Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the
main precipitating factors of acute heart failure
(AHF), usually in the context of
extensive myocardial ischemia,
myocardial dysfunction and injury, and
It can lead to the development of de novo AHF
or worsening of chronic heart failure.
AHF, in turn, can deteriorate into cardiogenic
It has been estimated that 15–28% of patients
with ACS experience signs and symptoms of
AHF. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute
myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs in 5–15% .
Unfortunately no guidelines exist on
management of acute heart failure in the
setting of ACS patients
ACS guidelines focus predominantly on
Heart failure guidelines/trials usually
exclude ACS patients.
Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizer and ATP-
dependent potassium channel opener, developed
for the treatment of acute decompensated heart
failure, with a solid evidence of efficacy and safety.
In the last 15 years evidences have been collected
on the use of levosimendan in AHF and CS
Purpose of this review and opinion paper was
analysis of the existing data and clinical
experience, and give some recommendations on
the use of levosimendan in AHF and CS related to
Levosimendan enhances cardiac contractility by binding to the
cardiac TROPONIN C with a high affinity and stabilizes the Ca2+
bound conformation of this regulatory protein.
It does not increase the intracellular Ca2+ LEVELS.
BINDING OF LEVOSIMENDAN to troponin C is dependent on
the cytosolic ca2+ concentration i.e. increases during systole but
is relatively unchanged during diastole,when Ca2+ levels
Thus there is parallel enhancement of myocardial contractility
and LV diastolic function.
Levosimendan does not increase intracellular Ca2+ , which other
inotropes usually do (that possibly leads to myocardial cell death
and / or increases lethal arrhythmias.) THUS it is relatively free of
arrhythmias compared to other inotropes.
LEVOSIMENDAN also causes PHOSPHODIESTERASE3 inhibition , but
this action occurs at doses well above therapeutic range .
Levosimendan produces vasodilation in several vasculatures
including coronary , pulmonary , renal , splanchnic , cerebral and
systemic arteries as well as saphenous , portal and systemic veins .
It does so by opening ATP sensitive K+ channels in smooth
Thus it decreases both PRELOAD and AFTERLOAD.
LEVOSIMENDAN also has CARDIOPROTECTIVEEFFECT , by
opening mitochondrial (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels in
Opening of K-ATP channels in the cardiac mitochondria is
assumed to exert cardioprotective effects .
Du Toit et al. showed that in a guinea pig model,
preconditioning with levosimendan decreased the extent
of hypoxic myocardial injury from 100% to 10%.
NO INCREASE IN O2
LEVOSIMENDAN=A NOVEL DRUG
Feature Levosimendan Milrinone Dobutamine
Class Calcium sensitiser Phosphodiesterase
No Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes
Vasodilator? Coronary and
Peripheral Mild peripheral
No No Yes
No evidence of
activity (5%); less
According to a comparison of levosimendan and
milrinone, levosimendan improves the
microcirculation in the splanchnic vessels, whereas
milrinone has a neutral effect, even though both
drugs have a similar influence on systemic blood
Further, levosimendan improves long-term renal
function in patients with advanced chronic HF
awaiting cardiac transplantation, possibly via
enhanced renal blood flow.
Both creatinine levels and creatinine clearance
improve as compared to controls.
In another study, Bragadottir et al. showed that
levosimendan had positive effects on renal
blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal
oxygen consumption and oxygenation.
The authors found a remarkable difference
between levosimendan and dopamine regarding
glomerular filtration rates.
A possible explanation for this is that
levosimendan has differential effects on afferent
and efferent vessels in the kidney, whereas the
effects of dopamine are independent of the
The use of levosimendan after an ischemic event can
diminish stunning. According to Sonntag et al.,
patients with ACS treated with levosimendan
experienced a decrease in the total number of
hypokinetic segments as compared to placebo.
