Field Study 1 Episodes 1-6

Field Study 1 Episodes 1-6 for Prof Ed class

FieldStudy| 1
The Learner’s Development
and Environment
Course Description
This course is designed to help the Field Study. Students verify the
behavior of the child in the actual learning environment. It will require them to
recognize feasible approaches to facilitate learning considering the learner’s
different phases of development and social environment.
Field Study 1 can be anchored on these professional education subjects:
 Child and Adolescent Development
 Facilitating learning
 Social Dimensions of Education
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
1. Identify the stage of the physical, motor, linguistic, literacy, cognitive,
social and emotional development of the children or adolescents as
manifested in the actual classroom setting.
2. Observe and reflect on the different approaches employed by the teacher
in dealing with learners in the different stages of development.
3. Analyze how the teaching and learning process should be conducted
considering the different phases of child development.
FOCUS SPECIFIC TASK LEARNING
EVIDENCE
DOMAIN COMPETENCIES
School as
a learning
environme
nt
Episode 1
 Visit a school;
look into its
facilities and
areas that
support
learning (i.e.,
classroom,
library,
playground,
An illustration
of a school
that is
supportive of
learning or a
“child-friendly
school”
through any
of the
following:
Learning
Environment
Curriculum
Determines an
environment
that provides
social
psychological
and physical
environment
supportive of
learning.
Field Study
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Peace
Concept in
Focus:
“Building
Friendshi
p”
Learner’s
Characteri
stics and
needs.
Peace
Concept in
Focus:
“Valuing
Diversity”
Classroom
manageme
nt and
learning
and canteen).
 Describe the
school
environment
 Prepare an
observation
log
Episode 2
YOU AND I ARE
DIFFERENT
 Observe 3
groups of
learners from
different levels
(preschool,
elementary
and high
school).
 Describe each
group of
learners based
on your
observations
 Validate your
observation by
interviewing
the learners
 Compare them
in terms of
their interests
and needs.
Episode 3
“IN NOT OUT”
 Observe a
class
 Using a
checklist, find
out the evident
classroom
A descriptive
paragraph.
A photo essay
Narrative
description of
Diversity
among
children
Checklist on
classroom
management
components
Diversity of
Learners
Learning
Environment
Differentiate
learners of
varied
characteristics
and needs
Manages time,
space and
resources to
provide an
environment
appropriate to
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Peace
concept in
Focus:
“Inclusivel
y”
Learner’s
Characteri
stics and
Learning
activities
components
 Describe how
the classroom
is
structured/de
signed to allow
everyone to
participate in
the learning
activities
 Relate the
data in your
checklist to
the learner’s
behavior
 Reflect on how
classroom
management
affects
learning.
Episode 4
TRAITS CHECK
 Observe a
class on a
regular day
 Take note of
characteristics
of the learners
in the class
 Enumerate
and describe
the activities
that took place
in the class.
 Analyze how
the activities
facilitated
learning
considering
the learners’
characteristics
.
Episode 5
Photo
documentatio
n of the
classroom
setting
Reflection
paper on
activities that
allow
inclusively
rather than
exclusively
among
learners
Collection of
classroom
activities
written on
card boards of
rainbow colors
A refection
paper on the
congruence or
match of
learning
activities to
the learners’
characteristics
Reflection on
the interaction
of learners
despite
Diversity of
Learners
Learning
Environment
Diversity of
learners
Diversity of
learners
the learners and
conducive for
learning.
Recognizes multi
cultural
backgrounds of
learners when
providing
opportunities
Determines
teaching
approaches and
techniques
appropriate to
the learners
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Individual
differences
and the
learning
process.
(Difference
in the
ability
level)
Peace
concept in
focus:
“Samenes
s in
difference
s”
Individual
Differences
and the
learning
process
 Observe
learners of
different
learning
abilities but
the same
grade/year
 Interview them
to gather their
background
information
 Observe them
as they
participate in
a classroom
activity
 Write the
narrative
report.
Episode 6
 Observe a
class on a
regular day
 Take note of
characteristics
of the learners
in the class
focusing on
gender and
cultural
diversity
 Interview our
resource
teacher about
principles and
practices that
he/she uses in
dealing with
diversity in the
classroom.
differences
Learner’s
profile
Narrative
Report
Narrative
description of
Diversity
among
children
Description on
how the
teacher
instills among
children the
values and
knowledge on
differences on
gender, social
and cultural
background
Home
visitation
Diversity of
learners
Community
linkages
Determines,
understands and
accepts the
learners; diverse
background
Relates the
learner’s
background to
their
performance in
the classroom
Recognizes
cultural
backgrounds of
learners when
providing
learning
opportunities.
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(social and
cultural
diversity)
Peace
concept
In focus:
“Unity in
diversity”
Episode 7
Home-School Link
CONNECT ME
 Select a
learner from
the class that
you have
observed
 Conduct a
home visit to
your selected
learner
 Describe the
family in
terms of
-number of
siblings
Number of
siblings in
school
 Interview the
parents about
1. Rules they
implement
at home
concerning
their child’s
schooling
2. The
learner’s
activities
and
behavior
while at
home
report
Reflection on
the impact of
home and
Family life to
learning
Learning
Environment
Reflects on the
impact of home
and family life to
learning
FieldStudy| 6
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
SCHOOL AS LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Professional Education
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School
At the end of the activity, be competent in determining a school
environment that provide social, psychological, and physical environment
supportive of learning.
A general observation of the campus and the classroom.
Do the following tasks:
Episode 1
Target
Map
1.Visita school.Lookintofacilitiesand
supportlearningareasinthe campus,
theninthe classroom
2. Accomplishthe checklistasyou
move aroundthe school
premises.
3. Based onyour gathereddata
inthe checklist,describe the
school environment.
4. Make a reflectiononthe
characteristicsof a school
environmentthatpromoteslearning.
5. Present your idea of a good school environment through any of these: a)
Descriptive paragraph; b) Photo Essay c) sketch or drawing d) Poem, song or rap
Field Study
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Move around the campus. Have a good understanding of the activities
and tasks to be accomplished in the activity will yield better learning results.
SCHOOL FACILITIES CHECKLIST
Familiarize yourself with the different areas and facilities of the school. Check the
column to indicate their availability. Give a brief description of those that are
available on the last column.
Facilities Available Not
available
Description
Office of the Principal Small in space but the
things are well organized
Library Well ventilated, has a great
space and learning
resources.
Counseling Room The area looks comfortable
to stay and discuss matters
Involving issues with
students, staffs, teachers
and parents.
Canteen/Cafeteria Spacious but crowded when
an entire school population
dine in for snacks there will
be chaos, meals are decent
and affordable.
Medical clinic Small in space
Audio Visual/Media
Center
Reading center
Speech laboratory
Science laboratory Apparatus are available for
experiments
Gymnasium
Auditorium
Home Economics Room Well arranged and clean
Tools
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Industrial Workshop area Workable workshop; space
is good.
PTA Office Room is good with enough
space to be discussing
issues about and related to
school matters
Comfort room for boys Needed proper maintenance
Comfort room for girls Needed proper maintenance
Computer laboratory
Others:
Covered Court Serves as Multi Functional
Hall, a mini-stage was
visible, a standard court
size basketball court was
also present.
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Observation Report
Name of School Observed: Macabalan National High School
Location of the School: Macabalan, Cagayan de Oro City
Date of visit: July 07, 2015
The community where the school campus is in was a highly urbanized
community of settlers ranging from informal to formal settling families. The
income level of the families living in the community ranges from low to average
income earning families. The businesses that put-up here are self-sufficient,
meaning that the income earned from these businesses are only to supplement
daily needs. The employment statistics suggest that work in the community are
as laborers, Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) drivers and a marginal blue collar and
white collar jobs.
The campus in itself is very much accessible to public transportation. A key
location in the community and very easy to locate by people not living in the
community where the campus is in. Like most public high schools, the
population is way over the intended number of students enrolled; they just
squeezed in and absorb more students. With the introduction of K-12 program,
the campus is just too small to accommodate all.
The campus buildings are still usable, showing no signs of decay but proper
maintenance could be done like repainting and refurbishing, new buildings are
being constructed to accommodate the growing population.
The administrative offices are easy to locate, when one is a first-timer in
visiting the school campus. It was convenient also for visitors, since most office
can be located on one building and across another building. Signs indicating
the function of the office and roles are well placed. The staff and teachers were
accommodating. It was easy to do your business.
Walking around the school campus, the environment was friendly, knowing
high school students, they’re rowdy, but it was not the case. The needed
facilities are present and functional on the campus.
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An observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT
Be guided by these tasks as you do your observation. Then accomplish the
matrix to record your data.
1. Look at the walls of the classroom. What are posted on the walls? What
heroes, religious figures, lessons, visual aids, announcements, do you see
posted?
2. Examine how the furniture is arranged. Where is the teacher’s table located?
How are the tables and chairs/desks arranged?
3. What learning materials/equipment’s are present?
4. Observe the students. How many are occupying one room?
5. Is the room well-lighted and well-ventilated?
CLASSROOM FACILITIES MATRIX
CLASSROOM FACILITIES DESCRIPTION
(location, number, arrangement, condition)
1. Wall displays Found at the back corner of the room, 1
bulletin board.
2. Teachers table Adjacent to the door, facing the chairs of the
pupils. The table is small for a grown man or
woman.
3. Learner’s desk Some are old and has defects.
4. Blackboard Big, found in front of the students. The board is
old when a teacher writes on it; the chalk
writing is hardly visible at the back.
5. Learning
Materials/Visual Aids
Fraction charts, word problem visual aids
6. Lightings There are four big fluorescent lamps, one is
broken or two.
7. Book shelves Found at the back of the class; big but no
books.
8. teacher’s stand Not Found
9. Fan There is two; one stand fan and a desk fan
available on opposing sides facing the learners.
