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Understanding concept of rasayana in respect to dhaatu

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Understanding concept of rasayana in respect to dhaatu

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  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING CONCEPT OF RASAYANA IN RESPECT TO DHAATU & STEM CELLS DR BS PRASAD MD, PhD PRINCIPAL KLEU SHRI BMK AYURVED MAHAVIDYALAYA BELGAUM, KARNATAKA
  2. 2. Scientists are promising • Culturing of any type of cells • Making available of one’s own duplicate organs for transplant
  3. 3. • What made the scientists think and postulate stem cells? and • What they are?
  4. 4. Formation of RBC RBCs What after 120 days ???? Haemopiotic Cells WBCs
  5. 5. Spermatogenesis
  6. 6. Spermatogenesis 1N 2N 1N 2N What next? 1N 2N 1N
  7. 7. • In 1960S the existence of stem cells in an irradiated mouse was reported by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E.
  8. 8. RBCs After 120 days Blood Stem cells WBCs
  9. 9. STEM CELLS Stem cells • Cells that can make more of themselves • Cells that can become almost any cell
  10. 10. • Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. • Unlike muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells— which do not normally replicate themselves— stem cells may replicate many times, or proliferate.
  11. 11. • Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells and have three general properties: ▫ they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods ▫ they are unspecialized ▫ they can give rise to specialized cell types
  12. 12. • Stem cells are unspecialized. • Stem cells do not have any tissue-specific structures that allow to perform specialized functions. • For example, a stem cell cannot pump blood (like a heart muscle cell), and it cannot carry oxygen molecules (like a red blood cell).
  13. 13. • Unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells, including heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells and the process is called differentiation. • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all the types of blood cells: red blood cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages.
  14. 14. • Mesenchymal stem cells give rise to a variety of cell types: bone cells (osteocytes), cartilage cells (chondrocytes), fat cells (adipocytes) etc. • Neural stem cells in the brain give rise to its three major cell types: nerve cells (neurons) and two categories of non-neuronal cells—astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
  15. 15. • Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells. • The epidermal stem cells give rise to keratinocytes • The follicular stem cells can give rise to both the hair follicle and to the epidermis.
  16. 16. Stem cell classification • By source ▫ Embryonic ▫ Adult • By potency ▫ Totipotent ▫ Pluripotent ▫ Multipotent ▫ Oligopotent ▫ Unipotent
  17. 17. • Potency is how many types of cells a stem cell can become. ▫ Totipotent stem cells are capable of developing into any other type of body cell. ▫ Pluripotent cells are almost as potent as totipotent stem cells. They have barely started differentiating and can develop into almost any other type of cell, except placenta.
  18. 18. ▫ Multipotent stem cells that have begun differentiating into a general type of cell. For blood cell giving rise to a blood cell only but not brain cell. ▫ Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few types of cell. For example, a lymphoid stem cell can become any of the blood cells found in the lymphatic system (T cells, B cells, and plasma cells), but not a different kind of blood cell, such as a red blood cell, or platelet. ▫ Unipotent stem cells can only become one type of cell their own. They are considered stem cells because they can reproduce indefinitely. An example is skin cells, which can renew themselves indefinitely, but which cannot become any other type of cell.
  19. 19. Embryonic stem cells • Embryonic stem cells come from a five to six - day- old embryo. They have the ability to form virtually any type of cell found in the human body. • Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body.
  20. 20. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Blastoc yst
  21. 21. Adult stem cells • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found among specialised (differentiated) cells in a tissue or organ after birth. • Adult stem cells have limited to differentiating capasity.
  22. 22. • Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis. • They are thought to reside in a specific area of each tissue (called a "stem cell niche").
  23. 23. • Differentiation of adult stem cells: • Adult stem cells divide, when needed, and can give rise to mature cell types that have ▫ Characteristic shape ▫ Specialized structures ▫ Functions of a particular tissue
  24. 24. Adult stem cell differentiation
  25. 25. • A blood-forming cell in the bone marrow - hematopoietic stem cell—cannot give rise to the cells of a very different tissue, such as nerve cells in the brain.
