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Borg cpd hammamet 2013 all slides

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Teachers cannot be developed
(passively). They develop (actively). It
is vital, therefore, that they are centrally involved in decisions concerning the direction and processes of their own learning (Day1999: 2)

Teachers cannot be developed
(passively). They develop (actively). It
is vital, therefore, that they are centrally involved in decisions concerning the direction and processes of their own learning (Day1999: 2)

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Borg cpd hammamet 2013 all slides

  1. 1. 1 Professional Development: Rewards and Challenges Hammamet,14-16February2013 ProfessorSimonBorg,UniversityofLeeds s.borg@education.leeds.ac.uk • Participant-centred CPD • School-based CPD • School-focused CPD • Collaborative CPD • Inquiry-based CPD • Constructivist CPD Current Thinking
  2. 2. 2 Teacher Development Teachers cannot be developed (passively). They develop (actively). It is vital, therefore, that they are centrally involved in decisions concerning the direction and processes of their own learning (Day 1999: 2) PROFESSION training knowledge lifelong learning community autonomy
  3. 3. 3 Being a Professional a capacity for autonomous professional development through systematic self- study, through the study of the work of other teachers, and through questioning and testing of ideas by classroom research procedures (Stenhouse 1975: 144) (Waters & Vilches 2010)
  4. 4. 4 … activities which are intended to be of direct or indirect benefit to the individual, group or school and which contribute through these to the quality of education in the classroom …. (Day 1999:4). It is the process by which, alone and with others, teachers … acquire and develop critically the knowledge, skills … essential to good professional thinking, planning and practice …. (Day 1999:4).
  5. 5. 5 Richards & Farrell (2005) Workshops Teaching portfolios Self-monitoring Case analysis Teacher support groups Analyzing critical incidents Teaching journals Peer coaching Peer observation Team teaching Action research • Series of workshops • Informal networking • Accredited programmes • Single workshops • Demonstration lessons (least) Goodall et al. (2005)
  6. 6. 6 Criticisms of INSET  not based on analysis of teachers’ needs  focuses on individuals  voluntary  does not address the needs of schools  little impact on the classroom  disrupts the school day School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teacher Autonomy and Teacher Cognition
  7. 7. 7 Robot Craftsman Applied Scientist Thinker School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law 1975 – National Institute of Education (USA) It is obvious that what teachers do is directed in no small measure by what they think....[If] teaching … is “thoughtless” … it becomes mechanical and might well be done by a machine.
  8. 8. 8 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teacher Cognition What teachers think, know and believe and the relationships between these and teachers’ classroom practices. School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Many factors have advanced the field’s understanding of L2 teachers’ work, but none is more significant than the emergence of a substantial body of research now referred to as teacher cognition. (Johnson, 2006: 235)
  9. 9. 9 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law TEACHER AUTONOMY TEACHER AUTONOMY Professional freedomProfessional freedom Professional capacityProfessional capacity
  10. 10. 10 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teacher Autonomy a capacity to engage in informed self- directed action and development School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Key Question In CPD, how can a capacity to engage in informed self-directed action and development be promoted through attention to teacher cognition?
  11. 11. 11 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teacher Cognition & Teacher Autonomy Theoretical knowledge Teachers’ beliefs School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Theoretical Knowledge • PPP &TBL • Inductive & deductive activities • Explicit & implicit corrective feedback • Output & input practice
  12. 12. 12 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Theoretical Knowledge Greater awareness of pedagogical options Increased repertoire of choices More informed decision-making School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teachers’ Beliefs Asking learners to work out grammar rules is a more effective way of teaching grammar than explaining the rules directly.
  13. 13. 13 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Teachers’ Beliefs Awareness of beliefs Opportunities to review these More transparent and informed decision-making School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Classroom Practice Teacher Cognition Teacher Autonomy
  14. 14. 14 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Implications for CPD • Understanding behaviour = Understanding beliefs • Reflection – behaviour and beliefs • External theory as a source of CPD Criticisms of INSET  not based on analysis of teachers’ needs  focuses on individuals  voluntary  does not address the needs of schools  little impact on the classroom  disrupts the school day
  15. 15. 15 School-Based CPD  In schools  By teachers  Individual or collaborative  Teachers involved in decisions  Reflection – may be less formal  Teacher research - more systematic Reflective Practice conscious recall and examination of [an] experience as a basis for evaluation and decision-making and as a source for planning and action. (Richards 1991: 4)
  16. 16. 16 Reflective Practice Peer Observation  Peers – not hierarchical  Developmental – not judgemental  Pre-observation meetings – agree focus  Observation  Post-observation meeting  Action points – record of activity
  17. 17. 17 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law TEACHER RESEARCH By teachers In their context To understand their work Purposeful Systematic Evidence-based Shared
  18. 18. 18 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Ask questions Collect data Analyze data Make sense School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Benefits of Teacher Research … an important means by which teachers can develop their capacity for making … sound autonomous professional judgements and decisions. (Lankshear & Knobel, 2004:5)
  19. 19. 19 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Benefits of Teacher Research … teacher research has the potential to make a real difference to pupils and staff, the whole school and the wider community. (Sharp, 2007:22) School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law HEC/BC Teacher Research Project • 10-month project • 18 teachers of English • Three workshops • On-line support
  20. 20. 20 Phase 1 Planning Phase 2 Doing Phase 3 Report writing Dissemination School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law What Teachers Say I look upon problems as challenges to be overcome through research not hurdles to cry about.
  21. 21. 21 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law What Teachers Say As teachers we are aware of issues and problems, but being a researcher has given me an opportunity to work for possible solutions, which is GREAT. School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law What Teachers Say We have been teaching the same way we taught ten years ago but now we have an urge to experiment with new ideas in our teaching.
  22. 22. 22 School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law Outcomes • Enhanced professionals • Skilled researchers • Teacher research ‘champions’ • Research mentors School of Education Faculty of Education, Social Sciences & Law The teacher who just teaches and the one who has done research the difference is that of dead and alive!
  23. 23. 23 Levels of Impact Level Examines impact in terms of Reactions Feelings immediately after training Learning Changes in beliefs, knowledge and skills Behaviour Application of new ideas over time Results Effect on the organization Awareness Theoretical knowledge Learning new skills Applying new skills Presentation + + Modelling + ? Simulated Practice + ? + Feedback on performance + + On the job support +
  24. 24. 24 CollectingImpact Data End of session written feedback Pre- and post-course questionnaires Observation of teachers Interviews with teachers Teacher portfolios Written assignments Tests/examinations Teacher journals Interviews with learners Learners’ test scores Interviews with headteachers

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