I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have
helped & supported me throughout my project. I respect and thanks to MRS.
PRACHI RAI, principal of Milton Public School and I am grateful to my
biology teacher, MS. RITU JAIN for his continuous support for the project
from initial advice & contacts in the early stages of conceptual inception &
through ongoing advice & encouragement to this day.
I wish to thank my parents for their undivided support and interest
who inspired me and encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I would
be unable to complete my project.
A special thank of mine goes to my best friend who helped me in
completing the project & he exchanged his interesting ideas, thoughts &
made this project easy and accurate.
At last but not the least I want to thank my friends who appreciated
me for my work and motivated me and finally to God who made all the things
Thanking You !
This is to certify that the project on "Animal
Husbandry" submitted by "YAYATI SINGH" of class 12th
Science is a pursue and sincere work of his intelligence
and deep study of the topic. He has been working under
my supervision during the session 2018-19. The material
involved in his report is entirely his contribution. The
results are satisfactory and has been checked by me.
•Introduction of Animals Husbandry.
•Types of Farming
(A) Cattle Forming
•Quality of buffalo milk.
•Form management practices.
•Components of cattle feed.
•Diseases of cattle and buffalo.
(B) Poultry forming.
•Egg and Broiler Production.
•Diseases of Poutty.
(C) Fish Production
•Types of Fisheries
The Branch of agriculture that deal with the feeding caring & breeding of
domestic animal is called animal husbandry. Husbanding means to use a resource
carefully & without waste. Thus, animal farming or animal husbandry requires
planning for domestic animals shelter breeding health disease control & proper
economic utlisation. Our domestic animals or livestock includes those animals
which are raised for farming, e.g., cattle(cow, bull or ox), buffalo, yak, horse, ass,
goat, sheep, camel etc.
As the population increase & as living standard increase, the demand for milk
egg & meat is also going up. also, the growing awareness of the need for humane
treatment of livestock has brought in limitation in livestock farming. Thus,
livestock production also needs to be improved.
A. CATTLE FARMING
Cattle husbandry is done for two purposes- Milk & draught labor for
agricultural work such as tilling, irrigation & carting. Indian cattle belong two
different species, Bos indicus, cow & Bos bubalius, buffaloes. Milk-producing
females are called milch animal (dairy animal), while the ones used for farm
labour are called draught animals.
B. QUALITY OF BUFFALO MILK
Buffalo is most productive economics animal. buffalo milk is richer in fat,
tocopherol (vitamin E), protein, calcium, phosphorus, contain low sodium
potassium cholesterol. Buffalos milk is ideal for making milk product such as
khoa, rabri, dhai ghee, etc., is always in great demand. Certain vitamins such
as vitamins A&D are also present in milk.
The requirement of proper cleaning & shelter for cow & buffaloes is must
due two reasons. (1). for the production of clean milk; (2) for the health of
animal. Both cow & buffalo require regular brushing to remove dirt & loose
hairs. They should be sheltered under well-ventilated roofed sheds that
protect them fro rain, heat, cold. The floor of the cattle shed needs to be
sloping so as to stay dry & to facilitate cleaning.
Maintenance requirements : the food is required by the animal to perform
the basic function of life.
Milk producing requirement : it include the type of food require during
The animal feed includes two type of substance:
1. Roughage : It argey contains fibers such as greeth fodder, etc.
2. CONCENTRATES : Which are low in fiber and contain relatively high
level of proteins and other nutrient.
3. Cattle need balance containing all nutrients in proportionate amounts.
Cow & buffalo suffer from various diseases. The diseases adversely affect
the production of milk & causes mortality of sick animal.
The poultry farming industry with its production in the form of egg & meat is
of particular importance in providing a balanced diet for the human population.
The word poultry has originated from the old French word 'poult' means chickens
the young one common domestic fowl. So this word should have been used only for
domestication of chicken or fowls. However, poultry also includes ducks, gees,
turkeys, guinea-fowls and pigeons. Poultry is the choice of million has staple food
world over. In our country also chicken and egg are choiced poultry products of
large section of non-vegetarian population, since it serve as a cheep source of
animal protein. India is the fifth largest country in the world in poultry production
after China, former, USSR, USA and Japan.
The programmes of cross breeding between Indian & foreign breeds for verity
improvement are focused to developed new varieties for the following desirable
1. Quantity & quality of chicks:
2. Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production for summer
adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature:
3. Low maintenance requirement:
4. Reduction in the size of the layer with ability to utilize more, cheap diet
formulated using agricultural by products.