  26. 26. Differentiation Transformation
  27. 27. • Scientists discovered two regions of the brain that contained dividing cells that ultimately become nerve cells. • Despite these reports, most scientists believed that the adult brain could not generate new nerve cells. • It was not until the 1990s that scientists agreed that the adult brain does contain stem cells that are able to generate the brain's three major cell types— astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which are non-neuronal cells, and neurons, or nerve cells.
  28. 28. Dhatu • Ayurved identified sapta dhatu and few upadhatu. • Adya rasadhatu is the source for Saptadhatu • Sukshmabhaga of dhatu nourishes successive dhatu • Uttarottara dhatu poshana is possible only in forward direction
  29. 29. • Several types of tissues are described at present • Ayurved considered group of tissues under one dhatu and hence listed only seven dhatu • Dhatu concept represent advanced stem cell theories
  30. 30. STHAYI DHATU (STEM CELLS) STHULA BHAGA ASTHAYI DHATU POSHYA (FUNCTIONAL (CELLULAR CELLS) PART) SUKSHMABHAGA (STEM CELLS D UNDERGOING TRANSFORMATION) H A FROM ANNARASA T (EXOGENOUS) U POSHAKA (NOURISHMENT PART FROM RASA) FROM SARIRARASA (ENDOGENOUS)
  31. 31. FUNCTIONAL TISSUES OF SKIN ETC. (ASTHAYI RASA DHATU) TOTIPOTENT CELLS TRANSFORMATION UNDERGOING SUKSHMABHAGA …. STAGE OF TOTIPOTENT FERTILIZATION CELLS (STHAYI RASA DHATU
  32. 32. Stem cells of Mamsa Dhatu Asthayi Mamsa Dhatu (Sthayi Mamsa Dhatu) Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga of Mamsa dhatu Transforming into Meda dhatu
  33. 33. Asthayi Mamsa dhatu Asthayi Rasadhatu Asthayi (Functional Raktadhatu skin tissue) RBC Platelets WBC Differentiation Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga Sukshma Bhaga Sthayi Rakta dhatu Sthayi Mamsa dhatu Sthayi Rasa dhatu
  34. 34. RASAYANA • Geriatric medicine • Immuno-modulator • Anti-oxidant • Nutrient supplement • Rejuvenator
  35. 35. RASAYANA • Measures to obtain tissues of optimum quality & quantity • Vayasthaapana/Ayu (100 yrs of life or preserving youth for more years) • Smriti, Medha • Balakara • Prabha, Varna • Svaroudaarya • Vaaksiddhi
  36. 36. • Rogaapaharana • Achintyaatbhuta prabhava • Nidra, tandra, srama, klama, alasya hara • Daurbalya hara • Anila, kapha, pitta saamyakara • Sthairya kara • Abaddha mamsa hara • Antaragni sandhukshanam • Sthirasamabhaktha maamsaaha • Susamhita sthira sarira • Sarvatra apratihata paraakramaha • Klesha saha
  37. 37. Rasayana is • Cell proliferator • Nutrient supplement • Immunomodulation • Antioxidant • Metabolic corrector • Geriatric medicine • Functional capacity enhancer
  38. 38. IN RELATION TO PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS • Measures to obtain tissues of optimum quality & quantity • Vayasthaapana/Ayu (100 yrs of life or preserving youth for more years) • Sthira samabhaktha maamsaaha • Susamhita sthira sarira • Jivaniya – Jeevaka, Rishabhaka • Brimhaniya – Aswagandha, Kakoli
  39. 39. MULTI/OLIGO/POTENT STEM CELLS • Balakara • Rogaapaharana • Antaragni sandhukshanam • GI system – Bilva, Guduchi • Urinary system – Punarnava, Gokshura • Respiratory – Pippali, Pushkaramula
  40. 40. Unipotent stem cells • Smriti, Medha • Prabha, Varna • Svaroudaarya, • Abaddha mamsa hara • Sukra janaka • Keshya • Chakshushya
  41. 41. Somopaana vidhi – kuti pravesika Rasayana Day Event Second Vamana with maggots & blood stain Third Virechana with maggots Fourth Whole body swelling & maggots from all orifices Seventh Only skin & bones remain. Life is preserved due to soma Eighth Skin shred off. Fall of teeth, nails, body hair 17th & 18th Eruption of good teeth & nails….