Levosimendan reduces myocardial infarct size and
increases left-ventricular function after acute coronary
Additionally, in animal models levosimendan showed
anti-ischemic , anti-remodeling and anti-apoptotic effects
As it regards effects on neurohormones, in the
SURVIVE study levosimendan was superior to
dobutamine for a sustained decrease of BNP
Panel of 34 experts in the field of cardiology, intensive care medicine,
internal medicine, and cardiovascular pharmacology from 20 European
countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) convened in
Munich on January 22nd, 2016 to review systematically the existing data on
the use of levosimendan in AHF and CS complicating ACS.
Pertinent studies were independently searched in BioMed Central, PubMed,
and Embase (updated January 7, 2016) by three trained investigators.
The full search strategy was aimed to include any randomized study ever
performed with levosimendan in the relevant clinical setting.
The retrieved literature was available for consultation by all the meeting
invitees for two weeks before the meeting.
During the meeting the group discussed and reached a consensus on the
epidemiology and outcome of AHF and CS complicating ACS, and – in
general – on the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia.
Furthermore, the panel reached a consensus on some recommendations
regarding the use of levosimendan, based on existing literature and
AHF is frequently complicating ACS especially
when large infarction, extensive ischemic area
with stunning or mitral regurgitation, and
arrhythmias are present.
In the EHFS II study, 42% of the de novo AHF
was due to ACS
M.S. Nieminen, D. Brutsaert, K. Dickstein, et al.,EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a
survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population, Eur. Heart
J. 27 (22) (2006) 2725–2736.
Sani M, et al: The causes, treatment, and outcome of acute heart failure in 1006
Africans from 9 countries: results of the sub-Saharan Africa survey of heart failure.
Arch Intern Med 172:1386, 2012.
Overall, the incidence of AHF as a
complication of ACS, as well as
the corresponding mortality, has
been decreasing over the last
years. The incidence of HF
declined from 46% to 28% (p b
The decrease in HF can probably be
explained by more frequent use of
primary PCI, which secures early
reperfusion in patients with STEMI and,
thereby, salvages jeopardized
Also, an increased use of evidence
based pharmacological treatment
preventing remodeling may contribute.
Finally, the more frequent detection of
minor AMI with high sensitivity
troponin testing may lower the
estimated HF risk, since the
precipitation of AHF depends on the size
of injury or ischemic area.
In a recent prospective multicenter study, CS and pulmonary edema
were found to be more common in ACS–AHF patients
than in AHF patients without concomitant ACS .
Accordingly, the ACS–AHF patients were found to have markedly
higher short-term mortality rates, with an almost two-fold 30-day
mortality (13% vs. 8%; p = 0.03).
ACS was shown to be an independent predictor of 30-day
mortality in the HF population.
In addition, ACS–AHF prolongs hospitalization and requires more
costly treatment in intensive care.
Risk factors for the development of AHF during a
hospital stay due to ACS, according to multivariate
analysis based on the data obtained in
The CardShock Study identified ischemic causes as the principal etiology of CS (81%)a/w
Worse outcomes than those with non-ischemic causes. Other factors associated with high
mortality in CS are Multivessel disease ,advanced age, history of previous MI and CABG,
anoxic brain damage or confusion, decreases LVEF, cardiac index (CI) cardiac output and
SBP, need for vasopressor support, deterioration in renal function, and elevated serum
lactate Levels . Prior CPR is also an important factor.
Due to the rapid development of HF, the pulmonary vasculature is
frequently not able to adapt promptly. Impaired left ventricular function
and hemodynamic overload results in backward failure with pulmonary
In terms of pathophysiology, profound depression of
myocardial contractility leads to CS, resulting in a
vicious spiral of reduced cardiac output (CO), low
blood pressure, impaired coronary perfusion, and
further concomitant reductions in contractility and
Also, an acute deterioration in the diastolic function
may contribute to further derangement of ventricular
function and congestion.
The classical paradigm predicts that
compensatory systemic vasoconstriction occurs
in response to this, i.e. over activation of
adrenergic and RAAS reflex mechanisms
causing increases in vascular resistance, but
this is not always the case .
Impaired hemodynamic capability is also due to
changes in ventricular and arterial elastance.
Under normal conditions ventricular and
arterial elastances show approximately equal
slopes, providing hemodynamic equilibrium to
occur at the lowest energy cost.