Broiler chicken are fed with vitamin-rich supplementary feed for good growth rate &
better feed efficiency. Care is taken to avoid mortality & to maintain feathering &
carcass quality. They are produced as broiler & sent to market for meat purposes.
For good production of poultry birds goods good management practices are
important. These includes maintenance of temperature & hygienic condition in house &
poultry feed, as well as prevention & control of diseases & pests. The housing
nutritional & environmental requirement of broiler are somewhat different from those
of eg layers. The ration (daily food requirement) for broiler is protein rich with
adequate fat. The level of vitamins A & K is kept high in the poultry feed.
Poultry fowl suffer from a number of diseases caused by virus,
Bactria fungi, parasites, as well as from nutritional deficiencies.
These necessitate proper cleaning, sanitation, spraying of
disinfectants at regular intervals. Appropriate vaccination can
prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases & reduce loss of
poultry during an outbreak of diseases.
Fish is an important aquatic food which is rich in proteins. A large section
of Indian population uses fish food, particularly the one living in coastal area.
It is highly nutritious & easily digestible. Fish can be used for eradicating
problem of malnutrition. Fish liver oil is rich in vitamin A & D.
There are two ways of obtaining fish. One is from the natural resource,
which is called capture fishing. The other way is by fish farming, which is
called cultural fishery. Out of the total fish obtain from the Indian oceans,
45% is produced by India.
India's marine fishery resources include 7500km of coastline & the deep
seas beyond it. Popular marine fish verities include pomphret, mackerel, tuna
sardines, & Bombay duck. Marine fish are caught using many kind of fishing
nets from fishing boats. Yield are increased by locating large schools of fish
in the open sea using satellites & echo-sounders. Some marine fish of high
economic value are also farmed in seawater. As marine fish slock get
depleted, the demand for male fish can be met by such culture fishers, a
practice called mariculture.
Fresh water resources includes canal, pond, reservoirs & river, brackish water
resources, where sea water & fresh water mix together, such as esturies &
lagoons are also important fish reservoirs. While capture fishing is also done in
such inland water bodies, the yield is not high. Most fish production from these
resources is through aquaculture
Fish culture is sometimes done in combination with a rice crop, so that fish are
grown in the water in the paddy field. More intensive fish farming can be done in
composite fish culture system. Both local & imported fish species are used in such
In such system, a combination of five or six fishes spices is used in a single
fishpond. These species are selected so that they do not complete for food
habits. As a result, the food available in all the part of the pond is used & this
increase the fish yield from the pond.
One problem with such composite culture is that many of these
fish breed only during monsoon. Even if fish seed is collected
from the wild, it can be mixed with that of other species as well.
So, a major problem in fish is lack of availability of good quality
seed to overcome this problem, ways have now been worked out to
breed these fish in pound using hormonal stimulation. This has
ensured the supply of pure fish seed in desire quantities.
The practice of bee keeping is called apiculture. It is done to get honey,
beeswaz, etc. Honey is known to have medicinal value. It is fond to be quite useful
in the treatment of various disorders of humans relate to digestion, dysentery,
vomiting & stomach & liver ailment. Honey is supposed to be bloodpurifier, cure
against cough & cold sore throat, ulcers of the tongue, ulcer of stomach &
intestine, etc. since honey is rich in iron & calcium, it helps in growth of human
Bee keeping beeing a low-investment enterprise has become a favorite source
of some extra income for the Indian farmers. Hey have started to do bee keeping
along with their usual agricultural practices. Bee keeping also help in cross
pollination of flowers of crop plant, since pollen are transferred from one flower
to another by bees while they are collecting the nectar.
Poison of bee used in manufacturing of certain ayurvedic & homeopathic
The value & quality of honey depend upon the pasturage, or the flower available to
the bees for nectar and pollen collection in addition to the adequate quality of
pasturage, the kind of flower available will determine the taste of the honey.
FOR BEE KEEPING FOLLOWING SHOULD BE KEEP IN MIND:-
The knowledge of habit and habitat of honey bee.
The knowledge of their nature and life cycle.
Knowledge of maintaining the bee live and their swarm.
Knowledge of obtaining honey and bee wax from live.
The knowledge of their marketing.
Honey bee are commonly infected by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. For
example, the bacterium bacillus apisceptious infect blood of bee causing
QUEEN WOREKER DRONE
CASTES OF A COLONY
OF HONEY BEE
BIOLOGY PRACTICAL : Comprehensive XII
BIOLOGY PRACTICAL : A practical text book of Biology
N.C.E.R.T : Biology Text Book
WIKIPEDIA : The free encyclopaedia
WEBSITE : www.icbse.com