PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION AND TEACHING LEARNING
Meaning of Education:
The term education has its origin in the Latin words educo, educare &
Etymologically, the word education is derived from the Latin words
educo where e means ‘out of’ duco means ‘I lead.’
According to this view, education means ‘I lead out darkness into
Definition of Education:
Education means the training for the country & love for the nation. -
Education is realization of self -Shankaracharya
Education is an all-round drawing out of the best in child & man-
body, mind & spirit. -Mahatma Gandhi
Education is the natural, harmonious & progressive development of
man’s innate power. – Pestalozzi
Definition of Nursing Education:
Nursing education is a professional education which is consciously &
systematically planned & implemented through instruction & discipline &
aims the harmonious development of the physical, intellectual, social,
emotional, spiritual & aesthetic powers or abilities of the students in order
to tender professional nursing care to people of all ages, in all phases of
health & illness, in a variety of setting, in the best or highest possible
Aims of Education:
Development as an individual of a human being.
Moral & spiritual development.
Promote positive physical development
Development of a right personality
Development of good citizenship
Development of good leadership
Emotional & mental development
Character building, etc.
Through education the individual child should be provided with the
require assistance to become a useful member of the society,
irrespective of the socio- economic status.
Education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood so that he
can lead a productive life in the society.
Development of intelligence through education will enable the child to
lead an independent life with confidence.
By undergoing education child becomes cultured & civilized.
Cultural development is through development of aesthetic sense &
respect for others’ culture
Moral values like honesty, loyalty, tolerance, justice, self-control &
sincerity promote the social efficiency of an individual
Education enable the children to grow as productive citizens by
following the social & moral standards set by the society.
Physical health & well-being:
Education prepare the child to lead a healthy life through providing
the knowledge required for a healthy living.
Education assists the child to develop certain human values, attitudes
& habits which are essential for building a desirable character.
Education for leisure:
Education prepares the child to use his leisure time for doing
Aims of education as stated by Secondary Education
Development of democratic citizenship
Improvement of vocational efficiency
Development of personality
Development of qualities leadership
AIMS OF NURSING EDUCATION:
• Harmonious development
• Inculcating right attitude
• Knowledge & skill aim
• Emphasis on high- tech-high-touch approach
• Prepare students to take up a proactive role in nursing
• Professional development
• Assist to build a promising career
• Social aim
• To prepare global nurses
• Leadership aim
FUNCTION OF EDUCATION:
Growth & development of individual
Direction & guidance
Preparation for adult life
Conservation of traditional knowledge
Transmission of culture
Achievement of self-sufficiency
Holistic personality development
Moral & character development
Develop vocational efficiency
Awareness of past & present & preparing for future
Ensuring national development
Promoting national integrity
Continuous supply of skilled workforce
Developing leaders for nation
Improving social efficiency
Civilization & cultural security
Preparing good citizens
Reform & progress of society
PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION:
The term philosophy has a Greek origin, i.e. philosophia, which is
made up of two words, viz. phileo & Sophia.
Phileo means ‘love & sophia means ‘wisdom’.
The literal meaning of philosophy is ‘love of wisdom’ or ‘passion of
Definition of Philosophy:
Philosophy is the science of knowledge. - Fitch
Philosophy is the science of sciences. - Coleridge
Philosophy is a search for comprehensive view of nature, an attempt at
a universal explanation of the nature of things. - Alfred Weber
Classification of Philosophy:
Chief proponents: Rabindranath Tagore, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann
Concept: Educating the human generation about & in the nature rather
than artificial environment by keeping in mind the individuality of each
Organization & Aims of education: Nature is considered the classroom.
Emphasis on open air schools to teach through direct experience with
Curriculum: Basis of curriculum development was child’s nature, interest
& needs. Stressed on subjects dealing with nature such as physics,
chemistry, biology, language & mathematics. Tagore also stressed on
teaching spiritual values of nature.
Methods of Education: As natural as possible considering individual
differences. Noble efforts for planned living with nature. Direct experience of
nature through observation, excursion, experimentation, play-way.
Role of teacher: Teacher is an observe & facilitator of the child to develop
in nature; teacher facilitates best possible natural environment for prompt
Discipline: No emphasis on external rigid discipline; recommended free
discipline to child in nature for optimum desired learning.
Chief proponents: Dr. Radhakrishan, Sir Auurobindo, Plato, Ross &
Concept: It believes that the act of knowing takes place within the mind for
three values, i.e. Intellectual, aesthetic & moral values & the purpose of
education is the development of the student’s mind & self
Organization & Aims of Education: Well-planned formal classrooms or
formal place of teaching- learning activity is recommended.