  42. 42. VIDANGA TANDULA RASAYANA Duration Event After a month Maggots come out of body Second month Ant like creatures come out Third month Lice comes out Fourth month Fall off – teeth, nails, body hair Fifth month Good strength & luster Increased perception of sense organs
  43. 43. Asthayi Mamsa dhatu Asthayi Rasadhatu Asthayi (Functional Raktadhatu skin tissue) RBC Platelets WBC Differentiation Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga Rasayana Sukshma Bhaga Sthayi Rakta dhatu Sthayi Mamsa dhatu Sthayi Rasa dhatu
  44. 44. • As the stem cells give rise to functional tissues rasayana drugs are supposed to act on stem cells • Tissue/system specific rasayana are likely to act on that particular stem cells • Rasayana drugs for vayasthapana – enhance cell proliferation capacity of stem cells
  45. 45. SUMMARY • Stem cells are unspecialised Cells capable of renew or proliferate for longer times. • Unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells and the process is called differentiation. • Stem cell classification: ▫ By source: Embryonic, Adult ▫ By potency: Totipotent, Pluri/Multi/Oligo/Unipotent • Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body. • Dhaatu concept & advanced stem cell theories are in same lines • Rasayana exerts effects mostly at stem cell level
  46. 46. FURTHER STUDIES • Rasayana drugs specific to type of stem cells • Stem cell lines
  47. 47. THANK YOU

Transkript

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING CONCEPT OF RASAYANA IN RESPECT TO DHAATU & STEM CELLS DR BS PRASAD MD, PhD PRINCIPAL KLEU SHRI BMK AYURVED MAHAVIDYALAYA BELGAUM, KARNATAKA
  2. 2. Scientists are promising • Culturing of any type of cells • Making available of one’s own duplicate organs for transplant
  3. 3. • What made the scientists think and postulate stem cells? and • What they are?
  4. 4. Formation of RBC RBCs What after 120 days ???? Haemopiotic Cells WBCs
  5. 5. Spermatogenesis
  6. 6. Spermatogenesis 1N 2N 1N 2N What next? 1N 2N 1N
  7. 7. • In 1960S the existence of stem cells in an irradiated mouse was reported by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E.
  8. 8. RBCs After 120 days Blood Stem cells WBCs
  9. 9. STEM CELLS Stem cells • Cells that can make more of themselves • Cells that can become almost any cell
  10. 10. • Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods. • Unlike muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells— which do not normally replicate themselves— stem cells may replicate many times, or proliferate.
  11. 11. • Stem cells differ from other kinds of cells and have three general properties: ▫ they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods ▫ they are unspecialized ▫ they can give rise to specialized cell types
  12. 12. • Stem cells are unspecialized. • Stem cells do not have any tissue-specific structures that allow to perform specialized functions. • For example, a stem cell cannot pump blood (like a heart muscle cell), and it cannot carry oxygen molecules (like a red blood cell).
  13. 13. • Unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells, including heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells and the process is called differentiation. • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all the types of blood cells: red blood cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages.
  14. 14. • Mesenchymal stem cells give rise to a variety of cell types: bone cells (osteocytes), cartilage cells (chondrocytes), fat cells (adipocytes) etc. • Neural stem cells in the brain give rise to its three major cell types: nerve cells (neurons) and two categories of non-neuronal cells—astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
  15. 15. • Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells. • The epidermal stem cells give rise to keratinocytes • The follicular stem cells can give rise to both the hair follicle and to the epidermis.