In a failing condition, however, reductions in the
contractility and/or increases in the arterial
elastance lead to ventriculo-arterial uncoupling and
increased myocardial oxygen consumption.
The administration of vasopressors worsen
this problem by enhancin peripheral
vasoconstriction and, thereby, further
worsening ventriculo-arterial coupling.
At present, specific consensus and international
guidelines on the comprehensive pharmacological
and non-pharmacological treatments of ACS
patients with HF are not available.
HF guidelines commonly exclude ACS patients,
while ACS guidelines tend to focus predominantly
on invasive therapies.
This lack of treatment guidelines can be explained
by the paucity of data, since many clinical trials and
even registries have excluded patients with AHF/CS
due to ACS.
There is no robust or convincing data to
support a specific inotropic or vasodilatory
therapy as a superior strategy to other
therapies used to reduce mortality in
hemodynamically unstable patients.
Guidelines recommend the administration of
adrenergic agents if necessary for
maintaining adequate circulation, but
recommend also that these drugs should
be given at as lowdose and for as short
duration as possible to prevent side
Inotropic drugs are indeed used as first-line treatment, without or
with vasopressors in patients with CS related to ACS .
The administration of these drugs requires continuous monitoring of
hemodynamic parameters and, in a state of hypoperfusion, fluid
compensation under invasive measurement of blood pressure and
Inotropic agents should be given for a limited period of time,
As soon as a stable condition has been achieved, weaning off
should be considered.
Mechanical circulatory support should be considered as soon it
becomes clear that hemodynamic stability with preserved end
organ function cannot be maintained with medication alone
Vasopressors are frequently used alone in an attempt to restore blood pressure.
Several studies suggest, however, that this approach is not advisable since it may
An analysis combining three data bases showed that the mortality was higher in
patients treated with vasopressors alone than in those receiving combinations of
vasopressors and inotropes.
This effect was independent of the underlying disease and the database used.
These results are echoed in other studies, such as an analysis of approximately 5000
patients with AHF including CS in the ALARM database.
In this study, the use of epinephrine and norepinephrine predicted the poorest
Overall, these data are a strong signal indicating that monotherapy with vasopressors
and/or inopressors should be avoided in the treatment of the failing heart, as the
associated increase in LV afterload imposes a burden on the ischemic myocardium.
In contrast, these pathophysiological considerations render the use of an inodilator
So far, vasodilator plus diuretics better than diuretics
alone in acute heart failure and inodilator plus
vasopressor better than inopressor alone in cardiogenic
In the placebo-controlled RUSSLAN trial , 6-
h infusions of levosimendan at different
doses were shown to be safe in 504
patients, who developed HF within 5 days
after AMI and required inotropic therapy due
to symptomatic HF despite conventional
Levosimendan decreased the incidence
of worsening heart failure and reduced
both short-term and long-term mortality.
Hypotension, as a side effect of levosimendan,
occurred in 4%–10% of patients, depending on
the dose and use of a bolus.
Other adverse events, such as episodes of
ischemia, ventricular extra-systoles, and sinus
tachycardia, occurred mainly or exclusively at
The lower levosimendan doses of 0.1
μg/kg/min and 0.2 μg/kg/min were
accompanied by a low risk of adverse events.
In their placebo-controlled trial, Sonntag et al. evaluated 24 patients with ACS.
Levosimendan was administered as a bolus (24 μg/kg) for 10 min after PCI.
This treatment induced reductions in the number of hypokinetic segments in the left
ventricle and increased LVEF, suggesting that levosimendan may counteract post-
In addition, pulmonary arterial pressure decreased in the levosimendan
group, but not in the placebo group.
De Luca et al. investigated levosimendan as compared to placebo in 26 patients
with STEMI and left-ventricular dysfunction (EF <40%).
Levosimendan was applied at a bolus dose of 12 μg/kg 10 min after PCI, followed
by an infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min for 24 h. As compared with placebo, levosimendan
was associated with improved coronary flow reserve, reduced pulmonary
capillary wedge pressure, and increased CI.
