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Open, Connected & Smart Heritage: 
Towards New Cultural Commons 
Lora Aroyo 
NIAS Workshop 2014
massive 
amount 
of 
digital 
content 
to 
explore 
… 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
at 
some 
point 
it 
all 
looks 
the 
same 
… 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
audiences 
feel 
disconnected 
& 
lost 
… 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
We 
need 
more 
of 
this 
SMART 
CONNECTED 
OPEN 
Johan 
Oomen, 
Lora 
Aroyo 
(2011). 
Crowdsourcing 
in 
the 
Cultural 
H...
Smart 
new technologies for indexing, retrieval & linking 
link to the workflows of creative industries 
distribution over...
“Enabling 
anything 
like 
seamless 
access 
to 
the 
cultural 
record 
will 
require 
developing 
tools 
to 
navigate 
am...
Digital 
Humani>es 
perform 
interpreta(on 
of 
texts 
and 
other 
media 
interpretaCons 
deal 
with 
perspecCves 
http://...
we 
need 
…. 
support 
of 
mulKple 
perspecKves 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
Peter 
Singer 
we 
have 
…. 
altruism-­‐driven 
crowds 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
… 
and 
because 
“the 
best 
collecKve 
decisions 
are 
result 
of 
disagreement, 
not 
consensus” 
James 
Surowiecki 
htt...
… 
and 
because 
“we 
[can] 
treat 
human 
brains 
as 
processors 
in 
a 
distributed 
system 
each 
performing 
a 
small ...
we 
can 
achieve 
“the 
wise 
crowd”, 
which 
is 
diversity 
of 
opinion 
Independent 
decentralized 
aggregated 
James 
S...
the 
main 
ques>on 
is: 
How 
does 
the 
combinaKon 
of 
online 
access 
to 
collecKons 
& 
parKcipatory 
culture 
shape 
...
Examples 
of 
Smart-­‐Open-­‐Connected 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
32+ 
million 
objects 
(October 
2014) 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
Pan-European Aggregator for 
Audiovisual Heritage 
1 
7 
www.euscreen.eu
hRps://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/with/14784850762/ 
2.6 
million 
images
hRp://www.geRyimages.nl/
hRp://openimages.eu/.en
hRp://openglam.org/
Examples 
of 
Crowdsourcing 
Engagement 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
Na>onal 
Library 
of 
Australia 
Within 
one 
year: 
hRp://trove.nla.gov.au/ 
“6.000 
members 
of 
the 
public 
had 
alrea...
Na>onal 
Library 
of 
Australia 
hRp://trove.nla.gov.au/ 
“fix 
this 
text”
V&A 
– 
Cropping 
Images 
hRp://collec>ons.vam.ac.uk/crowdsourcing/
Old 
Weather 
Royal 
Navy 
ships 
around 
the 
Cme 
of 
World 
War 
I 
launched 
Oct 
2010 
hRp://www.oldweather.org/ 
lau...
Old 
Weather 
Royal 
Navy 
ships 
around 
the 
Cme 
of 
World 
War 
I 
hRp://www.oldweather.org/
1001 
Stories 
Denmark 
hRp://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/en_GB
1001 
Stories 
Denmark 
hRp://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/en_GB
Sound 
and 
Vision 
Wiki 
hRp://www.beeldengeluidwiki.nl/ 
Launced 
in 
2008 
Current 
numer 
of 
pages: 
34.327 
Register...
Bri>sh 
Museum 
hRp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/Bri>sh_Museum
UK 
SoundMap 
“What 
does 
the 
UK 
sound 
like 
today? 
What 
impact 
do 
these 
sounds 
have 
on 
our 
lives?” 
hRp://so...
Steve.museum 
“Steve 
is 
dedicated 
to 
exploring 
the 
effecCveness 
of 
social 
tagging 
for 
accessing 
art 
museum 
c...
Your 
Pain>ngs 
Tagger 
hRp://tagger.thepcf.org.uk/
1 
Million 
Euro’s… 
dona>ons 
from 
a 
euro 
to 
40,000 
euros 
($52,700), 
with 
the 
average 
about 
150 
euros 
($195)...
CrowdFunding 
arts 
& 
heritage
CrowdFunding 
at 
large
Measuring 
the 
Impact 
# 
items 
on 
Wikimedia 
Commons: 
1,600 
# 
arKcles 
on 
Wikipedia: 
2,000 
# 
language 
versions...