  16. 16. Stem cell classification • By source ▫ Embryonic ▫ Adult • By potency ▫ Totipotent ▫ Pluripotent ▫ Multipotent ▫ Oligopotent ▫ Unipotent
  17. 17. • Potency is how many types of cells a stem cell can become. ▫ Totipotent stem cells are capable of developing into any other type of body cell. ▫ Pluripotent cells are almost as potent as totipotent stem cells. They have barely started differentiating and can develop into almost any other type of cell, except placenta.
  18. 18. ▫ Multipotent stem cells that have begun differentiating into a general type of cell. For blood cell giving rise to a blood cell only but not brain cell. ▫ Oligopotent stem cells can differentiate into only a few types of cell. For example, a lymphoid stem cell can become any of the blood cells found in the lymphatic system (T cells, B cells, and plasma cells), but not a different kind of blood cell, such as a red blood cell, or platelet. ▫ Unipotent stem cells can only become one type of cell their own. They are considered stem cells because they can reproduce indefinitely. An example is skin cells, which can renew themselves indefinitely, but which cannot become any other type of cell.
  19. 19. Embryonic stem cells • Embryonic stem cells come from a five to six - day- old embryo. They have the ability to form virtually any type of cell found in the human body. • Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body.
  20. 20. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Blastoc yst
  21. 21. Adult stem cells • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found among specialised (differentiated) cells in a tissue or organ after birth. • Adult stem cells have limited to differentiating capasity.
  22. 22. • Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis. • They are thought to reside in a specific area of each tissue (called a "stem cell niche").
  23. 23. • Differentiation of adult stem cells: • Adult stem cells divide, when needed, and can give rise to mature cell types that have ▫ Characteristic shape ▫ Specialized structures ▫ Functions of a particular tissue
  24. 24. Adult stem cell differentiation
  25. 25. • A blood-forming cell in the bone marrow - hematopoietic stem cell—cannot give rise to the cells of a very different tissue, such as nerve cells in the brain.
  26. 26. Differentiation Transformation
  27. 27. • Scientists discovered two regions of the brain that contained dividing cells that ultimately become nerve cells. • Despite these reports, most scientists believed that the adult brain could not generate new nerve cells. • It was not until the 1990s that scientists agreed that the adult brain does contain stem cells that are able to generate the brain's three major cell types— astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which are non-neuronal cells, and neurons, or nerve cells.
  28. 28. Dhatu • Ayurved identified sapta dhatu and few upadhatu. • Adya rasadhatu is the source for Saptadhatu • Sukshmabhaga of dhatu nourishes successive dhatu • Uttarottara dhatu poshana is possible only in forward direction
  29. 29. • Several types of tissues are described at present • Ayurved considered group of tissues under one dhatu and hence listed only seven dhatu • Dhatu concept represent advanced stem cell theories
  30. 30. STHAYI DHATU (STEM CELLS) STHULA BHAGA ASTHAYI DHATU POSHYA (FUNCTIONAL (CELLULAR CELLS) PART) SUKSHMABHAGA (STEM CELLS D UNDERGOING TRANSFORMATION) H A FROM ANNARASA T (EXOGENOUS) U POSHAKA (NOURISHMENT PART FROM RASA) FROM SARIRARASA (ENDOGENOUS)
  31. 31. FUNCTIONAL TISSUES OF SKIN ETC. (ASTHAYI RASA DHATU) TOTIPOTENT CELLS TRANSFORMATION UNDERGOING SUKSHMABHAGA …. STAGE OF TOTIPOTENT FERTILIZATION CELLS (STHAYI RASA DHATU