52 patients with anterior STEMI were treated with levosimendan at a bolus dose of
12 μg/kg for10 min after PCI, followed by an infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min for 24 h.
Levosimendan improved isovolumetric relaxation as compared to placebo, and
reduced the ratio of peak early to late diastolic flow velocities, indicating
decreased filling pressure.
In the randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study by Wu et al., 30 patients
with severe HF (NYHA III–IV) and LVEF <40% after PCI treated
AMI received either levosimendan as an infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min
for 24 h, or placebo.
Low-dose dobutamine echocardiography showed significantly less stunned and
infarcted segments in levosimendan group than with placebo.
Another randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 160 patients with HF due to AMI,
who were treated with or without revascularization.
Levosimendan was administered as a bolus at a dose of 24 μg/kg in 10 min followed by
an infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min for 24 h.
As compared to placebo, this treatment induced significant improvement in the primary
endpoint, which was a composite outcome including death and worsening heart failure
at six months (43.7% vs. 62.5%; HR, 0.636; p = 0.041).
Indeed the largest head to head comparison of levosimendan vs. dobutamine
in AHF related to AMI remains the SURVIVE clinical trial.
This randomized, double-blind trial compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous
levosimendan or dobutamine in 1327 patients hospitalized
with acute decompensated heart failure who required inotropic support.
A relevant number of patients were hospitalized with AMI (178, or
13.4%) and the data of mortality were stratified also for this parameter.
The 31-day mortality in the AHF-AMI subgroup was 23/83 (28%) and
30/95 (32%) in the levosimendan and dobutamine arms respectively
(RR 0.83 [0.48–1.43]).
As a comparison, the 31-day mortality in the
non-AHF-AMI subgroup was 56/581 (10%) and 61/568 (11%) in the
levosimendan and dobutamine arms respectively (RR 0.89 [0.62–1.28]).
Two independent meta-
analyses by Landoni et al.
et al., considering 45 and 48
respectively, focused also on
the adverse effects of
comparator arms (active
drugs or placebo on top of
standard of care).
With the exception
NO OTHER SIGNS for
increase of adverse
reported in either
In their randomized, prospective, single-center, open-label trial, Fuhrmann et al.found that levosimendan
appeared superior to enoximone as an add-on therapy in refractory CS complicating AMI. Thirty-two
patients received levosimendan (a bolus at 12 μg/kg/10 min followed by an infusion at 0.1 μg/kg/min for 50
min and 0.2 μg/kg/min for 23 h) or enoximone on top of the current treatment (PCI, vasopressors, etc.).
Both drugs had similar hemodynamic effects, but the survival at 30 days was significantly in favor of
levosimendan (69% vs. 37%; p = 0.023). Death from multiple organ failure occurred only in the
enoximone group. The levosimendan-treated arm tended to require less additive dobutamine and
norepinephrine treatment than the enoximone group to maintain tissue perfusion.
Twenty-two STEMI patients with CS after PCI were enrolled in a randomized,
prospective, single-center, open-label trial comparing
levosimendan (a bolus dose of 24 μg/kg over 10 min followed by an infusion at
0.1 μg/kg/min/24 h) and dobutamine (5 μg kg−1 min−1, without loading dose)
in addition to current standard therapy.
Treatment effects on CI and cardiac power index were consistently better with
levosimendan than with dobutamine. Significant reductions in
isovolumetric relaxation time and increases in the early diastolic/late
diastolic flow ratio occurred in the levosimendan group at 24 h , and the
LVEF was significantly improved (p = 0.003). No difference
was seen regarding long-term survival.
In their observational study, Russ et al. treated 56 patients with myocardial infarction and persisting
CS 24 h after percutaneous revascularization with levosimendan 12 μg/kg for 10 min followed by
0.05– 0.2 μg/kg/min for 24 h.