10. Shoe Rack Found Outside; beside the door.
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Observation report
Name of School Observed: Macabalan National High School
Location of the School: Macabalan, Cagayan de Oro City
Date of visit: July 07, 2015
The classroom walls has minimal displays of heroes portraits, there were only
four, one quote on one side and a math reminder displayed on the back. The
walls is need of repainting for light bright colors so the room can look brighter
instead of dim or rather dark, gloomy atmosphere, the lights were not turned
on even when it is getting dark
Because of the incoming rain.
The teachers table is rather small for a full grown man or woman. It leaves little
space for a teacher to bring a number of educational materials or other things
that he/she might need for a learning experience. Located in the middle of the
board, just half meter away, facing the learners desk. The desks are distributed
5 learner’s desk on the left and 5 on the right in a row following 5 more rows
going backroom. The classroom accommodates 50 plus students.
The room is standard sized classroom. There are 52 students; 27
girls and 25 boys. The room is designed to hold of up to 40-45 students. Proper
lighting was installed; ventilation was good, two fans on opposite sides. Wide
windows on opposing sides of the classroom with which light can penetrate
easily inside and air can pass right through so it’s cooler.
Outside noise of the motorcycles, jeeps and other vehicles plying to and fro in
the main street is almost none existent, which will not affect the learning of the
students
.
How do the school and the classroom in particular impact on the learning of
the students going to school? What are your conclusions?
The school campus is intended to create the learner’s environment,
comfortable, appealing, encourages learning, growth and curiosity and
literally nice, different in a way, to what they are accustomed to, in
their living environment at home, so that the school campus and the
classroom be conducive to learning and social interaction among their
age groups and peers.
Analysis
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It is therefore a challenge that the school campus administration create
an environment to encourage learning, growth socially, intellectually
and emotionally, curiosity to learn, challenge the learner for self-
development something to look up-to and hope to achieve in the future
for the benefit of their social lives and financial growth. It also
necessary that as a school, the moralityand rules of society be taught
and make them understand that any individual has the social
responsibility to other individuals and have respect for the rights of one
another, the learner learns to conform to societies laws and the right
norms to follow.
How does this relate to your knowledge of child and adolescent development/
how does this relate to your knowledge of facilitating learning?
A child needs a conducive learning environment for an effective
and productive learning. Teenagers are at a critical emotional,
psychological development stage. It is at this stage that anyone can
leave a deep impression to their lifelong development socially,
personally and to the community.
As teacher, we can be humble enough to extend our patience longer,
understand their change physically, emotionally and psychologically,
provide support and understanding, teach the appropriate action and re-
action to a situation, share our experience and our emotional maturity,
point to the right direction in a professional teacher approach to a
student, student-teacher interaction.
As a teacher, we can only teach and inform, it is up to the learner how
to absorb and apply it to the real world.
1. Would you like to teach in the school environment you just observed? Why?
Why not?
I would love to teach to the school that I have just observed
because the foundation of teaching is not about choosing. It is about
adhering to the calling of to be able to teach. Teaching is equality. It is
a right never a privilege. It is about pursuing knowledge and sharing it
to those who want to learn and to those who would want to pursue it.
Reflection
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2. What kind of school campus is conducive to learning?
The school campus which is conducive to learning is the one with
which offers learning the best possible way. It attracts learning,
encourages growth both socially and intellectually, can teach the basic
norms of society, the rules every individual follow and the social
responsibility that goes along with it. An institution that instills to the
learner the importance and the deep understanding of the natural order
of things.
3. What kind of classroom is conducive to learning?
A conducive learning classrooms encourages learning, makes room
for growth, understands achievements is a job well done, there is room
for interaction emotionally, and intellectually. There is interaction
among peers in their age groups and welcomes criticisms and new ideas,
An environment wherein a new lesson is being learned, understood and
accepted as positive to the impact to their lives in the future.
4. In the future, how can you accomplish your answer in number 3?
I can accomplish anything with the help of every individual involve
inside the class. Sheer will and determination will not be enough unless
there is support from the education system, the teachers and staff, the
parents and to the students themselves. Otherwise, it take a miracle to
do it. I am just optimistic since I am bound to be in that direction. But I
am hoping for the best. A child mind is complex. As a teacher, every
child needs a bright future, it is our job to get them surpass us, guide
them every step of the way so they get better, their growth will be growth
of society.
5. Write your additional learning’s and insights here:
At this point, I can comprehend and understand that the need to be
constantly learning is critical and vital in many ways.
One is self-improvement. As a person individual grows emotionally
and physically, the intellectual aspect should constantly grow. Not any
single cell in the body is the same. The hole body should grow too. As new
FieldStudy| 14
ideas come-in and new generation sets in. You as a person need to be
informed “No Man is an Island”.
Second is social responsibility. It is not just enough that you
yourself grow in every field. You have also the moral and social
responsibility to impart the knowledge that you have gained overtime.
“By teaching you grow”,
Lastly, GO, GROW and GLOW. You GO learn some new skill, stuff, a
thing, technique, place to go and learn from, By acquiring new things you
GROW, Your GLOW is what you teach and what you impart to others so
you can teach them the value of life and the important life lessons in the
long journey, By realizing these few themes. The value of self-worth seem
brighter my way..
MY PERSONAL ILLUSTRATION OF AN EFFECTIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
An effective school environment, I picture it, would like to be a safe
environment and a child friendly school. That can provide learning and growth to
its learners or students. An ample space to develop their social, emotional,
psychological and intellectual capacity as an individual in society to contribute
positively in their own personal and social well being. This stage of their
development is one step to becoming a full pledge person with mature and a
senseof deeper understanding of what and how important life is and struggles are
just a part of learning. It is at this stage that personal connection and interaction
happens. We find life-long friendships at this stage of our lives and start to identify
ourselves as a person individual.
FieldStudy| 15
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Prof Ed
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in differentiating the
characteristics and needs of learners from different developmental levels.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 2
Target
Map
Step 1
Observe 3 groups of
learners from different
levels (preschool, elem.,
and high school)
Step 2
Describe each of the
learners based on
your observations
Step 3
Validate your observation
by interviewing the learners
Step 4
Compare them in terms of
their interests and needs.
Field Study
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Use the activity form provided for you to
document your observations.
An observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics
Read the following statements carefully. Then write
your observation report on the provided space. Your teacher
may also recommend another observation checklist if a
more detailed observation is preferred
Physical
1. Observe their gross motor skills. How they carry
themselves. How they move, walk, run, go up the
stairs. Etc.
2. Are gross movements clumsy or
deliberate/smooth?
3. How about their fine motor skills? Writing,
drawing, etc.
Social
1. Describe how they interact with teachers and
other adults.
2. Note how they also interact with peers. What to do
they talk about? What are their concerns?
Emotional
1. Describe the emotional disposition or
temperament of the learners (happy, sad, easily
cries ,mood-shifts)
2. How do they express their wants/needs? Can they
wait?
3. How do they handle frustrations?
4. Describe their level of confidence as shown in their
behavior. Are they self-conscious?
Cognitive
1. Describe their ability to use words to communicate
their ideas. Note their language proficiency.
2. Describe how they figure out things. Do they
comprehend easily? Look for evidence of their
thinking skills.
3. Were there opportunities for problem solving?
Describe how they showed problem solving
abilities.
On Erickson’s
Epigenetic Principle
This principle says
that we develop
through a
predetermined
unfolding of our
personalities. Our
progress through each
stage of life is in part
determined by our
success, or lack of
success, in all the
previous stage. A little
like the unfolding of a
rose bud, each petal
opens up at a certain
time, in a certain
order, which nature,
through its genetics,
has determined. If we
interfere in the natural
order of development
by pulling a petal
forward prematurely or
out of order, we ruin
the development of the
entire flower.
-Dr. C. George Boeree
Tools
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Learners’ Development Matrix
Record the data you gathered about the learners’ characteristics and
needs in this matrix. This will allow you to compare the characteristics and
needs of learners at different levels. The items under each domain are by no
means exhaustive. These are just sample indicators. You may add other
aspects which you may have observed.
Development
Domain
Preschooler
Indicate age
range of children:
_____
Elementary
Indicate age
range of children
observed: _____
High school
Indicate age range
from children
observed: _______
Physical
Gross-motor skills
Fine-motor skills
Self-help skills
Others
Like average High
School students,
they move
straight and head
on. Inside the
class nobody
moves around but
talking and
chatting among
peers is very
evident. Energy
presence is very
high even when
they are on their
seat. Nothing is
ever constant in
their movements,
easily distracted
with short
attention span.
Their movements
maybe clumsy
but it goes with
hormone levels
high at their age.
Social
Interaction with
teachers
Interaction with
classmates/friends
Interaction
amongst the
learners, they
listen attentively
but at times
engaged to talking
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Interests
Others
among
themselves.
Teacher’s
authority is well
recognized and
respected.
Choosing friends
whom they get
along well are
evident at this
stage, where they
could share
similar
experiences,
interests,
backgrounds,
hobbies.
Emotional
Moods and
temperament,
expression of
feelings
Emotional
independence
others
They have their
mood swings,
from being happy
to sad. They could
handle their
emotions but
control is still a
big question. Still
emotional
dependence is
high at this stage
of life. Peer-to-
peer interaction.
A sense of
belonging to a
group is a plus.
Some intend to do
group activity
with themselves.
Cognitive
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Communication
skills
Thinking skills
Problem-solving
Others
Whenever an idea
is thrown at
them, they
answer in unison,
They have the
ability to talk with
sense. Ideas are
expressed freely,
communicates
well with their
peers and to the
teacher in
authority. Their
opinions are
mostly based
from their
experiences and
reflecting on it.
They were able to
throwback a
question.
Evidence that
they are thinking.
Write the most salient developmental characteristics of the learner you
observed. Based on these characteristics, think of implications for the teacher.