Posi>ve 
Effects 
of 
OPEN 
Source: 
Europena 
(cc-­‐by)
Measuring 
institutiona 
l websites 
Measuring 
Jason 
Ryan: 
h]p://www.slideshare.net/jasonryan/mcn-­‐measuring-­‐engagem...
Our 
3 
Crowdsourcing 
Use 
Cases 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
Use 
Case 
1: 
Crowdsourcing 
Video 
Tags 
@Sound 
and 
Vision 
http://www.prestoprime.org/
hRp://waisda.nl 
@waisda
– The 
Results 
of 
First 
Pilot 
first 
6 
months: 
• 44.362 
pageviews 
• 12.279 
visits 
(3+ 
min 
online) 
• 555 
regi...
First 
two 
years 
(2006-­‐2008) 
• 11 
Q: Why did you tag? 
PartcipaKng 
Museums 
• 1,782 
Works 
of 
Art 
in 
the 
Resea...
Tags 
by 
Documentalists 
• Tags 
describe 
mainly 
short 
segments 
• Tags 
are 
ojen 
not 
very 
specific 
• Tags 
not 
...
Use 
Case 
2: 
Crowdsourcing 
& 
Nichesourcing 
@Rijksmuseum 
Accurator 
ask the right crowd, enrich your collection 
hRp:...
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam holds an 
enormous collection which comprises 
over 1 million artworks
however, only a small fraction of about 
8000 items are currently on display
… and present the collection online. 125.000 
artworks are already available, and another 
40.000 are added every year
the expertise of museum professionals lies in 
describing & annotating collection with art-historical 
information, thus f...
detailed information about the depicted 
objects, e.g. which species the animal or plant 
belongs to, is in most cases not...
the need for more detailed annotations: 
this painting is annotated only with “bird with 
blue head near branch with red l...
by involving people from outside the 
museum in annotation process, we support 
museum professionals in their annotation t...
we use crowdsourcing to get more 
annotations. we use nichesourcing, i.e. niches 
of people with the right expertise, to a...
we use sources like Twitter to find experts or 
groups of experts on certain areas, e.g. bird 
lovers, ornithologists or p...
we have developed a platform where users can enter 
tags, either by using terms from a structured 
vocabulary or by adding...
for tasks that are too difficult, we developed a game in 
which players can carry out an expert annotation task 
with some...
to evaluate the correctness of annotations they are 
reviewed & rated by other experts who have expertise 
in the same top...
Sound 
& 
Vision 
and 
Royal 
Library 
In 
Digital 
Event-­‐centric 
ExploraKon 
Hermeneu>cs 
Use 
Case 
3: 
dive.beeldeng...
dive.beeldengeluid.nl 
3rd 
Price 
at 
the 
SemanKc 
Web 
Challenge 
2014
OPENIMAGES.EU 
• 3000 
videos 
• NL 
InsKtute 
for 
Sound 
& 
Vision 
• mostly 
news 
broadcasts 
DELPHER.NL 
• 1.5 
Milli...
Erp, 
M. 
van; 
Oomen, 
J.; 
Segers, 
R.; 
Akker, 
C. 
van 
de; 
Aroyo, 
L.; 
Jacobs, 
G.; 
Legêne, 
S; 
Meij, 
L. 
van 
d...
engaging 
users 
through 
event 
narratives
Informa(on: 
Museums 
& 
Archives 
as 
Inventories 
of 
the 
World 
André 
Malraux, 
The 
Imaginary 
Museum 
of 
World 
Sc...
Interpreta(on: 
Museums 
& 
Archives 
as 
a 
Place 
to 
Engage 
with 
the 
World
Digital 
Hermeneu(cs 
• a 
theory 
of 
interpretaCon 
of 
informaCon 
• bringing 
people 
and 
technology 
together 
to 
e...
Acknowledgements 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
PrestoPrime 
Team: 
Lora 
Aroyo, 
Riste 
Gligorov, 
Lo]e 
Belice 
Baltussen, 
Maarten 
Brinkerink, 
Johan 
Oomen, 
Jacco 
...