Norepinephrine and dobutamine therapy only resulted in marginal improvements in CI and mean
arterial pressure, while levosimendan produced significant increases in CI (p b 0.01) and cardiac
power index (p b 0.01). At the same time, systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (p b
ALL CONSECUTIVE CASES OF ACUTE MI (STEMI/NSTEMI)
WHO HAD DEVELOPED CARDIOGENIC SHOCK DURING A
TIME PERIOD OF 15 MONTHS (w.e.f MARCH 04- JUNE 05) ,
WERE INCLUDED IN THE STUDY.
TOTAL CASES= 58
ALL THESE PATIENTS RECEIVED HEMODYNAMIC
STABILIZATION WITH CATECHOLAMINES
AND UNDERWENT PCI FOR REVASCULARIZATION OF THE
INFARCTION RELATED ARTERY.
IMMEDIATELY AFTER REPERFUSION,CARDIOGENIC
SHOCK WAS REEVALUATED USING INCLUSION CRITERIA
OF SHOCK TRIAL
CARDIAC INDEX < 2.2 L/MIN
OCCLUSION PRESSURE > 15
HYPOTENSION (SBP < 90
FOR >= 30 MIN OR NEED
MEASURESTO KEEP SBP
URINE OUTPUT <30 ML/HR
CRITERIAS FOR CARDIOGENIC SHOCK FROMTHE
IF CARDIOGENIC SHOCK PERSISTED AFTER PCI ,
PATIENTS WERE KEPT ON CATECHOLAMINES SUPPORT
AND IABP WAS USED WHEREVER NECESSARY.
REST OF THE CASES WERE PUT ON TREATMENT LINES
AFTER THAT PATIENTS WERE OBSERVED FOR NEXT
PATIENTS WITH PERSISTENT CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
AND INCREASE IN CARDIAC INDEX < 20 % FROM
BASELINE, DESPITE 24 HOURS OF CATECHOLAMINE
THERAPY,WERE PUT ON LEVOSIMENDAN INFUSION
LEVOSIMENDAN WAS ADMINISTERED ACCORDING TO A
A BOLUS DOSE OF 12 ug/kg WAS GIVEN I/V OVER 10 MIN.
=> INFUSION @ 0.1 ug/kg/min FOR 50 MIN
=> INFUSION @ 0.05-0.2 ug/kg/min FOR 23 HRS.
HEMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS WERE RECORDED AT
A) AFTER REVASCULARISATION ( - 24 HOURS)
B) WHILE STARTING LEVOSIMENDAN ( 0 HOURS)
C) 3, 24 AND 48 HRS AFTER STARTING LEVOSIMENDAN
THE STUDY REVEALED THAT LEVOSIMENDAN IN POST
MI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
A) IS WELL TOLERATED AND LEADS TO SUBSTANTIAL
B) WORKS WELL EVEN IN CASES WHERE CATECHOLAMINES
C) INCREASES CARDIAC OUTPUT, CARDIAC INDEX
D) DECREASES SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE
E) DECREASES INFLAMMATORY MARKERS
WITH NO MAJOR ADVERSE EFFECTS
“ALL THESE DATA SUPPORT THE
USE OF LEVOSIMENDAN IN POST
MI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
PATIENTS FOR ITS CALCIUM
SENSITIZING , INOTROPIC AND
ANTI MYOCARDIAL STUNNING
A non-randomized trial compared supplementary levosimendan treatment with intra-aortic
balloon pump placement in patients with AMI and refractory CS following preliminary
hemodynamic support (dobutamine with or without norepinephrine) and primary PCI.
Infusion of levosimendan resulted in early and sustained hemodynamic improvement.
CI and cardiac power index rose more rapidly in the levosimendan arm, and systemic vascular
resistance showed a more pronounced initial decrease. For mean arterial pressure, there were
no differences between the two treatments. This also applied to the use of supplementary drugs
(dobutamine and norepinephrine).
Overall, the existing studies on
levosimendan in AHF and CS are not
adequately powered for reaching
conclusions on the effect of the treatment on
As reviewed, however, the existing data on
the beneficial activity of levosimendan
treatment can justify its use in certain AHF
settings and in CS also when related to ACS.