Level Salient characteristics
observed
Implications to the
Teaching-learning
Process
Highschool
Age range of
learners observed
13-14
 Able to voice out an
opinion
 Critically observant
 Able to express
themselves more
profoundly
 Therefore, teachers
should act and
behave accordingly
for they will be the
model of the
students in the
development of right
Analysis
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attitudes and values.
1. While you were observing the learners, did you recall your own
experiences when you were their age? What similarities or differences do
you have with the learners you observed?
I recall my experiences when I was just the same with their
age, I am optimistic and curious, rowdy and confused, with the
barkadas, peer groups, rock bands, always busy with other things
not related with the subjects the teacher is teaching. Short temper
and a short attention span.
2. Think of a teacher you cannot forget for positive or negative reasons. How
did she/he help or not help you with your needs (physical, emotional,
social, and cognitive)? How did it affect you?
The teacher that I could not forget was Mr. Paolo. He was an
inspiration. Living in a country he did not know and dealing with
high school. I bet he was terrified of us back then. But then he has
that dedication of a teacher that is inspiring as I thought about it.
The communication problem the gap between cultures and the
problems of the basic educational teaching the Philippines has.
You can just imagine the sacrifices he has made to come here and
then teach at the same time.
3. Which is your favorite theory of development? How can this guide you as
a future teacher?
My favorite theory is; through scaffolding, learners could be
developed from their actual zone of development to the zone of
proximal development. This really inspires me because I could feel
that a teacher’s task is very rewarding since they are instrument
of making the child reach their full potential.
4. Share your other insights here.
Teaching is both a vocation and a mission. Responding to
God’s call is not a simple task and gets even harder when you will
do the mission of being the catalyst for change. Yet, touching one’s
life is priceless and molding them into the best of what can be is
the hardest job, but reward.
Reflection
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The Learner’s Development and
Environment
LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Prof Ed
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in managing time,
space and resources to provide an environment which is appropriate to the
learners and conducive to learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 3
Target
Map
 Observe a class
 Using a checklist, find out the evident
classroom components.
 Describe how the classroom is
structured/designed to allow
everyone to participate in the learning
activities.
 Relate the data in your checklist to the
learner’s behavior.
 Reflect on how classroom
management affects learning.
Field Study
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An Observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics
Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on
the provided space.
1. As you observe the class. Look into the characteristics of the learners. Note
their ages.
2. How many boys are there? How many girls?
3. Focus on their behavior. Are they already able to manage their own
behavior?
4. Can the learners already work independently?
5. Describe their span of attention?
6. Look into their listening skills and ability to concentrate.
Name of school: Macabalan National High School
Observed: High School
Location of the school: Brgy.Macabalan, Cagayan de oro City
Date of visit: July 7, 2015
During my observation, I found out that the pupils were mostly
13-14 years old. There are about 52 students, 27 girls and 25 boys in the
classroom. Every one of them possesses a unique character and trait
which depend largely on their background and how they were raised as
children They have diverse backgrounds and each is an individual by
their own right.
The teacher’s focus is on their learning and behavior, at their age it
is expected that management can be unruly most of the time. A very
profound sense of patience and humility, understanding to earn them
respect and trust. Their behavior is basically based on instinct and needs
and wants. Their impulse is to satisfy that need or want.
The learner can be trusted to make their own decisions, formulate
their ideas to a certain degree that it can be manipulated and controlled.
A controlled environment to avoid unnecessary uncalled for situations.
Since their span of attention is limited, constant guidance and care is
tolerated at maximum level.
They have their way concentration, so the best possible way to
acknowledge them to concentrate is through their own language, their
interests, hobbies, and needs and wants in what they want to do or
become in the future.
FieldStudy| 23
An Observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT
1. Are there areas in the classroom for specific purposes (storage of
teaching aids, books, students’ belongings, supplies, etc.)
2. Are there rules and procedures posted in the room?
3. Did the students participate in making the classroom rules?
4. What are the daily routines done by the teacher? (Prayer, attendance,
assignment of monitors, warm-up activities, etc.) How are they done?
5. Is there a seating arrangement? What is the basis of this arrangement?
6. Observe the noise level in the classroom. How is this managed?
7. If a learner is not following instructions is off-task, what does the teacher
do? (behavior strategies)
8. What does the teacher do to reinforce positive behaviors? (behavior
strategies)
Observation notes:
There are areas in the classroom where they store teaching aids as well
as the student’s belongings and supplies that can be found on one corner of
the classroom, specifically, a makeshift room.
There are no rules attached to the neither walls nor procedures that are
posted. The rules are pre-made rules they have to follow.
Their daily routines are cleaning inside and outside the classroom in the
morning before class and in the afternoon after class, unlike before as I recall
we have weekday groups e.g. Friday group, Monday groups, they all clean the
room as expected of them. Prayer before a subject is started headed by an
appointed prayer leader. Following a roll call, attendance and subject /topic to
be discussed, there is an initial recap of topics being discussed prior.
Their seating arrangement is mixed. Girls are allowed to mix in with the
boys. Their noise level is manageable; the teacher let them take turns in
speaking so that everybody can hear them. If a certain pupil is not following
instructions or misbehaving, the teacher calls her/his attention and talk to the
pupils after the class.
The strategies that the teacher used to reinforce positive behavior are
giving praises and rewards.
FieldStudy| 24
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT MATRIX
Aspect of Classroom
Management
Description Effect on the learner
1. Specific Areas in
the classroom
Students’ belongings are
properly arranged.
The pupils are
comfortable inside the
classroom since the
areas are well manage
2. Classroom Rules Not posted
Students are well
informed and aware of
the rules even if not
written nor posted.
Pupils are informed and
aware of classroom rules
because there is an
equivalent punishment
for it.
But time to time
constant reminder is
necessary since they will
tend to forget about the
written rules, especially
if not posted.
3. Classroom
Procedures
The procedure such as
“NO LOITTERING”
between class hours to
avoid distractions.
Pupils follow the
instructions to continue
the lesson smoothly
4. Daily Routine Cleaning inside and
outside the classroom,
flag ceremony, prayer
and warm-up activities
Pupils are responsible
enough to do their
responsibilities and the
rules and procedures.
5. Seating
Arrangement
The girls are mixed with
the boys.
The pupils are
comfortable in their
seating arrangement
6. Handling
misbehavior/ off
task behavior
The teacher calls the
attention of the
pupils/students, and
later on they will talk
after class.
The pupils/students
would behave when
called by the teacher but
is well aware of whatever
the consequences.
7. Reinforcement of
positive behavior
Praises the student’s
good performance and
giving awards like an
extra points on grades
The pupils are motivated
to study harder.
FieldStudy| 25
1. How did the classroom organization and routines affect the learners’
behavior?
Through classroom organization and routines,
pupils/students actively participate in the classroom
discussions. The lesson plan is carefully prepared such that all
discussions are directed towards the achievement of its
objectives which students could reach the goals of the teaching-
learning process.
2. What should the teacher have in mind when she/he designs the
classroom organization and routines? What theories and principles
should you have in mind?
Teacher should put in his/her mind that designing the
classroom organization and routines that would avoid some of
the distractions that keeps the students from functioning
effectively and would affect the students behavior and learning.
Behaviorist theory should be considered, that the teacher’s role
is to establish rules and procedures and to communicate these
rules clearly to students to implement appropriate reward and
punishment for the compliance of the rules.
3. Which behavior strategies were effective in managing the behavior of
the learners? In motivating students? Why were they effective?
The behavior strategy that is effective in managing the
behavior of the learner is being a role model to the pupils,
meaning to say that teachers should show that they are
responsible if they want pupils to be responsible as well
Student’s motivation is also effective through the use of
appropriate instructional materials.
Analysis
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1. Imagine yourself organizing your classroom in the future. In what
grade/year level do you see yourself? What routine and procedures
would you consider for this level? Why?
If I were a teacher, I will prefer to teach in 4th year class
because at this stage, they are more mature than in lower grades.
They are still manageable though they are independent, they can
work in their own with out being told by the teacher. I would
impose routines like cleaning inside and outside the classroom
before and after the class, prayer and checking the attendance,
and also the rules and regulations to be followed strictly so that
there would be a smooth flow of teaching-learning process.
It also in this stage that the quest to know more starts,
paving the way for curiosity of the world outside the campus,
opinions are high, and a deep search for identity is crucial. A
mentor and someone to look up-to will be the key to uplift what
they can do and will do in the future to enriched their lives.
2. Make a list of the rules you are likely to implement in this level. Why
would you choose these rules?
The following rules are:
Speak English and Filipino
Avoid loitering during class hours
Ask permission before leaving the classroom
Respect yourself, others and environment
Always maintain the cleanliness of the classroom
I would choose theses rules because they are observable and
achievable that would prevent the students from misbehaving.
3. Should learners be involved in making class rules? Why?
Students should also be involved in making the class rules so
that it would be clear to them and they will understand the
importance of the rules and regulations that there is an
appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of these
rules. The students discipline should start from them in following
the rules and regulations.
Reflection
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The Learner’s Development and
Environment
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION
(focusing on differences in gender, racial, religious backgrounds)
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Prof Ed
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School
At the end of this activity, gain competence in determining
teaching approaches and techniques considering the individual differences of
the learners.
The learners’ individual differences and the type of interaction they bring
surely affect the quality of teaching and learning. This episode is about
observing and gathering data to find out how student diversity affects learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 4
Target
Map
Step 1:observe a class indifferent parts ofa school day(beginning of the day, class time,
recess etc)
Step 2: describethecharacteristics ofthelearners interms ofage, gender and asocial culturaldiversity
Step 3: Describe the interaction that transpires inside and outside the classroom
Step 4:interview your resource teacher about the principlesandpractices that she uses in
dealing with the diversity in the classroom
Step 5: Analyze the impact of individual differences on learners’ interaction
Field Study
FieldStudy| 28
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations:
An Observation Guide for the Learners’ Characteristics
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your
observation report on the space provided on the next page.