SealincMedia 
Team: 
Alessandro 
Bozzon, 
Geert-­‐Jan 
Houben, 
Lora 
Aroyo, 
Lizzy 
Jongma, 
Guus 
Schreiber, 
Chris 
Dij...
DIVE 
Team: 
Victor 
de 
Boer, 
Oana 
Inel, 
Lora 
Aroyo, 
Johan 
Oomen, 
Elco 
Van 
Staveren, 
Werner 
Helmich 
& 
Dennis...
Agora 
Team: 
Lora 
Aroyo, 
Guus 
Schreiber, 
Lourens 
van 
der 
Meij, 
Marieke 
van 
Erp, 
Chiel 
van 
den 
Akker, 
Susan...
CrowdTruth 
Team: 
Lora 
Aroyo, 
Chris 
Welty 
Robert-­‐Jan 
Sips, 
Carlos 
Mar>nez 
Or>z, 
Anca 
Dumitrache, 
Oana 
Inel,...
Links 
On 
the 
Web 
• http://waida.nl 
• http://prestoprime.org 
• http://agora.cs.vu.nl 
• http://sealincmedia.wordpress...
THANK YOU! 
http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
Open, Connected & Smart Heritage: Towards New Cultural Commons
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Open, Connected & Smart Heritage: Towards New Cultural Commons

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Open, Connected & Smart Heritage: Towards New Cultural Commons

  1. 1. Open, Connected & Smart Heritage: Towards New Cultural Commons Lora Aroyo NIAS Workshop 2014
  2. 2. massive amount of digital content to explore … http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  3. 3. at some point it all looks the same … http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  4. 4. audiences feel disconnected & lost … http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  5. 5. We need more of this SMART CONNECTED OPEN Johan Oomen, Lora Aroyo (2011). Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain: OpportuniCes and Challenges, hDp://www.iisi.de/fileadmin/IISI/upload/2011/p138_oomen.pdf
  6. 6. Smart new technologies for indexing, retrieval & linking link to the workflows of creative industries distribution over various devices & platforms Connected Open to users between collections to distributed content “For content to be truly accessible, it needs to be where the users are, embedded in their daily networked lives.” (Wabel, 2009) to stimulate collaboration & creativity
  7. 7. “Enabling anything like seamless access to the cultural record will require developing tools to navigate among vast catalogs of born-­‐digital and digiCzed materials […] The return on this investment will be a humaniCes and social science cyberinfrastructure that will allow new quesCons to be asked, new paDerns and relaCons to be discerned, and deep structures in language, society, and culture to be exposed and explored.” http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  8. 8. Digital Humani>es perform interpreta(on of texts and other media interpretaCons deal with perspecCves http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  9. 9. we need …. support of mulKple perspecKves http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  10. 10. Peter Singer we have …. altruism-­‐driven crowds http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  11. 11. … and because “the best collecKve decisions are result of disagreement, not consensus” James Surowiecki http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  12. 12. … and because “we [can] treat human brains as processors in a distributed system each performing a small part of a massive computaKon”, aka Human CompuKng http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  13. 13. we can achieve “the wise crowd”, which is diversity of opinion Independent decentralized aggregated James Surowiecki http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  14. 14. the main ques>on is: How does the combinaKon of online access to collecKons & parKcipatory culture shape the future of engagement with cultural heritage? http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  15. 15. Examples of Smart-­‐Open-­‐Connected http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  16. 16. 32+ million objects (October 2014) http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  17. 17. Pan-European Aggregator for Audiovisual Heritage 1 7 www.euscreen.eu
  18. 18. hRps://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/with/14784850762/ 2.6 million images
  19. 19. hRp://www.geRyimages.nl/
  20. 20. hRp://openimages.eu/.en
  21. 21. hRp://openglam.org/
  22. 22. Examples of Crowdsourcing Engagement http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  23. 23. Na>onal Library of Australia Within one year: hRp://trove.nla.gov.au/ “6.000 members of the public had already enhanced the data significantly by correcCng over 7 million lines of text in 320.000 arCcles, and adding 200 000 tags and 4600comments to arCcles”
  24. 24. Na>onal Library of Australia hRp://trove.nla.gov.au/ “fix this text”
  25. 25. V&A – Cropping Images hRp://collec>ons.vam.ac.uk/crowdsourcing/
  26. 26. Old Weather Royal Navy ships around the Cme of World War I launched Oct 2010 hRp://www.oldweather.org/ launched Oct 2010
  27. 27. Old Weather Royal Navy ships around the Cme of World War I hRp://www.oldweather.org/
  28. 28. 1001 Stories Denmark hRp://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/en_GB
  29. 29. 1001 Stories Denmark hRp://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/en_GB
  30. 30. Sound and Vision Wiki hRp://www.beeldengeluidwiki.nl/ Launced in 2008 Current numer of pages: 34.327 Registerd users: 1.664 Views 4,9 million
  31. 31. Bri>sh Museum hRp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:GLAM/Bri>sh_Museum
  32. 32. UK SoundMap “What does the UK sound like today? What impact do these sounds have on our lives?” hRp://sounds.bl.uk/sound-­‐maps/uk-­‐soundmap
  33. 33. Steve.museum “Steve is dedicated to exploring the effecCveness of social tagging for accessing art museum collecCons online and engaging audiences.”