Curriculum: The basis of curriculum is inculcating intellectual, aesthetic
& moral values or discipline. The intellectual value is represented by
subjects such as language, literature, science, mathematics, history &
geography; aesthetic through arts & poetry & moral through religion, ethics.
Dr. Radhakrishan also advocated for physical education.
Methods of Education: Idealism recommended formal classroom teaching
methods such as lecture, discussion, presentation, & group interaction.
Knowledge is transferred from the more mature person (teacher) to less
mature person (pupil) through formal & well-planned teaching-learning
Role of teacher: Teacher is considered as center of education where pupil
catches fire from teacher who is himself a flame teacher must be ideal & a
role model for the child both intellectually & morally. The teacher should
exercise great creative skills in providing opportunity for the pupil’s mind
to discover, analyze, unify, synthesize & creative application of knowledge
Discipline: Idealism believes in interconnection of discipline & interest.
Advocates discipline for self-realization of individual. It does not favor rigid
discipline but advocates spontaneous & self-discipline.
Chief proponents: Williams James, John Dewey, Charles Sanders Pierce
Concept: It considers self-activity as the basis of all teaching-learning
processes in context of cooperative activity; to create optimistic men, who
are the architects of their own fate by the process of their efforts. Education
should be according to the child’s aptitudes & abilities; where he is
respected & education is planned to cater to his inclinations & capacities.
Organization & Aims of Education: Aims of education is to teach one
how to think so that one can adjust to an ever-changing society. In order
to produce creative resourceful & adaptable children we should have
conditions in the school which are conducive to the creation of these
qualities of mind. Recommends formal schools to have activity oriented
learning based on the needs, interest, aptitude & capabilities of the
Curriculum: Pragmatists believe in a broad & diversified curriculum,
which is composed of both content & process & subjects ranging from
humanities to geography & science.
Methods of education: Teaching-learning process is a social process
where the sharing of experiences between the teacher & the student takes
place. Preferred methods are project method & activity oriented learning.
Role of teacher: Role of a teacher is not that of a dictator or a task master
but as a leader of group activities. Teacher acts as catalyst where he
suggests a problem to students & stimulates them to find a solution.
Teacher is a mentor with resources to guide the students
Discipline: Pragmatism does not believe in traditional firm discipline. It
advocates for freedom of self-discipline in a free & conducive teaching-
Chief proponents: Aristotle, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Herbert Spencer
Concept: Realism makes the human being understand & enjoy society in
the true sense by getting the multidimensional real joy of life in reality. It
also aims for education to make the life of a man useful; where a man can
enjoy his activities & comfort in reality. Education should equip individuals
to a best possible meaningful life through vocational skills.
Organization & Aims of Education: Realism emphasizes on scientific
attitude based on realistic principles, where the child can extend his
knowledge, which he learns through books. It has given due emphasis on
formal schools, which provides adequate opportunity for learners to learn
the vocational skills through observation, experimentations &
Curriculum: Selection of the curriculum for the students must base on
their abilities, interest & capabilities so that education helps the student to
adjust to changing circumstances of the society. It also emphasis on
subject matter of real-life use such as science, mathematics, hygiene &
Methods of Education: Realism believe in objectivity, knowledge of
scientific evidences & reality. Methods of teaching should be according to
needs, interest & capabilities of students. Vocational education should
equip the individual with capacities to earn livelihood such as
experimentation, examination & observation, etc.
Role of Teacher: Teacher must focus on the development of vocational
skills in the learners, so that they can be equipped with qualities of race
preservation & vocational behavior activities. Teacher acts as a mentor, &
must be a role model & skilled to demonstrate vocational skills to the
Discipline: Realism believes in an optimum level of discipline without
imposing undue stress on the learners
Chief proponents: Thomas Aquinas, Robert Hutchins & Mortimer Adler
Concept: Education ensures that students acquire an understanding
about the great ideas of civilization. These ideas have the potential for
solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting
to seek ensuring truths which are constant, as the natural & human
worlds at their most essential level.
Organization & Aims of Education: The aim of education is to develop
the rational person, who has intellectual abilities to uncover universal
truth. Character training is also important for moral & spiritual
development of an individual
Curriculum: Accepts little flexibility in the curriculum that emphasizes on
language, literature, mathematics, arts & sciences. Common curriculum
for all the students with minimal opportunities for elective subjects.
Teaching-learning process must create liberalism, tolerance & discretion
Methods of Education: Perennialism portages for the educational
methods, which promotes constant teacher-taught interaction such as oral
exposition, lecture & explication. Emphasis is placed on teacher- guided
seminars, where students & teachers engage in mutual inquiry sessions.
Students may also learn directly from reading & analyzing the great books.