1. Find out the number of students; gather data as to their ages, gender,
racial groups, religious and ethnic backgrounds.
During class:
1. How much interaction is there in the classroom? Describe how the
students interact more with the teacher than others.
2. Observe the learners seated at the back and the front part of the room.
Do they behave and interact differently?
3. Describe the relationship among the learners. Do the learners cooperate
with or complete against each other?
4. Which students participate actively? Which students ask for most help?
5. When a student is called and cannot answer the teacher’s question, do
the classmates try to help them? Or do they raise their hands so that the
teacher will call them instead?
Outside class:
1. How do the students group themselves outside the class?
Homogeneously, by age? By gender? By racial or ethnic groups? Or are
the students in mixed social groupings? If so, describe the groupings.
2. Describe how the learners interact with each other? What do they talk
about?
Tools
FieldStudy| 29
OBSERVATION REPORT
Name of the School Observe: Macabalan National High School
School Address: Macabalan, Cagyan de Oro City
Date of Visit: July 07,2015
All of them participate in the class. Each of them is called to
answer the questions or do the board-work exercises especially in math
subject. Their seating arrangement does not affect their learning and
the teacher could accommodate and give attention to them. There are
really good students who excel and answer the questions correctly. But
there are instances that a certain pupil could not give the answer
correctly. Other pupils will raise their hands to help him.
In a group activity, each group has their own leader and reporter,
while the members share their ideas to compete with other group.
FieldStudy| 30
1. Identify the persons who play key roles in the relationships and
interactions in the classrooms. What roles do they play? Is there
somebody who appears to be the leader, a mascot/joker, an attention
seeker, a little teacher, a doubter/pessimist?
In a classroom, pupils differ from each other in their skills,
innate talents and abilities. There are pupils that plays as a
leader, a little joker that makes all his classmates laugh, an
attention seeker because she likes to sing and she has a beautiful
voice. There is also a little teacher not to do bad things. In each
role they play in the relationship and interactions in the
classroom, it only shows that they have different characteristics
and interests.
2. Are students coming from minority group accepted or rejected by the
others? How is this shown?
The each student were different because each family is
unique. Some pupils who belonged to minority group were still
accepted by their classmates. At their age, they just want to have
fun and play together because they respect each other despite their
differences in attitudes, skills, socio-economic status and abilities.
The teacher also shows that they are accepted and they belong in
the class by making her classroom as perfect as can be.
3. How does the teacher influence the class interaction considering the
individual differences of the students?
The teacher influences the class interaction by encouraging
learners to share their personal experiences through sharing to the
class or by groups, students are made to internalize that they have
something in common with the rest though they possess
differences. Another way is using varied instructional methods to
accommodate student diversity.
4. What factors influence the grouping of learners outside the classroom?
The factors that bring about the grouping of learners outside
the classroom are; socio-economic status, ways of thinking /
learning approach and habits, hobbies, interests and way of life,
and genre.
Analysis
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1. How did you feel being in that classroom? Did you feel a sense of
oneness or unity among the learners and between the teacher and the
learners?
I feel glad and comfortable in observing that classroom since
the teacher acknowledge our presence and the students are very
polite to us. I could feel that the teacher is well respected by her
pupils because they listen attentively and participate during
discussions. In that way, I can sense the oneness among the
students and the teacher.
2. In the future, how would you want the learners in your classroom to
interact? How will you make this happen?
I want my learners in the future to be active learners. I could
make this happen by imposing rules and regulations that would
discipline my pupils to make them behave in the class that provide
a positive classroom atmosphere. Through good classroom
management and teaching strategies that would consider student
diversity, I could effectively make my pupils and competitive
learners.
3. How will you encourage all learners, regardless of religious, ethnic or
racial background, to interact and participate?
I could encourage all learners regardless of religious, ethnic or
racial background to interact and participate by initiating co-
curricular activities/experiences that are aimed to promote
diversity awareness, cultural shows and intramurals, exposing
them to other students with diverse backgrounds and experiences
also serves to help students focus on their awareness of
themselves.
Reflection
FieldStudy| 32
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND
LEARNER’S INTERACTION
(focusing on different levels of abilities)
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Prof Ed
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining,
understanding and accepting the learners’ diverse backgrounds; an in relating
the learners’ background to their performance in the classroom.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
1. Observe two or more learners of different
abilities but from the same grade or level
4.Write a narrative
Report and a brief
Reflection on your
Experience
3.Observe them as
They participate in a
Classroom
activity 2.Find out some information
About their background
Episode 5
Target
Map
Field Study
FieldStudy| 33
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations.
An Observation Guide for Individual Differences
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your
observation report on the space provided.
1. Observe the class to see the differences in abilities of the learners.
2. Try to identify the students who seem to be performing well and those
that seem to be behind.
3. Validate your observations by asking the teacher about the background
(family, socio-economic, presence of some learning disabilities, etc.)Of
these children.
4. Observe the behavior of both the high achieving and low-achieving
learners. Note their dispositions, pace in accomplishing tasks, interaction
with teacher, and interaction with others.
5. Observe the teacher’s method in addressing the individual learning needs
of the students in his/her class.
Tools
FieldStudy| 34
OBSERVATION REPORT
Name of the School Observed: Macabalan National High School
School Address: Macabalan , Cagayan de Oro City
Date of Visit: July 07,2015
As I have observed the High School class, I was observing, I
noticed that there are individual differences among the learners
not only in physical aspects but also with their abilities and
capabilities in general. There are pupils who have the potential to
be great, an active learner who participate in class, though some
are passive learners.
As observed the behavior of competitive learners to passive
ones; the competitive learners are participative in class and during
discussions or even group activities, they tend to achieve more and
perform well in class compared to passive learning students.
Passive learners are confined in one space and waits to learn, never
enthusiastic as to the curiosity of learning.
The teacher uses and encourages group interaction by group
activities and interactive learning to encourage learning to passive
ones. The teacher tries to balance the learning interaction between
passive learners and active learner.
FieldStudy| 35
1. Did your observation match the information given by the teacher? Were
you able to correctly identify who among the students performed well and
who did not? What behavior helped you identify them? (Volunteering to
answer responding to teacher’s directions, etc.)
Yes the information given by the teacher matched my
observation. I could identify the students who performed well since
they are the ones who are actively participating in class when the
teacher asks questions. Others would just listen and preferred to
be called by the teacher first before they answer and sometimes
hesitates in giving answers. That way, I have identified those top
achievers in the class.
2. Describe the differences in ability levels of the students in the class. Is
there a wide gap between the students who are performing well and
those that are not?
The class that I have observed has a lot of students , so there
is a wide gap between the students who are performing well and
those are not. Since the teacher tries to accommodate their needs,
almost all of them could perform well given variable scenarios and
cases. But there are students who are ashamed to show their
skills. They don’t have much confidence in giving their answers.
3. Describe the methods used by the teacher in handling the students’
differences in abilities. How did the students respond to the teacher?
The teacher uses student-centered learning procedures such
as class discussions and small group work. But it always depends
on the subject matter. The teaching strategies vary from time to
time.
Your Analysis
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1. Recall the time when you were in the elementary or high school. Recall
the high and low achievers in your class. How did your teacher deal with
differences in abilities? Was your teacher effective?
When I was a high school student, there were rankings in class
as to standings in the curriculum, first quarter etc. The effect was
different. Some students challenge themselves much more and
compete but most are satisfied and got comfortable with the
standings, the following quarter they drop a few points and
lowered their rankings. Some students just are okay with it, I
think the difference was how students would react to the situation.
The teacher wants it to work as increase the students level of
competitiveness but in our class it was not a great method because
over all it failed, maybe because we were not the “Honors class”.
The mentality of the general section was to pass the subject, we
were high school, the interests and wants are very different.
2. With the principle of individual differences in mind, what methods and
strategies will you remember in the future to ensure that you will be able
to meet the needs of both the high and low achievers in your class?
I must create an environment in the classroom with due
competition in mind, encourages free flowing of ideas and work
toward a common goal to be better than themselves.
I will practice the law of exercise, wherein I will practice
more often the best strategies that will motivate the learners to
learn, law of readiness that I must be prepared all the time and
law of association or belongingness that I will treat my students
equally whether they are fast or slow learners.
Your Reflections
FieldStudy| 37
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
HOME-SCHOOL LINK
Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin
Course: Professional Education
Resource Teacher:
Cooperating School: Gusa National High School extension (Cugman)
At the end of this activity you will gain competence in reflecting on the
impact of home and family life to learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
 Select a learner from the class whom you have observed.
 Conduct a home visit to your selected learner.
 Describe the family in terms of (number of siblings, number of siblings in school)
 Reflect on how the feelings of belongingness and acceptanceand cooperation are emphasized in the play.
 Interview the parents about
 the rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling.
-the learner’s activities and behavior while at home.
Episode 6
Target
Map
Home and School
Link
Field Study
FieldStudy| 38
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations.
An Observation/Interview Guide for Home-School Link
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe/ interview. Then write
your observation report on the provided space.
The Learner
1. Make a general observation of the learner. Describe him in each of the
domains of development.
 Physical-body built and height (thin, chubby, underweight,
overweight) level of physical activity (fast, slow, lethargic, active,
etc.)
 Social-interaction with teachers and classmates (loner, shy,
sociable, friendly, gets into fights, likes by others, etc.)
 Emotional moods, temperament, cry easily, lose temper, happy,
show enthusiasm, excited, indifferent, etc.)
 Cognitive (appears to understand lessons, copes with the lessons,
excels, lags behind, showing reasoning skills, turns in assignments
and requirements, etc.)
Interview the Teacher
1. What are the most noticeable characteristics of the learner? (emotional
disposition, behavior and discipline, sense of responsibility, study habits,
academic performance, relationship with peers, relationship with adults,
social adjustment)
2. How does the teacher communicate with the parents? How often? What
do they discuss? Agree on?
