed with that of other species as well. So, a major problem in fish is lack of availability of good quality seed to overcome this problem, ways have now been worked out to breed these fish in pound using hormonal stimulation. This has ensured the supply of pure fish seed in desire quantities.
  14.  The practice of bee keeping is called apiculture. It is done to get honey, beeswaz, etc. Honey is known to have medicinal value. It is fond to be quite useful in the treatment of various disorders of humans relate to digestion, dysentery, vomiting & stomach & liver ailment. Honey is supposed to be bloodpurifier, cure against cough & cold sore throat, ulcers of the tongue, ulcer of stomach & intestine, etc. since honey is rich in iron & calcium, it helps in growth of human body.  Bee keeping beeing a low-investment enterprise has become a favorite source of some extra income for the Indian farmers. Hey have started to do bee keeping along with their usual agricultural practices. Bee keeping also help in cross pollination of flowers of crop plant, since pollen are transferred from one flower to another by bees while they are collecting the nectar. Poison of bee used in manufacturing of certain ayurvedic & homeopathic medicines.
  15.  The value & quality of honey depend upon the pasturage, or the flower available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection in addition to the adequate quality of pasturage, the kind of flower available will determine the taste of the honey. FOR BEE KEEPING FOLLOWING SHOULD BE KEEP IN MIND:-  The knowledge of habit and habitat of honey bee.  The knowledge of their nature and life cycle.  Knowledge of maintaining the bee live and their swarm.  Knowledge of obtaining honey and bee wax from live.  The knowledge of their marketing.  Honey bee are commonly infected by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. For example, the bacterium bacillus apisceptious infect blood of bee causing septicemia. QUEEN WOREKER DRONE THREE DIFFERENT CASTES OF A COLONY OF HONEY BEE
  16. BIOLOGY PRACTICAL : Comprehensive XII BIOLOGY PRACTICAL : A practical text book of Biology N.C.E.R.T : Biology Text Book WIKIPEDIA : The free encyclopaedia WEBSITE :