Role of teacher: Teacher must be competent & master of his subject so
that he can help their students to develop the power to think deeply,
analytically, flexibly & imaginatively. Teacher is also authoritative & a
guide of the students.
Discipline: Education should be organized & conducted in a manner that
problem of indiscipline does not arise at all.
Chief proponents: William Bagley, Arthur Bestor, Admiral Hyman
Rickover, James D. Koermer
Concept: Essentialism believe that there is common core of knowledge that
needs to e transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The
emphasis placed on intellectual & moral standards that schools should
teach & preparing students to become valuable members of society.
Organization & Aims of Education: Essentialism has recommended for
the formal schools or teaching-learning places. The aims of education is to
promote intellectual growth & academic competitiveness of the individual
to become a model citizen.
Curriculum: This philosophy recommended intellectual content with
quality & capacity of the learner. The recommended subjects are English,
mathematics, natural science, history & foreign languages.
Methods of Education: Essentialism recommended formal & well-planned
classroom teaching methods such as lectures, discussions, presentations &
Role of Teacher: Teacher must be a master of subject matter & role model
for learners with high level of authority & control over teaching-learning
process & learner.
Discipline: Essentialism believes in rigid discipline & devoted hard work of
learners in his studies.
Chief proponents: Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Maxine Greene
Concept: This philosophy believes that education must develop the
consciousness about the freedom of choices among learners because a man
becomes what he chooses for his self. Education must equip the individual
for better choices
Organization & Aims of Education: The ultimate aim of education is to
develop child’s knowledge about human conditions & the choices that
person has to make for self. Therefore organization of education must be
formal with sufficient opportunities of choices
Curriculum: Curriculum must be that which provides the free
opportunities for children to select from many available learning situations
& choosing the subjects that learner wish to learn. Humanities are
commonly given tremendous emphasis, which helps the student to unleash
their own creativity & self- expression.
Methods of Education: Existentialism promotes the methods of education
which emphasizes on self- activity of the learner such as self-expressive
activities, experimentation, methods & media that illustrate emotions
feelings & insight
Role of Teacher: Teacher must promote freedom for a learner to make
personal choices & individual self- definition
Discipline: Existentialism believe in self-discipline but not in the strict
discipline. Teacher creates an environment in which students may freely
choose their own preferred way
Chief proponents: Theodore Brameld, George Counts & Paulo Freire
Concept: This philosophy of education believes on reorganizing &
restructuring the process of education to being about social & cultural
contrastive changes in community, society & country, where emphasis is
placed on cultural pluralism, equality, futurism, national interest oriented
Organization & Aims of Education: This philosophy recommended for
formal as well as informal ways of organizing the education so that desired
aim of education can be achieved to bring the reconstruction of the society.
Curriculum: Curriculum should be conceived with a new socioeconomic &
political interest. The subject content must be oriented towards aspects of
new changes expected social, economic & political discipline such as
sociology, economics, science & technology, etc.
Methods of Education: This philosophy of education believes that
teaching methods must be organized in manner that student become self-
reliant, education must be activity oriented to develop necessary activities
Role of Teacher: The role of a teacher is to take the social responsibilities
& along with students must become the agent to improve society.
Discipline: This philosophy of education propagates about optimum level
of discipline but not a rigid discipline
Chief proponents: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard & Johan Dewey
Concept: Progressivism believe that learning must be through problem
solving & scientific inquiry in a cooperative & self-discipline way, which
promote democratic living & transmits the culture of society while
preparing students to adapt in changing world
Organization & Aims of Education: Progressivism recommended
democratic school procedures, which promote the community & social
reforms. The aim of education is to promote the democratic social living
Curriculum: Progressivism recommended curriculum, which is
interdisciplinary in nature, which promotes written textbooks subject
content that are the part & process of learning rather than ultimate source
of knowledge. Further curriculum is based on child’s interest, problems &
Methods of Education: Child is considered as learner rather than subject,
who primarily learned through cooperative group activities & experiences
Role of Teacher: Teacher must act as guide for problem solving, leader for
group activities & partner in planning the learning activities
Discipline: Has not recommended any sort of specific formal discipline
Any activity can be called learning so far as it develops the individual &
makes his/her behavior & experiences different from what that would
otherwise have been. -Woodworth R. S.
Learning is a process that result in the modification of behavior. -J. F.
NATURE OF LEARNING:
Behaviorist view: Learning is a change in behavior as a result of
experience. Men & other living being react to the environment.
Gestalt view: According to this, learning depends on gestalt or
configuration (wholeness of the situation). Learning is a total reaction
to the total situation.
Hormic view: This view was developed by McDougall. It stresses on the
purposeful nature of learning, i.e. learning is a goral-directed activity.
Trail & error view: This view was put forward by Thorndike. He
conducted many experiments on dogs, cats & fish & concluded that
most learning takes place by trial & error.