Interview with Parents
1. Conduct a home visit. Once there, observe the home set-up. ( home is
orderly, family pictures in the living room)
2. Use the interview questions on the next page. Just ask the questions
with which you feel comfortable.
Tools
FieldStudy| 39
Suggested Parent Interview Guide
Your teacher may ask you to use a more detailed interview guide. Be free
to translate the questions, if necessary.
Name of learner: Chloe Abigail Sumampong
Date of Birth: September 16, 2001 Age: 13 years old
Grade/ Year Level: High School Gender: Female
Number of Siblings: 4
Birth order: Fourth child
Parents:
Mother: Nilda Sumampong
Age: 39 years old
Occupation: Housewife
Educational Attainment: College Level
Father: Dionisio Sumampong
Age: 42 years old
Occupation: Contract Worker
Educational Attainment: High School Level
Learner’s Physical Aspect: Healthy and Physically fit. Body built medium
build, skin color brown, almond eyes, and long hair. Cheerful disposition.
Mother’s health during pregnancy with the learner: The mother during
pregnancy is in good health, mentally fit and physically able.
Ailments or health problem of the learner as a child: The child suffered
chicken pox at 6 years old, the usual colds and fever.
Age of the learner when he started to walk/talk: She started to walk when
she was 9 months old and talk when she was 1 year old.
Food preferences of the learner as a child and at present: She likes finger
foods such as street foods, i.e. proben, chicken skin, fishballs, manggang
hilaw, junk foods, soda, orange juice
Who took care of him/her as a child? Both the parents’ take care of the
child, but since the father is at work. The mother got a lot of time taking
care of the child.
FieldStudy| 40
Learner’s Social Aspect:
Describe your child sociability (friendly, outgoing or shy, loner)
- She is friendly, easy to deal with, manageable, cheerful disposition.
Who were the learner’s playmates?
- She usually plays with her classmates, neighbors, and friends with
same age.
As a child then was he/she allowed to play outside?
- Allowed with adult supervision.
Is he/she allowed to go out with friends? Yes.
Do you have rules for him/her to follow regarding going out? What are these
rules?
- Permission either the mother or to the father before going out,
- Prescribed Curfew hours 10 pm.
- No Dates Allowed.
- No Boyfriends, only after college.
- Constantly communicate through text/call.
- No Parties, No drinking or Smoking.
- No joyride with PUVs jeeps.
Emotional –Moral
What are your expectations of your child?
-Put herself on her studies and finish school and continuously pray. Have
respect to parents, specially, and the elderly.
How do you provide a nurturing environment for your child?
- Through providing her with the necessities of life, food on the table,
clean and presentable clothes and a loving home. A home filled with
support for her ambition and aspirations and love.
Does your child go to you when she/he feels down or has a problem? What do
you do to meet his/her emotional needs?
- Sometimes she asks for advices, I do my best to give her good
advices to comfort her and led her to the right path, I know.
What do you do when he/she is not successful in something?
- I encourage her not to give up and pray for the better. Impart with
the hope that ”Maybe, it was not meant for you and God has other
plans”
FieldStudy| 41
How do you discipline your children?
- I will discipline my children through giving a “whole lecture” as
needed when they have did something wrong. A constant reminder
that life is hard and most of the time hard work is usually not
enough.
Do you have rules in the house? What are they?
- Rules include cleaning the house; ironing, laundry, washing dishes,
helping/assisting mom with work and doing assignments/ projects.
How do you impose the rules?
- Rules are implied, a constant reminder, and daily routine. The rules
help the family go through the day.
What are the consequences of breaking the rules?
- The consequences of breaking the rules are to be whipped by a piece
of broom stick and given a “long lecture”, a constant reminder that
every one in the family contributes in bringing in food to the table.
Learner’s Cognitive Aspect:
What are the child’s interests?
- The child shows interest into sports playing volleyball.
What is he/she good at in school:
- She is good in English. She is also good in playing volleyball.
In what subject does he/she have difficulty?
- She finds Mathematics a difficult subject.
How do you monitor his/her performance in school? How do you motivate
him/her?
- Constant monitoring about her studies and asking the teacher about
her progress in school. It is all about the “little things” new
accessories, a new dress, shoes, a small reward like allowing to go
out with friends.
Do you have rules at home to help him develop good study habits? What are
these rules? How are they implemented?
- She does her homework/ projects right after school, then study, and
help with house chores.
FieldStudy| 42
After you have gathered all the necessary data. Write the Learner’s profile
using the outline below. Type the profile in a separate sheet and attached it to
this learning episode.
THE LEARNER’S DEVELOPMENT PROFILE (outline)
The Learner’s Development Profile
Name of the learner: Chloe Sumampong
School: Gusa National High School extension(Cugman)
Date of Home visit: July 07, 2015
Date of Birth: September 16,2001 Age: 13 years old
Grade/ Year Level: High School Gender: Female
Family Profile
Number of Siblings: 4 siblings
Birth order: Fourth child
Parents
Mother: Nilda Sumampong
Age: 39 years old
Occupation: Housewife
Educational attainment: College Level
Father: Dionisio Sumampong
Age: 42 years old
Occupation: Contract worker
Educational attainment: High School Level
Physical Development
The child is physically fit, mentally strong and healthy. She is
very active in all activities. Can work independently, Level of
competitiveness are high.
Social Development
The learner has a friendly disposition and sociable. She
knows how to interact with her teachers, classmates and friends
outside the school. She communicates well, concerning her own welfare
and to other around her.
FieldStudy| 43
Emotional-Moral Development
The child grows with self confidence and assurance that her
family will support her all the way. From authoritative type of parenting
she receives love, respect and warmth from her parents and siblings.
Cognitive Development
Her cognitive aspect continuously developed as she comes to
school and study. She is not the same as the other learner. She learns
fast and participates actively during class activities.
Findings
The Child is friendly, active socially and academically and she
socializes to peers, teachers and staff, her own age group and higher
and lower age group brackets, people outside school she knows and
cautious to strangers. She likes to play volleyball that is where most of
her friends are at, common interests. She also participates in school
activities, programs and forums. The school environment has motivated
the child be socially active and academically sound. The child’s
willingness to learn and be part of a community or groups is present.
Conclusions
I conclude that the school and home contributes a great impact in
developing the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and so as to the total
personality of the pupils. Hence the learning of the child begins at home.
The child learns values, good attitude and discipline. However, school
plays a vital role in molding the child. Since the school is made for
the purpose of developing physical, social, emotional-moral and
cognitive aspect of the learner. The total development of the child
depends in school as well as the teacher which is the most
important person in school that bears knowledge and values to share with
the learner.
Recommendations
For the parents, they are responsible in guiding and disciplining
their children. They must be open with their children. They should ask
them about their studies, habits and show encouragement to focus and
study hard so as to become successful in their life. For the teachers, the
use of technologies is a great way to enhance learning which they
impart to the students to have a good quality of teaching.
FieldStudy| 44
Your findings and recommendations in the learner Development Profile will
help you answer the questions here.
1. From your home visit and interview, what do you think is the style of
parenting experienced by the learner? Explain your answer.
The home that I interviewed, the practice of authoritative
style of parenting is enforced. The parenting habits of Filipinos
that is directed to their children, corporal punishment is prevalent
and is the most common method to discipline their children.
Parents achieve positive results through these parenting
style but the laws of the Republic of the Philippines provide ample
protection for the security and safety of the child. Anything beyond
the force enforced to the child is abuse.
The child is not a child at risk nor a child abused, I observe
that the child is well loved by her parents and siblings, she
constantly receives the amount of care and respect from family
members. She is guided by her parents and siblings older and more
experienced, mature than her.
2. Relating your data with what you learned from child development, what
family factors do you think contribute to the development and over-all
adjustment of the learner in school?
The family factors that contribute to the development and
over-all adjustment of the learner in school are first, the emotional-
moral development; on how the learners are nurtured by her
parents, second is the economic aspect and status of the family,
and last is the socio-cultural background of the family.
3. Does the communication between the home-school have an effect on the
learner? If yes, what are these effects?
Learner can absorb the way they communicate in their home,
they can bring this in school which reflects how the learner
nurtured and reared by her parents at home.
Analysis
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1. Reflect on your own development as a child. What type of parenting did
you experience? How did it affect you?
In my own experiences, the type of parenting style is
authoritative style. They have a clear and reasonable expectations
and limitations for us. For instance, my mother would let me play
and go with my friends outside but never too far away so that she
can see us easily and to make sure we are safe. She also
encouraged us to join any school activities depends on our skills
and interest. She always told us the old saying “Do not do unto
others the things that you don’t want others do to you”.
2. As a future teacher, how would you establish good home-school
collaboration? How can you work well with the parents? How can you
help them? How can they help you?
As a future teacher I intend to be, I will build a good working
relationship to the parents. Their collaboration would be a great
help in regards to home-school link. I will make certain that they
will do their part in providing the needs of their children,
academically, ensure that her rights, as a child, are respected and
recognized. Always lay down the opportunities that can be
achieved by the child so she can try to set higher objectives for
herself as a student and as a person.
Constantly remind parents that their children are an
investment and the only thing they can impart on their children is
knowledge and education. What they achieve in life will directly
impact the family over-all.
I will work with the parents it is through the parents that
how I will go about their child. I can help by informing them of the
child’s progress and performance in school. I can inform their
child’s potential and the opportunities that the child can obtain
and achieve.
As a person, helping someone achieve their dreams is like;
they have something that I myself can no longer achieve in my
current capacity. Seeing someone surpass you in one field specially
Reflections
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your own student is an accomplishment. When I teach, my goal is
to try to push my students to achieve their goals and their dreams
anyway they possibly can, if they cannot, they need to look for
another dream and goal to accomplish. I want them to achieve
something in life that they can be proud of, that once in their short
lives they did something right and was on top of the world.
