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Management as an art and science mr anil kumar gupta + eva

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Management as an art and science mr anil kumar gupta + eva

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT AS AN ART AND SCIENCE
  2. 2. MANAGEMENT AS AN ART Art is the skillful and personal application of existing knowledge to achieve desired result. It can be acquired through study, observation and experience. The basic features of an art are as follows: • Existence of theoretical knowledge • Personalized application and creativity • Based on continuous practice.
  3. 3. Let us see how far management fulfills these requirements:
  4. 4. Existence of theoretical knowledge:- in every art, there is systematic and organized study material available to acquire certain theoretical knowledge on the basis of which certain principles are derived for example, literature, dancing, public speaking, acting or music is widely available. In management too there is a lot of literature available in various areas of management like marketing, finance and human resources which the manager has to specialize in. So, this feature of art is present in management.
  5. 5. Personalized application and creativity:- In the field of art, theoretical knowledge is not enough. The use of basic knowledge of art varies from individual to individual. For example, two dancers, two speakers, two actors, or two writers will always differs in demonstrating their art. IN MANAGEMENT TOO, A MANAGER APPLIES HIS ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE IN A PERSONLISED AND SKILLFUL MANNER DEPENDING UPON THE SITUATION. THE EFFICEIENCY OF THE MANAGER DEPENDS UPON HOW WELL THEY USE THESE PRINCIPLES UNDER DIFFERENT SITUATIONS BY APPLYING PERSONAL SKILL,IMAGINATION AND INITIATIVE. THIS GIVE RISE TO DIFFERENT STYLES OF MANAGEMENT. SO, THIS FEATURE OF ART IS PRESENT IN MANAGEMENT
  6. 6. Based on continuous practice:- Every artist becomes more and more efficient through constant practice of existing theoretical knowledge. A dancer, for example, learns to perform better by continuously practicing a dance. SIMILARLY, A MANAGER GAINS EXPERIENCE THROUGH REGUALAR PRACTICE AND BECOMES MORE EFFECTIVE. AS IT IS RIGHTLY SAID ,’THE MORE YOU MANAGE, THE BETTER YOU MANAGE’. MANAGERS ACHIEVE PERFECTION AFTER LONG PRACTICE. SO, THIS FEATURE OF ART IS PRESENT IN MANAGEMENT
  7. 7. Conclusion:- As all the criteria of art are satisfied by management, it qualifies as an art. All management practices are based on the same set principles; what distinguishes a successful manager from a less successful one is the ability to put these principles into practice.
  8. 8. MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE
  9. 9. Science is a systematized body of knowledge that explain certain general truths or the operation of general laws. The basic features of Science are as follows:- • Systematized body of knowledge • Principles based on observation and experimentation. • Universal validity.
  10. 10. Let us see how far management fulfills these requirements
  11. 11. Systematized body of knowledge:- Science is a systematic body of knowledge. Its principles are based on a cause and effect relationship. For example, the phenomenon of an apple falling from a tree towards the ground is explained by the law of gravity. LIKE SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT HAS SYSTEMATISED BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AND HAS ITS OWN THEORY AND PRINCIPLES THAT HAVE DEVELOPED OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT TOO ESTABLISH CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFERENT VARIABLES. SO, THIS FEATURES OF SCIENCE IS PRESENT IN MANAGEMENT.
  12. 12. Principles based on experimentation :- Scientific principles are first developed through observation and then tested through repeated experimentation under controlled conditions. THE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT ARE ALSO BASED ON REPEATED EXPERIEMENTATION AND OBSERVATION. IN DIFFERENT OUTCOMES OF THESE EXPERIMENTS ARE NOT CAPABLE OF BEING ACCURATELY PREDICETED . THEREFORE, MANAGEMENT CAN BE CALLED AN INEXACT SCIENCE. SO, THIS FEATURE OF SCIENCE IS NOT FULLY PRESENT IN MANAGEMENT.
  13. 13. Universal validity: Scientific principles have universal validity and application. SINCE THE PRINCIPLES OF NAMAGEMENT ARE NOT AS EXACT AS THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE, THERE APPLICATION AND USE IS NOT UNIVERSAL. THEY HAVE TO BE MODIFIED ACCORDING TO A GIVEN SITUAITION. HOWEVER, THEY PROVIDE MANAGERS WITH CERTAIN STANDARDISED TECHNIQUES THAT CAN BE USED IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS. THESE PRINCIPLES ARE ASLO USED FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGERS. SO, THIS FEATURE OF SCIENCE IS NOT FULLY PRESENT IN MANAGEMENT.
  14. 14. CONCLUSION: Thus, management is undoubtedly a science, however, it is not as exact or as comprehensive as pure science like physics or chemistry. This is because management deals with people and it is very difficult to predict the behavior of human beings accurately. Therefore, management is considered to be an inexact, soft, social or behavioral science.
  15. 15. Now lets check… what we learned??? (Answer the following questions) • Qs. True or False… • Management is a pure science. • Management is having systemized body of knowledge. • Qs. Management principles are universal applicable. Is it true? • Qs. Explain management as an Art/Science.
  16. 16. By MR ANIL KUMAR GUPTA (PGT Commerce) K.V. No. 2. AFS HINDON

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