  34. 34. Your Pain>ngs Tagger hRp://tagger.thepcf.org.uk/
  35. 35. 1 Million Euro’s… dona>ons from a euro to 40,000 euros ($52,700), with the average about 150 euros ($195). French companies founda>ons a notes expressing apprecia>on and offering money to honor loved ones.
  36. 36. CrowdFunding arts & heritage
  37. 37. CrowdFunding at large
  38. 38. Measuring the Impact # items on Wikimedia Commons: 1,600 # arKcles on Wikipedia: 2,000 # language versions: 70 # views: 50,000,000!!! 2013 numbers: h]p://www.openimages.eu/blog/2014/09/sound-­‐and-­‐vision-­‐on-­‐the-­‐future-­‐of-­‐video-­‐on-­‐wikipedia/
  39. 39. Posi>ve Effects of OPEN Source: Europena (cc-­‐by)
  40. 40. Measuring institutiona l websites Measuring Jason Ryan: h]p://www.slideshare.net/jasonryan/mcn-­‐measuring-­‐engagement (via Simon Tanner)
  41. 41. Our 3 Crowdsourcing Use Cases http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  42. 42. Use Case 1: Crowdsourcing Video Tags @Sound and Vision http://www.prestoprime.org/
  43. 43. hRp://waisda.nl @waisda
  44. 44. – The Results of First Pilot first 6 months: • 44.362 pageviews • 12.279 visits (3+ min online) • 555 registered players (thousands anonymous players!) – 340.551 tags added to 602 items – 137.421 matches
  45. 45. First two years (2006-­‐2008) • 11 Q: Why did you tag? PartcipaKng Museums • 1,782 Works of Art in the Research to help museums document art work • 36,981 Tags for fun collected to improve search for other users • 2,017 Users who tagged to learn about art other (please specify) so that I could find works again later Museum professionals found 88% of the tags useful 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% to connect with others don't remember Public MMA
  46. 46. Tags by Documentalists • Tags describe mainly short segments • Tags are ojen not very specific • Tags not describe programmes as a whole • User tags were useful & specific -­‐-­‐> domain dependent
  47. 47. Use Case 2: Crowdsourcing & Nichesourcing @Rijksmuseum Accurator ask the right crowd, enrich your collection hRp://2-­‐dot-­‐rma-­‐accurator.appspot.com/
  48. 48. Rijksmuseum Amsterdam holds an enormous collection which comprises over 1 million artworks
  49. 49. however, only a small fraction of about 8000 items are currently on display
  50. 50. … and present the collection online. 125.000 artworks are already available, and another 40.000 are added every year
  51. 51. the expertise of museum professionals lies in describing & annotating collection with art-historical information, thus for most artworks, we know when they were created, by whom
  52. 52. detailed information about the depicted objects, e.g. which species the animal or plant belongs to, is in most cases not available
  53. 53. the need for more detailed annotations: this painting is annotated only with “bird with blue head near branch with red leaf”, and the species of the bird and the plant are missing
  54. 54. by involving people from outside the museum in annotation process, we support museum professionals in their annotation task
  55. 55. we use crowdsourcing to get more annotations. we use nichesourcing, i.e. niches of people with the right expertise, to add more specific information
  56. 56. we use sources like Twitter to find experts or groups of experts on certain areas, e.g. bird lovers, ornithologists or people who enjoy bird-watching in their spare time
  57. 57. we have developed a platform where users can enter tags, either by using terms from a structured vocabulary or by adding free text
  58. 58. for tasks that are too difficult, we developed a game in which players can carry out an expert annotation task with some assistance