Because when they are own their own and they are older, there will
be no one to push them. I can only pray that someone will pull
them up.
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Optional Reflection Activities
2.
H- Humility and high hopes
O- On our home
M- Make family members
E- Educate them selves for the better.
S- Student-Parent-Teacher
C- Communication should be
H- Handled in an
O- Organized manner
O- Orderly conduct that will
L- Lead to Learning
L – Learn to
I - Instill
N - New
K - Knowledge
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THE LEARNER
I. The Biological and Physiological Development of the Learner
1. The Prenatal Period
- from conception to birth
- all parts of the human body are already formed
- inherited characteristics from parents are also imparted to the child
during this period
2. Infancy of Babyhood
- From birth to two years
- Basic physical and physiological behavior patterns begin to develop
- The child begins to learn the rudiments of right and wrong
- “oral stage” wherein the child usually puts into his mouth anything
he happens to take hold of
- Usually, the child uses tantrums to call attention
- Baby teeth are already out by the end of the period
3. Early Childhood
- +From two to six years
- “pre-school age”
- Exploratory and inquisitive period
- The child begins to learn some social relationship
- Learns some physical and manual skills
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- The child can walk and run with steadiness, talk understandably,
and can already follow simple directions by the end of the period
4. Late Childhood
- From six or seven to eleven or twelve years
- “elementary school age”
- The child learns some manual skills taught at home and in school
- Learns the essential subjects (reading, writing, arithmetic)
- Joins peer groups
- Further learns what is right and wrong and how to relate himself to
and with others
- Becomes critical of others
- Begins to get attracted to opposite sex
5. Puberty Stage
- From twelve or thirteen or fourteen years
- “early high school age”
- The urge of sex begins to assert itself very rapidly
- Man is already capable of procreation
- Physical and physiological changes in both sexes take place very
fast
6. Early Adolescence
- From puberty to seventeen years
- “late high school age”
- Rapid sex maturation occurs
- Some young people get married at this stage
- Voice, feeling, and thinking continue to change
- Youth continue their studies and develop their life ambitions and
aspirations in life
7. Late Adolescence
- From eighteen to twenty-one years
- The process of development continues
- “college age”
- There is already independence
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- Development of intellectual and social skills continues
8. Early Adulthood
- From twenty-one to forty years
- New life adjustments occur (courtship, marriage, parenthood,
employment, etc.)
- Higher studies may be pursued
- Start of productive years
9. Middle Age
- From forty to sixty-five
- A man or a woman must have achieved most of his or her
aspirations
- Preparation for retirement
- Some physical and physiological functions begin to deteriorate
10. Old Age
- starts at age sixty-five
- “retirement period”
- Some physical and physiological and mental functions continue to
decline
- Some ailments and characteristics of old age occur (deafness,
failing eyesight, forgetfulness, baldness, etc.)
II. Developmentalism
 Developmentalism
- Pestalozzianizm”
- This system subjects the individual to develop mental tasks
arranged from easy to difficult
 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
- Swiss educator who developed the system of Developmentalism
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BASIC FACTS ABOUT DEVELOPMENT
 Development is Sequential
- Development follows strictly a definite sequence of steps or stages of
progression
 The rate of development is not the same for all individuals
- Some persons develop and learn faster than others
- Uneven rate of growth and learning is caused by:
a. Heredity
- Gives all the potentialities for growth and development
b. Environment
- Provides the direction of the growth and development of an
individual
III. Individual Differences “
- uniqueness of an individual”
Heredity
1. Age
- A big factor in making one different from another.
- Older learners have more physical strength and higher level of
comprehension than younger ones.
- Mature learners have greater capacity to receive instruction
2. Sex
- Determines certain roles; males are expected to be aggressive,
fearless and capable of doing heavier work while females are
expected to be passive, demure and prim and because of these
attributions, females are just expected to do the lighter works.
- Determines the direction of growth and development of individuals.
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3. Physical Condition
- Naturally, healthier persons progress more rapidly in their
development that those who are less healthy.
- Normally, normal people develop faster and better and able to
attain higher status than the handicapped people.
4. Intelligence (mental ability)
- People do not have the same level of intelligence, some are more
intelligent than the others, and those who are more intelligent
progress and grow faster than those who are less intelligent.
5. Aptitude and Special Talent
- People who were given special aptitudes and talents are somehow
given the chance to often show excellence of performance and
leadership in their respective fields of specialization far above the
ordinary individuals.
6. Temperament (emotional maturity and stability)
- There are individuals who are easily irritated and tensed even with
trivial things, symptomatic of emotional immaturity and instability.
- Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable
are more patient in studying their lessons hence; learn faster than
those who are more temperamental.
7. Extroversion – Introversion, Dominance-Submissiveness
- Extroverts are like dominants that are usually gregarious and enjoy
interacting with people.
- Introverts and Submissiveness prefer jobs that can be performed in
peace, quite, and with less contact with people.
8. Effort-making Capacity
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- An important trait, one with much effort-making capacity studies
and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits steadiness in
his work.
- Having this capacity is a great determinant to success.
9. Criminal Tendency
- Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble
makers, and they commit anti social acts, in or out school.
Environment
1. Family Background
- If the parents suffer ignorance and wrong values, the children
likewise suffer the adverse consequences because such parents
cannot pay much attention to the proper upbringing of their
children.
- Children coming from affluent families are educated parents with
the right values can grow and develop more progressively than
children coming from the poor families.
2. Community Background
- Children coming from squatter or slum areas and from crimes
infested areas have very slim chance of growing progressively
because of the bad influence of their neighborhood.
- Children coming from affluent areas, and from average social class,
have all the opportunities offered by the society for them to attain
optimum growth and development.
3. School
- Good schools can develop pupils better than poor schools.
- Components make the difference between good and poor schools:
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 Teacher. If teachers are efficient, pupils learn well than when
the teachers are inefficient, the pupils may suffer seatback.
 Facilities. If facilities are adequate, learners learn rapidly,
otherwise the pupils will be retarded in their learning.
 Location. Children studying in a school located in a quiet
place and are conducive to learning; learn more than the
children studying in a school near noisy surroundings.
TEMPERAMENT
I. Emotion as it affects the Learner
- Emotion is stirred-up state or disorganized behavior caused by a
situation which the individual cannot cope with.
II. Theories of Emotion
1. Evolutionary Theory
“Emotion is the primitive matrix from which all later mental
powers are developed”
2. James-Lange Theory
“Bodily changes are antecedents of the mental state”
3. Cannon-Dana Theory
“Emotion is the result of the action and reaction of the
cerebral cortex and the diencephalon”
4. Emergency or Conflict Theory
“Emotion is a mechanism that enables an individual to meet
conflicts or emergencies.”
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III. Importance of Emotion
1. Emotion shapes up the personality of a person
2. Emotion either makes us strong to do actions or prevents us from
doing any action during emergencies.
3. Emotion enables us to cope with conflicts and emergencies.
4. Emotion dominates our lives.
IV.Methods of Eradicating Undesirable Emotional Behavior
1. Disuse
- Avoid that which causes the undesirable behavior. If one is afraid of
the dark, do not give him a chance to be in the dark.
2. Frequent Application of the Stimulus
- If a child is afraid of the dark, bring him often to the dark.
3. Ridicule or Scorn
-If a male child is fearful of the dark, call him a “coward” or “you are
not a man”. His pride will dare him go into the dark.
4. Social Imitation
- If a child is afraid of puppies, show him that other persons are not
afraid of puppies and that he can handle them without getting
harmed.
5. Verbal Appeal
- Give as my plausible reasons as possible against an undesirable
emotional attitude.
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6. Reconditioning
- If a child does not like to take medicine because it is bitter, make
the medicine sweet. If he is afraid to take a bath, let him play with
water of possible.
V. Means of Indirect Adjustment of Frustration
1. Sublimation or Substitution
 Sublimation. An indirect but socially acceptable expression of
emotion or drive
 Substitution. Is replacing an activity for another in which the
individual fails to excel.
2. Compensation and Overcompensation
 Compensation. A socially acceptable means of adjustment to
make up for deficiency or inferiority, physical or otherwise.
 Overcompensation. An extreme form of compensation less
rational and often anti-social.
3. Fantasy or Introversion
- Act of imagining success and satisfactions that are not attained.
Types:
 Conquering hero type. Imagines himself to be victorious hero.
 Suffering Hero or Martyr type. Believes that the world is
sympathetic to his cause.
4. Rationalization
- Act of giving some socially acceptable reasons for one’s frustrations
Methods:
 Sour Grapes Mechanism. Finds fault in a motive which fails
to attain.
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 Sweet Lemon Mechanism. Finds satisfaction in his failure
because it is a blessing in disguise.
 Projection. Act of blaming somebody or something for one’s
failure.
5. Stimulation of Physical Ailments
 Hysteria, Simulation of localized ailments. Usually a combination
of screaming and crying
 Neurasthenia. Simulation of generalized bodily ailments. A nervous
breakdown is an evident
6. Nomadism
- Act of wandering aimlessly.
7. Regression
- Act of submerging into the subconscious state or forgetting.
- If one is wronged, instead of taking revenge he just forgets the
matter.
8. Delusions
- Strong beliefs in things opposite to reality.
- Usually, patients in the mental hospital suffer from delusions.
9. Regression
- Act of seeking infantile expression of motives.
- A grown-up person acts like a child is an example.
10. Escapes through alcohol and drugs
- Act of excessive drinking of liquor and taking prohibited drugs to
forget or ease up frustrations.
PERSONALITY
I. Components of Personality
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1. Physical or Biological Traits and Characteristics
 General physical appearance size of the body, height, weight,
color of hair, manner of walking, health, etc.
2. Capacities
 Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in
art, music, science, etc.
3. Psychosocial Traits
 Good manners, gregariousness, extroversion-introversion,
dominance-submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle,
patterns of adjustments, etc.