MEANING OF TEACHING:
Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing
the behavior potential of another person. -American Educational
Research Association Commission
Teaching is stimulation, guidance, direction & encouragement of
NATURE OF TEACHING:
Teaching is a tripolar process Teaching is an interactive
process Teaching takes place at multiple levels Teaching
must be planned
Teaching needs effective reciprocal communication
Teaching is the motivation to learn Teaching is guidance
Teaching is a professional activity Teaching is an art as well
Teaching helps attain information, knowledge & skills
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING:
Teaching principles help teachers develop an insight
regarding their strength & weakness & provide information
pertaining to teaching.
The principles of teaching are discussed under two
• General principles of teaching
• Psychological principles of teaching
Meaning of educational Objectives:
Educational objectives are the results sought by the learner at the
educational program that is what the student should be able to do at the
end of a leaning period that they could not be beforehand. - J.J Guilbert
Educational objectives are the behaviors to be learner, aims are for the
teacher & the objectives are for the learners to achieve through the
support & guidance of the teacher.
The taxonomy for the educational objectives points out that they are
concerned with intended behavior or the behavior to be learned by
students rather than the actual behavior learned from an educational
In other words, taxonomy means ‘a set of classification principles or
structure & domains simply means category.
Bloom’s taxonomy divides educational objectives into three domains:
cognitive, affective & psychomotor.
The aspects of the cognitive domain resolve around, comprehension &
critical thinking on a particular topic.
This domain focuses on thinking skills.
Traditional education tends to emphasize on skills in this domain,
particular the lower-order objectives.
These are six levels in the cognitive domain, moving from the lowest order
processes to the highest.
Affective objectives typically target the awareness & growth in attitudes,
emotion, motivation & feelings.
There are five levels in the affective domain, moving from the lowest order
processes to the highest.
The psychomotor domain describes about obtaining the skills or abilities to
carry out physical tasks such as the skills of a nurse in catheterizing a
patient or operating a mechanical ventilator.
Psychomotor educational objectives usually focus on the expected changes
in skills of an individual.
Lesson planning is an important activity of daily teaching.
The lesson plan might include the main points to be covered in the lesson
activities for the students to do, questions related to the topic being taught
& some from of assessment for the realization of stipulated instructional
Lesson planning is the heart of effective teaching.
Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of achievement to be realize &
specific meanings by which these are to be attained as a result of the
activities engaged during the period. -N.L. Bossing
Daily lesson planning involves defining the objectives, selecting & arranging
the subject matter & determining the method of procedure. -Bining &
It ensure a definite objective for the day’s work & a clear visualization of
It helps for adequate & appropriate use of resources in an efficient way.
It keeps the teacher on track.
It help clarify ideas about what, how, where & when & whom to teach.
It directs the teaching-learning process & procedures in the right direction.
Helps review the subject matter & gives up-to-date knowledge
It helps the teacher delimit the teaching.
It provide confidence, self-reliance. Ease & freedom to teacher in teaching.
It provides guidelines to students & the teacher during their teaching-
It helps in achieving the definite objectives.
It makes teaching systematic, orderly & economical.
It gives confidence to face the class.
It link new knowledge with previous knowledge.
It prepare pivotal questions & illustrations.
It enables the teacher evaluate his work as the lesson proceeds.
It helps the teacher use a wider variety of teaching material & learning
Definite aim & objectives
Extension of existing knowledge
Simple & comprehensive
Ensure active teaching-learning process
Division with essence of wholesomeness
Individualized & customized
Feasibility & significance
Processed from general to specific
Inclusion of summary, recapitalization, bibliography & student assignment.
The lesson plan must be efficiently written, prepared & designed with a
complete sense of confidence.
The presenter or teacher must be clear about the aim & objectives of the
Use of A-V aids must be well planned, judicious & efficient.
Introduction of the lesson must create interest in the students & they must
be well motivated to receive the subject content.
It is essential to use the right methods of teaching ensuring the active
involvement of students.
There must be careful use of blackboard & other audiovisual methods.
Questions planned & presented in a lesson plan must be definite, clear,
stimulating & thought provoking.
Content must be delivered in a simple language with a clear & audible
voice with complete sense of confidence.
Provide enough time to the students for clarifying their doubts.
Individual student attention while taking & giving regular feedback on the
understanding of subject content is vary essential for effective
implementation of the lesson plan.
Efficient time management, appropriate recapitalization of the subject
matter & relevant thought provoking questioning & continuous feedback
are key aspects of effective implementation of the lesson plan.
End recapitalization, discussion of refeence, bibliography & further reading
& expected students exercise assignments are also considered to be
important in the success of a lesson plan.