The inodilator levosimendan offers potential
benefits in treatment of acute heart failure
and/or cardiogenic shock complicating ACS
due to a range of distinct effects including
positive inotropy, restoration of ventriculo-
arterial coupling, increases in tissue
perfusion, and anti-stunning and anti-
Clinical trials investigating levosimendan in
acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock
suggest improvements in cardiac function,
hemodynamics, and end-organ function. Re-
hospitalization rates are decreased,
Adverse effects are generally less common with
levosimendan than with other inotropes,
inodilators or inoconstrictors,
The indication of levosimendan depends on the
presence of congestion, levels of blood
pressure and heart rate, and the extent of
Levosimendan can be used alone or in
combination with other agents,
It requires continuous monitoring due to the risk
Hinweis der Redaktion
As opposed to other inotropic drugs used in HF treatment, levosimendan does not raise intracellular calcium levels . This implies that less energy is utilized by the cardiomyocytes, because re-internalization of calcium increases ATP expenditure and accounts for 30% of the energy consumed by the cardiomyocyte during the contraction–relaxation cycle. A comparison of levosimendan and milrinone shows that both molecules intensify cardiac contraction, but while milrinone increases oxygen consumption, levosimendan does not. In clinical settings, levosimendan was also shown to be superior to dobutamine as it regards myocardial efficiency
Levosimendan-mediated opening of KATP channels on smooth muscle cells in the vasculature has been demonstrated in many different vessels. According to another comparison of levosimendan and milrinone , levosimendan improves the microcirculation in the splanchnic vessels, whereas milrinone has a neutral effect, even though both drugs have a similar influence on systemic blood pressure. Further, levosimendan improved long-term renal function in patients with advanced chronic HF awaiting cardiac transplantation , possibly via enhanced renal blood flow. Both creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were improved as compared to controls.
Interestingly, however, the 5-year mortality rates did not differ (59% vs. 61%; p = 0.80).
Interactions between the left ventricle (LV) and the arterial system, (ventricular–arterial coupling) are key determinants of cardiovascular function. Ventricular–arterial coupling is most frequently assessed in the pressure–volume plane using the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA) to LV end-systolic elastance (EES).EA (usually interpreted as a lumped index of arterial load) can be computed as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume, whereas EES (a load-independent measure of LV chamber systolic stiffness and contractility) is ideally assessed invasively using data from a family of pressure–volume loops obtained during an acute preload alteration. Single-beat methods have also been proposed, allowing for non-invasive estimations ofEES using simple echocardiographic measurements. The EA/EES ratio is useful because it provides information regarding the operating mechanical efficiency and performance of the ventricular–arterial system. However, it should be recognized that analyses in the pressure–volume plane have several limitations and that “ventricular–arterial coupling” encompasses multiple physiologic aspects, many of which are not captured in the pressure–volume plane. Therefore, additional assessments provide important incremental physiologic information about the cardiovascular system and should be more widely used. In particular, it should be recognized that: (1) comprehensive analyses of arterial load are important becauseEA poorly characterizes pulsatile LV load and does not depend exclusively on arterial properties; (2) The systolic loading sequence, an important aspect of ventricular–arterial coupling, is neglected by pressure–volume analyses, and can profoundly impact LV function, remodeling and progression to heart failure. This brief review summarizes methods for the assessment of ventricular–arterial interactions, as discussed at the Artery 12 meeting
SOFA SCORE = SEPSIS RELATED ORGAN FAILURE ASSESSMENT
Offenbar haben Sie einen Ad-Blocker installiert. Wenn Sie SlideShare auf die Whitelist für Ihren Werbeblocker setzen, helfen Sie unserer Gemeinschaft von Inhaltserstellern.
Sie hassen Werbung?
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert.
Wir haben unsere Datenschutzbestimmungen aktualisiert, um den neuen globalen Regeln zum Thema Datenschutzbestimmungen gerecht zu werden und dir einen Einblick in die begrenzten Möglichkeiten zu geben, wie wir deine Daten nutzen.
Die Einzelheiten findest du unten. Indem du sie akzeptierst, erklärst du dich mit den aktualisierten Datenschutzbestimmungen einverstanden.