4. Spiritual and Moral Values
 Piety, honesty, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality,
responsibility, devotion to duty, absence of anti-social
tendencies, etc.
5. Temperament
 Emotional maturity and stability
 The ability to keep one’s cool when under stress and strain,
the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc.
II. Mind Theories of Personality
A. Type Theories
1. Physique: Body Types
a. Kretschemer’s Classification
1. Asthenic – tall, thin body associated with schizophrenia
or schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder
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characterized by splitting of personality dissociation,
emotional deterioration and out of ideational content.
2. Pyknic – short, fat body with cyclothymic temperament, a
mild manic-depressive psychosis involving recurring
cycles of exhilaration and depression.
3. Dysplastic – bodily defective and handicapped
4. Normal – has only mild forms of asthenic and pyknic
characteristics and has bodies and temperaments that
are appropriate and accepted as normal by the majority.
b. Sheldon’s classification (not confirmed)
1. Endomorphic (endomorph, n) – prominence of the
intestine and other visceral organs, round but weak
muscles and bones.
2. Mesomorphic (mesomorph, n) – athletic with strong and
rippling muscles, broad shouldered and narrow-hipped.
3. Ectomorphic (ectomorph, n) – tail, thin, stoop
shouldered, with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive
nervous system.
2. Temperament Types
a. Sheldon Temperament Types are:
1. Viscerotonic – predominantly endomorphic, loves to eat,
seeks bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and
movement, and slow in reactions.
2. Somatotonic – predominantly mesomorphic, energetic,
like exercise, direct in his manners, and loves competitive
aggressiveness.
3. Cerebrotonic – predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and
emotional, worries much, does not like groups and loves
solitude.
b. Greek classification usually attributed to Hippocrates.
Temperament is dependent upon the predominant body
fluid.
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1. Sanguine – warm-hearted, pleasant quick to react,
balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid
blood.
2. Melancholic - suffers from depression and sadness,
unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is the
black bile.
3. Choleric – easily angered and quick to react, easily
excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow
bile.
4. Phlegmatic – listless, slow, apathetic, calm emotion,
weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm.
3. Behavior: Psychological Types
a. Introvert – refers to be alone, shy. Withdrawn but may be a
leader in a discussion if this level of intelligence is high.
b. Extrovert –tends or prefers to be amidst people, very
sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and outgoing,
chooses an occupation that deals with people like sales, or
promotional work.
c. Ambivert – the normal that is in-between the two extremes
of introversion and extroversion.
B. Trait Theories
1. Allport’s Personal Dispositions
a. Secondary Traits –when the traits are so many that they
merely express isolated interests or modes of responding and
are better characterized as attitudes than traits such as likes
and dislikes, positive or negative attitude toward something.
b. Central Traits – when the traits are too few to describe a
person
c. Cardinal Traits – when a person is dominated by a singles
outstanding trait that makes him stand out and he becomes
a reference personality whose characteristics we expect
others to know.
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2. Cattell’s Theory of Surface and Source of Traits
a. Surface Traits – mostly learned or acquired values that
make man acceptable or not socially such as honest or
dishonest, truthful or untruthful, sociably or shy,
affectionate or cold.
b. Source Traits – more innate or inborn such as mental
ability, dominance-submissiveness, emotional stability, and
introversion-extroversion.
III. Developmental Theories
1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development
- Holds that we undergo maturational scheme of psychosexual stages
and at each stage, psychosocial crises occur which is successfully
met lead to maturity of psychological development.
a. Compulsive Personality - characterized by excessive
cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess, and punctuality.
b. Authoritarian Personality – characterized by “highly
conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and
cynicism, desire for power, concern over sex.
2. Learning Theories
- Personality is the result of learning through reward and
punishment. The things learned become habits and traits that
make up the individual’s personality distinct from those of others.
3. Role Theories
- Describe personality according to the manner in which the
individual meets the various demands that society makes upon his
role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen.”
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a. Age – sex positions – a child should act like a child, a man
acts like a man, and woman as a woman.
b. Occupational positions –a farmer develops a farmer
personality, a doctor personality, a lawyer, personality, etc.
c. Prestige positions – a slave has a slave personality, a
millionaire has a millionaire personality, a President has a
President Personality, etc.
d. Family, Clan, Household – a father has a breadwinner
personality, a child has a subservient to the parents, the
head of a clan must have that personality, etc.
e. Position in association groups based on congeniality or
common interest – on orchestra member must act as such,
member of a Lion’s Club acts as a Lion’s Club member, etc.
IV. Theories of Personality Dynamics
1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
a. The Id
- This consists of innate instinctual drives of sexual and
aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of
primitive, irrational pleasure seeking of drives such as sex, hunger,
thirst, etc.
b. The Ego
- This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in
socially approved ways: there is rational thinking.
c. The Superego
- This is conscience, the sense of right and wrong, that works
according to the ideal.
- When Id predominates, man becomes irrational and commits
anti-social acts; when the ego predominates, man becomes socially
good; when the superego predominates, man does the exceptional
ideal such as becoming heroes, scientists, writers, explorers, etc.
-
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2. Lewin’s Field Theory
- The individual is embedded in a field called his life space,
which is usually his environment, in which conflicts arise and the
alternatives open to the individual to resolve conflicts.
STUDENT DIVERSITY
Factors that bring about Student Diversity
1. Socioeconomic status- the millionaires’ lifestyle differs from that of the
middle income or lower income group.
2. Thinking/learning style – some of you learn better by seeing
something; others by just listening; and still others by manipulating
something.
3. Exceptionalities – the one that has difficulty in spoken language,
comprehension or in seeing. Hearing and etc.
How student Diversity Enriches the Learning Environment
 Students’ self-awareness is enhanced by diversity- exposing
students to others with diverse backgrounds and experiences also
serve to help students focus on their awareness of themselves.
 Student Diversity contributes to cognitive development- the
opportunity to gain access to the perspectives of peers and to learn
from other students, rather than in instructor only, may be
especially important for promoting the cognitive development of the
learners. Supreme Court justice, William J. Brennan said “the
classroom is peculiarly the marketplace of ideas”.
 Students’ diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible
members of society.- Suzzanne Morse stresses one competency
that has strong implications for instructional strategies that
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capitalize on diversity. “The capacity to imagine situations or
problems from all perspectives and to appreciate all aspect of
diversity”.
 Student Diversity can promote harmony- when diversity is
integrated into the classroom teaching and learning process. It can
become the vehicle for promoting harmonious race relations.
Some tips on Student Diversity
Encourage learners to share their personal history and
experiences- students will be made to realize that they have
something in common with the rest. They also differ in several
ways.
 You can encourage or even initiate co-curricular experiences
that are aimed at promoting diversity awareness.
 Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote
students’ multicultural and cross-cultural awareness
 Let students interview other students in campus who are from
diverse backgrounds
 Invite students to internet discussion groups or e-mail; have
students visit foreign countries and talk to natives of those
countries.
 Ask students if they have even the personal target to prejudice
or discrimination and have them share these experiences with
other members of the class.
Aside from highlightingdiversity, identify patterns of unity that
transcend group differences.
Communicate high expectations to students from all subgroups.
Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student
diversity in learning styles.
Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to
provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse
backgrounds.
Adapt to the student’s diverse backgrounds and learning styles by
allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities
concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it.
Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student
learning.
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Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse
backgrounds. You can form groups of students with different
learning styles, different cultural background.
LEARNING/THINKING STYLES AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
LEARNING/THINKING STYLES- refer to the preferred way an
individual processes information. They describe a person’s typical
mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. Furthermore,
styles are usually considered to be bipolar dimensions.
Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or
two types of sensory input and maintain dominance in one of the
following types.
Visual Learners- these learners must see their teacher’s
actions and facial expression to fully understand the content
of the lesson. They tend to prefer sitting in front so no one
would block their view.
Ri Charde breaks sown visual learners into:
o Visual iconic- those who prefer this form of input are
more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic
displays or pictures in order to solidify learning.
o Visual –symbolic- those who prefer this form of input
feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as
mathematical formulas or the written word.
Auditory Learners- they learn best through verbal lectures,
discussions, talking things through and listening to what
others have to say. They interpret the underlying meaning s
of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and
other nuances.
Auditory learners also fall into two categories:
 The “Listeners”- they remember things said to them
and make the information their own.
 The “Talkers”- they are the ones who prefer to talk and
discuss. They often find themselves talking to those
around them.
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Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners- persons benefit much from a
hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world
around them.
Global-Analytic Continuum
 Analytic – tend to forward the linear, step by
step processes of learning. They are “tree
seers”.
 Global- learn towards non-linear thought and
tend to see the whole pattern rather than in
particle elements. They are the “forest seers”
o A successive processor (left brain)- prefers to learn in a
step by step sequential format, beginning with details
leading to a conceptual understanding of the skill.
o A simultaneous processor (right brain)-prefers to learn
beginning with the general concept and then going on to
specifics.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
The theory of multiple intelligences was first
described by Howard Gardner in Frames of Mind (1983).
Gardner defines intelligence as ability or set of abilities that
allow a person to solve problem or fashion a product that is
valued in one or more cultures.
Forms of Intelligences
 Visual/Spatial Intelligence (Picture smart)- learning
visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing
concepts in action in order to understand them.
 Verbal/Linguistic (word smart)- learning through the
spoken and written word. This intelligence was always
valued in the traditional classroom and in traditional
assessments of intelligence and achievement.
 Mathematical/Logical (number smart/ logic smart)-
learning through reasoning and problem solving. Also
highly valued in the traditional classroom.
 Bodily/Kinesthetic (body smart)- learning through
interaction with one’s environment. This intelligence is
not the domain of overly active learners. It promotes
understanding through concrete experience.
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 Musical (music smart)-learning through patterns,
rhythms and music. This includes auditory learning,
but the identification of patterns through all the
senses.