  59. 59. to evaluate the correctness of annotations they are reviewed & rated by other experts who have expertise in the same topic
  60. 60. Sound & Vision and Royal Library In Digital Event-­‐centric ExploraKon Hermeneu>cs Use Case 3: dive.beeldengeluid.nl
  61. 61. dive.beeldengeluid.nl 3rd Price at the SemanKc Web Challenge 2014
  62. 62. OPENIMAGES.EU • 3000 videos • NL InsKtute for Sound & Vision • mostly news broadcasts DELPHER.NL • 1.5 Million Scans of • Radio bulleKns • (hand annotated) • 1937 – 1984
  63. 63. Erp, M. van; Oomen, J.; Segers, R.; Akker, C. van de; Aroyo, L.; Jacobs, G.; Legêne, S; Meij, L. van der;O ssenbruggen, J.R. van; Schreiber, G. AutomaKc Heritage Metadata Enrichment with Historic Events Museums and the Web 2011 h]p://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2011/ papers/automaKc_heritage_metadata_enrichment_with_hi http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  64. 64. engaging users through event narratives
  65. 65. Informa(on: Museums & Archives as Inventories of the World André Malraux, The Imaginary Museum of World Sculpture, 1953 http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  66. 66. Interpreta(on: Museums & Archives as a Place to Engage with the World
  67. 67. Digital Hermeneu(cs • a theory of interpretaCon of informaCon • bringing people and technology together to explore: – how to model and represent informaKon – how to provide engaging interacKon – how to support interpretaKon “Digital HermeneuCcs: Agora and the online understanding of cultural heritage” In proceedings of Web Science Conference, (ACM: New York, 2011) Chiel van den Akker, Marieke van Erp, Lora Aroyo, Ardjan van Nuland, Lourens van der Meij, Susan Lêgene, and Guus http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo Schreiber (2013). Evalua>ng Cultural Heritage Access on the Web: From Informa>on Delivery to Interpreta>on Support (WebSci’13)
  68. 68. Acknowledgements http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  69. 69. PrestoPrime Team: Lora Aroyo, Riste Gligorov, Lo]e Belice Baltussen, Maarten Brinkerink, Johan Oomen, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Michiel HIldebrand http://prestoprime.eu
  70. 70. SealincMedia Team: Alessandro Bozzon, Geert-­‐Jan Houben, Lora Aroyo, Lizzy Jongma, Guus Schreiber, Chris Dijkshoorn, Jasper Oosterman, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Archana No]amkandath, Myriam Traub http://sealinc.ops.few.vu.nl/invenit/
  71. 71. DIVE Team: Victor de Boer, Oana Inel, Lora Aroyo, Johan Oomen, Elco Van Staveren, Werner Helmich & Dennis De Beurs dive.beeldengeluid.nl
  72. 72. Agora Team: Lora Aroyo, Guus Schreiber, Lourens van der Meij, Marieke van Erp, Chiel van den Akker, Susan Legêne, Geertje Jacobs, Johan Oomen agora.cs.vu.nl
  73. 73. CrowdTruth Team: Lora Aroyo, Chris Welty Robert-­‐Jan Sips, Carlos Mar>nez Or>z, Anca Dumitrache, Oana Inel, Benjamin Timmermans, Susanna van de Ven, Merel van Empel, Jelle v.d. Ploeg, TaKana Cristea, Khalid Khamkham, Harrië]e Smook, Rens van Honschooten, Arne Rutjes CrowdTruth.org github.com/CrowdTruth
  74. 74. Links On the Web • http://waida.nl • http://prestoprime.org • http://agora.cs.vu.nl • http://sealincmedia.wordpress.com • http://dive.beeldengeluid.nl • http://crowdtruth.org • http://game.crowdtruth.org • http://wm.cs.vu.nl On TwiRer @waisda @agora-­‐project @sealincmedia @prestocenter @vistatv #CrowdTruth http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo
  75. 75. THANK YOU! http://lora-aroyo.org ! http://slideshare.net/laroyo ! @laroyo

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