  32. 32. Stem cells of Mamsa Dhatu Asthayi Mamsa Dhatu (Sthayi Mamsa Dhatu) Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga of Mamsa dhatu Transforming into Meda dhatu
  33. 33. Asthayi Mamsa dhatu Asthayi Rasadhatu Asthayi (Functional Raktadhatu skin tissue) RBC Platelets WBC Differentiation Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga Sukshma Bhaga Sthayi Rakta dhatu Sthayi Mamsa dhatu Sthayi Rasa dhatu
  34. 34. RASAYANA • Geriatric medicine • Immuno-modulator • Anti-oxidant • Nutrient supplement • Rejuvenator
  35. 35. RASAYANA • Measures to obtain tissues of optimum quality & quantity • Vayasthaapana/Ayu (100 yrs of life or preserving youth for more years) • Smriti, Medha • Balakara • Prabha, Varna • Svaroudaarya • Vaaksiddhi
  36. 36. • Rogaapaharana • Achintyaatbhuta prabhava • Nidra, tandra, srama, klama, alasya hara • Daurbalya hara • Anila, kapha, pitta saamyakara • Sthairya kara • Abaddha mamsa hara • Antaragni sandhukshanam • Sthirasamabhaktha maamsaaha • Susamhita sthira sarira • Sarvatra apratihata paraakramaha • Klesha saha
  37. 37. Rasayana is • Cell proliferator • Nutrient supplement • Immunomodulation • Antioxidant • Metabolic corrector • Geriatric medicine • Functional capacity enhancer
  38. 38. IN RELATION TO PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS • Measures to obtain tissues of optimum quality & quantity • Vayasthaapana/Ayu (100 yrs of life or preserving youth for more years) • Sthira samabhaktha maamsaaha • Susamhita sthira sarira • Jivaniya – Jeevaka, Rishabhaka • Brimhaniya – Aswagandha, Kakoli
  39. 39. MULTI/OLIGO/POTENT STEM CELLS • Balakara • Rogaapaharana • Antaragni sandhukshanam • GI system – Bilva, Guduchi • Urinary system – Punarnava, Gokshura • Respiratory – Pippali, Pushkaramula
  40. 40. Unipotent stem cells • Smriti, Medha • Prabha, Varna • Svaroudaarya, • Abaddha mamsa hara • Sukra janaka • Keshya • Chakshushya
  41. 41. Somopaana vidhi – kuti pravesika Rasayana Day Event Second Vamana with maggots & blood stain Third Virechana with maggots Fourth Whole body swelling & maggots from all orifices Seventh Only skin & bones remain. Life is preserved due to soma Eighth Skin shred off. Fall of teeth, nails, body hair 17th & 18th Eruption of good teeth & nails….
  42. 42. VIDANGA TANDULA RASAYANA Duration Event After a month Maggots come out of body Second month Ant like creatures come out Third month Lice comes out Fourth month Fall off – teeth, nails, body hair Fifth month Good strength & luster Increased perception of sense organs
  43. 43. Asthayi Mamsa dhatu Asthayi Rasadhatu Asthayi (Functional Raktadhatu skin tissue) RBC Platelets WBC Differentiation Differentiation Sukshma Bhaga Rasayana Sukshma Bhaga Sthayi Rakta dhatu Sthayi Mamsa dhatu Sthayi Rasa dhatu
  44. 44. • As the stem cells give rise to functional tissues rasayana drugs are supposed to act on stem cells • Tissue/system specific rasayana are likely to act on that particular stem cells • Rasayana drugs for vayasthapana – enhance cell proliferation capacity of stem cells
  45. 45. SUMMARY • Stem cells are unspecialised Cells capable of renew or proliferate for longer times. • Unspecialized stem cells can give rise to specialized cells and the process is called differentiation. • Stem cell classification: ▫ By source: Embryonic, Adult ▫ By potency: Totipotent, Pluri/Multi/Oligo/Unipotent • Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body. • Dhaatu concept & advanced stem cell theories are in same lines • Rasayana exerts effects mostly at stem cell level
  46. 46. FURTHER STUDIES • Rasayana drugs specific to type of stem cells • Stem cell lines
  47. 47. THANK YOU

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