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Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems – A Systematic Literature Review

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Many organizations are now starting to introduce crowdsourcing as a new model of business to outsource tasks, which are traditionally performed by a small group of people, to an undefined large workforce. While the utilization of crowdsourcing offers a lot of advantages, the development of the required system carries some risks, which are reduced by establishing a profound theo-retical foundation. Thus, this article strives to gain a better understanding of what crowdsourcing systems are and what typical design aspects are considered in the development of such systems. In this paper, the author conducted a sys-tematic literature review in the domain of crowdsourcing systems. As a result, 17 definitions of crowdsourcing systems were found and categorized into four perspectives: the organizational, the technical, the functional, and the human-centric. In the second part of the results, the author derived and presented com-ponents and functions that are implemented in a crowdsourcing system.

Many organizations are now starting to introduce crowdsourcing as a new model of business to outsource tasks, which are traditionally performed by a small group of people, to an undefined large workforce. While the utilization of crowdsourcing offers a lot of advantages, the development of the required system carries some risks, which are reduced by establishing a profound theo-retical foundation. Thus, this article strives to gain a better understanding of what crowdsourcing systems are and what typical design aspects are considered in the development of such systems. In this paper, the author conducted a sys-tematic literature review in the domain of crowdsourcing systems. As a result, 17 definitions of crowdsourcing systems were found and categorized into four perspectives: the organizational, the technical, the functional, and the human-centric. In the second part of the results, the author derived and presented com-ponents and functions that are implemented in a crowdsourcing system.

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Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems – A Systematic Literature Review

  1. 1. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems A Systematic Literature Review Lars Hetmank Dresden, 27.02.2013
  2. 2. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Short Vita • Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. Lars Hetmank, TU Dresden • Research interests: • Information and Knowledge Management • Semantic Web and Linked Data • Crowdsourcing • Affiliations: • Manifesto for a Standard on Knowledge Exchange in Social Knowledge Management Environments • Knowledge Research Center (KRC) e.V. Dresden 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 2 / 13
  3. 3. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Motivation Practical relevance: • development of a crowdsourcing system (CSS) and its integration into existing IT infrastructure is risky, cost-intensive, and time-consuming, • structured development process required Theoretical relevance: • various theoretical contribution in the area of crowdsourcing • however, little has been investigated to define a crowdsourcing system and its technical design aspects precisely 2/28/2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 3 / 13
  4. 4. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Method: Systematic Literature Review Research Questions (RQs): RQ1: How and in which detail are CSSs defined in current research literature? What design aspects do they cover? RQ2: What type of components and functions of a CSS can be conceptualized? 2/28/2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 4 / 13
  5. 5. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Search Strategy #1 • Population: peer-reviewed conference proceedings and journal papers in English since 2006; dissertations, newspaper articles, unpublished works or non-scientific articles were not considered • Search Resources: ACM Digital Library, Ebscohost (Academic Search Complete and Business Source Complete), Emerald, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Sage Journals, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Wiley • Search Terms: crowdsourcing system, crowdsourcing application, and crowdsourcing platform (in singular and plural) 2/28/2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 5 / 13
  6. 6. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Search Strategy #2 • Inclusion criteria: • define or at least propose a description of what CSSs are (RQ 1) • address design issues of CSSs (RQ 2) • or classify or give an overview of CSSs (RQ 2). • Exclusion criteria: • use CSSs for evaluation purposes but do not address design issues 2/28/2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 6 / 13
  7. 7. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Conduct Search Step 1: a) review the abstract, introduction, and conclusion b) check inclusion and exclusion criteria c) label publication and research type  Relevant studies = 72 Publication type Research type Step 2: a) read article, find and record the definitions of CSS b) set keyword for each article to identify components and functions of CSSs 2/28/2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 7 / 13
  8. 8. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Results: Crowdsourcing System Definitions (RQ1) • 17 definitions or descriptions of the term crowdsourcing system, application, or platform • vary in detail and none of them covers all of the four derived perspectives “Crowdsourcing Platform is a trusted broker ensuring that providers successfully complete the task requests and that requestors pay for the charges. Crowdsourcing Platform issues authentication credentials for requestors and providers when they join the platform, stores details about skill-set, history of completed requests, handles charging and payments, and manages platform misuse. Crowdsourcing platform can execute crowdsourcing requests in a number of different modes, by advertising them on the marketplace, allowing providers to bid for them, or in the form of a competition, where requestor identifies criteria to be used for selection of the winning submission. Crowdsourcing platform may further allow requestors and providers to team-up.” (Vukovic, 2009) 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 8 / 13
  9. 9. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Perspectives iv al c t on mediator, detailed actions e pr spe pe t i pe rs iza marketplace, performed to data oc c crowd r pe a n es tive interface, or objects or users g s trusted broker or broker crowdsourcing process requester Crowd- sourcing user interface System algorithm history tracking standardization payment mechanism workflow support iv ic ct ntr te rsp social pe e authentication c h ec pe e rs n- c interaction ni tiv APIs ca e pe a software human m l components, hu brainpower and technical functions, collective or data objects intelligence Perspectives of crowdsourcing systems (source: own illustration) 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 9 / 13
  10. 10. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Results: Components and Functions (RQ 2) Components and functions of crowdsourcing systems (source: own illustration) 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 10 / 13
  11. 11. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Conclusion and Next Steps • development of an integrated CSS definition • overview of reusable software components and functions may be used as a checklist • dependencies between the elements are not well represented • designing a semantic model to support knowledge-intensive crowdsourcing activities 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 11 / 13
  12. 12. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop References (1) Kitchenham, B.: Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. (2007). (2) Kitchenham, B., Pearl Brereton, O., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J., Linkman, S.: Systematic literature reviews in software engineering – A systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology. 51, 7–15 (2009). (3) Brereton, P., Kitchenham, B. a., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Khalil, M.: Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Journal of Systems and Software. 80, 571–583 (2007). (4) Wieringa, R., Maiden, N., Mead, N., Rolland, C.: Requirements engineering paper classification and evaluation criteria: a proposal and a discussion. Requirements Engineering. 11, 102– 107 (2006). (5) Bortz, J., Döring, N.: Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation für Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). http://larshetmank.com/documents/wi2013_css_concept_map.pdf 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 12 / 13
  13. 13. Fakultät Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Contact Email: lars@hetmank.de Twitter: https://twitter.com/larshetmank 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 13 / 13

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