 Intrapersonal (self smart)- learning through feelings,
values and attitudes. This is decidedly affective
component of learning through which the students
place value on what they learn and take ownership for
their learning.
 Interpersonal (people smart)- learning through
interaction with others. Not the domain if children who
are simply talkative or overly social..
 Existential (spirit smart)- learning by seeing the big
picture. Why are we here? What is my role in the
world? – this intelligence seeks connections to real
world understanding and application of new learning.
LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES
DISABILITY- is a measurable impairment or limitation that
interferes with a person’s ability to walk, lift, hear or learn. It may
refer to a physical, sensory or mental condition.
HANDICAP- is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability
or impairment. The degree of disadvantage is often dependent on
the adjustment made by both the person and his environment.
Specific of Exceptionalities
Learning Disabilities- involves difficulties in specific cognitive
processes like perception, language, memory or metacognition.
Examples:
Dyslexia – difficulty in reading
Dyscalculia- difficulty in number operations
Dysgraphia- difficulty in writing
Aphasia- difficulty in language
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- is manifested in
either or both of these:
1. Difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention
2. Recurrent hyperactive and impulsive behavior.
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Emotional /Conduct Disorders- this involves the presence of
emotional states like depression and aggression over a considerable
amount in time that they notably disturb learning and performance in
school.
Autism- is a condition manifested by different levels of impaired
social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors and limited
interests.
Mental retardation- refers to significant sub-average intelligence
and deficits in adaptive behavior.
Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
Physical and health impairments- this involves physical or medical
conditions (usually long-term) including one or more of these:
1. Limited energy and strength
2. Reduced mental alertness
3. Little muscle control.
Severe and Multiple Disabilities- refers to the presence of two or
more different types of disability at times at a profound level.
Visual Impairments- these are conditions when there is
malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevent normal vision even
with corrective lenses.
Hearing impairments- these involves malfunction of the ear or
auditory nerves that hinder perception of sounds within the frequency
range of normal speech.
Giftedness-this involves a significantly high level of cognitive
development. There is usually high ability or aptitude in one or more of
these objects.
THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE
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The classroom climate- is more a product of the interaction between and
among teacher and students than that of the physical condition of the
classroom.
The conducive classroom is one that is business like yet non-threatening.
It is a classroom where:
 Expectations, rules and procedures, limits on behavior are made
clear from the very first day of school;
 The teacher, who is the leader, is fully aware of what is happening
and is in control of the classroom proceedings and yet conveys the
message that she/he is interested in the concerns of students as
individuals and the class as a whole.
 Students are made responsible for their own behavior.
ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
ASSESSMENT- is basically the processes of gathering information about the
student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of
making decisions.
Purposes of Assessment
 Diagnosis- is used to determine any special learning need that a
learner may have.
 Placement- the learner can be placed in the best learning
environment where he can better learn and develop.
 Effectiveness of the progress- can also provide data about how a
particular curriculum or program is effective in meeting the goals.
 Student Feedback- to have objective information that can be used
to communicate to the learner his current level of performance.
 Research- assessment results can also be used as a source of very
useful data in a wide range topic in the field of educational
research.
Research –based Principles of Assessment for Learning
FieldStudy| 70
 Assessment for learning should be part of effective planning and
learning.
 Assessment for learning should focus on how students learn.
 Assessment of learning should be considered central to classroom
practice.
 Assessment of learning should be considered as a key professional
skill for teachers.
 Assessment for learning must be sensitive and constructive
because it has an emotional impact
 Assessment of learning should be consider the importance of
learners motivation.
 Assessment of learning should promote commitment to learning
goals and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are
assessed.
 Assessment of learning should include constructive guidance on
how learners can improve.
 Assessment of learning develops learner’s skills on self-
assessment.
 Assessment of learning should recognize the full range of
achievements of all learners
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Some guiding principles in classroom management and their
implications to teaching.
 Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom
management.
Inside the classroom, we could always expect some disciplinary
problems, but some teacher could immediately handle the said
problems. Instead of formulating immediate medicine for the
behavioral problems, the teacher should focus on how to prevent
these predicaments to occur. As much as possible, lets avoid these
dilemmas because it’s too pathetic for us to cry over spilled milk.
 Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs.
To avoid turmoil inside the classroom, the teacher must
ascertain routines from the start of the class, up to the class
FieldStudy| 71
dismissal. This could also help a lot in saving much time and effort
because their work is already routinized.
 Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum
throughout the day.
As much as possible, the teacher must avoid dull moments
inside the classroom to motivate the students to always pay attention
to the speakers. The teacher must scheme smooth transitions of
activities inside and outside the classroom through the day.
 Strike a balance variety and challenge in students’ activities in
the classroom.
There should be a variation of activities inside the classroom to
avoid the students and even the teacher from being bored.
 As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in
the classroom
Even if the teacher is not around, she is still responsible for the
students. That is why she must know the things that are happening
inside the classroom and what her students are up to.
 Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they became
major disruptions.
Disruptions seem to be part in every classroom and in every
lesson. No matter how big or small the hitch is, it could still give so
much distraction not only to the teacher, but foremost to the
students. That is why, if the disruption is still controllable, the
teacher must try to stop it before it becomes too late for her to control
the situation, and worse, it could spoil the whole transition of the
lesson inside the classroom.
 Reinforce positive behavior
To motivate the students to always do the good and right thing,
the teacher should always pay even the simplest compliment in her
students’ actions especially to the appreciating ones.
FieldStudy| 72
 Treat minor disturbances calmly
If a simple rising of the voice could control the simple problem,
then do it. There’s no need for you to be hysterical and over-react on
something that’s just under control.
 Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an
interactive teaching-learning process.
Some teachers change seating arrangement quarterly. This is to
enhance interactions between the teacher and students.
 Make good use every instructional moment. Minimize discipline
time to maximize instructional time.
The teacher must use time in order to attain all activities planned
and therefore, can meet the objectives of the class.
Routines can be established for efficient and effective learning
The routines can be established for efficient and effective learning
are the following:
 Beginning and ending the class day period
 Transitions
 Getting/distribution of material and equipment
 Group work
 Seatwork and teacher-led activities
Techniques are effective in the maximization of instructional time
Here are some research-based effective techniques to maximize the
academic time for instruction:
 Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions
 Remain involved with the students during the entire class period
allowing for no idle time
 Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead time
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Field Study 1 Episodes 1-6
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Field Study 1 Episodes 1-6

  • 1. FieldStudy| 1 The Learner’s Development and Environment Course Description This course is designed to help the Field Study. Students verify the behavior of the child in the actual learning environment. It will require them to recognize feasible approaches to facilitate learning considering the learner’s different phases of development and social environment. Field Study 1 can be anchored on these professional education subjects:  Child and Adolescent Development  Facilitating learning  Social Dimensions of Education GENERAL OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the stage of the physical, motor, linguistic, literacy, cognitive, social and emotional development of the children or adolescents as manifested in the actual classroom setting. 2. Observe and reflect on the different approaches employed by the teacher in dealing with learners in the different stages of development. 3. Analyze how the teaching and learning process should be conducted considering the different phases of child development. FOCUS SPECIFIC TASK LEARNING EVIDENCE DOMAIN COMPETENCIES School as a learning environme nt Episode 1  Visit a school; look into its facilities and areas that support learning (i.e., classroom, library, playground, An illustration of a school that is supportive of learning or a “child-friendly school” through any of the following: Learning Environment Curriculum Determines an environment that provides social psychological and physical environment supportive of learning. Field Study
  • 2. FieldStudy| 2 Peace Concept in Focus: “Building Friendshi p” Learner’s Characteri stics and needs. Peace Concept in Focus: “Valuing Diversity” Classroom manageme nt and learning and canteen).  Describe the school environment  Prepare an observation log Episode 2 YOU AND I ARE DIFFERENT  Observe 3 groups of learners from different levels (preschool, elementary and high school).  Describe each group of learners based on your observations  Validate your observation by interviewing the learners  Compare them in terms of their interests and needs. Episode 3 “IN NOT OUT”  Observe a class  Using a checklist, find out the evident classroom A descriptive paragraph. A photo essay Narrative description of Diversity among children Checklist on classroom management components Diversity of Learners Learning Environment Differentiate learners of varied characteristics and needs Manages time, space and resources to provide an environment appropriate to
  • 3. FieldStudy| 3 Peace concept in Focus: “Inclusivel y” Learner’s Characteri stics and Learning activities components  Describe how the classroom is structured/de signed to allow everyone to participate in the learning activities  Relate the data in your checklist to the learner’s behavior  Reflect on how classroom management affects learning. Episode 4 TRAITS CHECK  Observe a class on a regular day  Take note of characteristics of the learners in the class  Enumerate and describe the activities that took place in the class.  Analyze how the activities facilitated learning considering the learners’ characteristics . Episode 5 Photo documentatio n of the classroom setting Reflection paper on activities that allow inclusively rather than exclusively among learners Collection of classroom activities written on card boards of rainbow colors A refection paper on the congruence or match of learning activities to the learners’ characteristics Reflection on the interaction of learners despite Diversity of Learners Learning Environment Diversity of learners Diversity of learners the learners and conducive for learning. Recognizes multi cultural backgrounds of learners when providing opportunities Determines teaching approaches and techniques appropriate to the learners
  • 4. FieldStudy| 4 Individual differences and the learning process. (Difference in the ability level) Peace concept in focus: “Samenes s in difference s” Individual Differences and the learning process  Observe learners of different learning abilities but the same grade/year  Interview them to gather their background information  Observe them as they participate in a classroom activity  Write the narrative report. Episode 6  Observe a class on a regular day  Take note of characteristics of the learners in the class focusing on gender and cultural diversity  Interview our resource teacher about principles and practices that he/she uses in dealing with diversity in the classroom. differences Learner’s profile Narrative Report Narrative description of Diversity among children Description on how the teacher instills among children the values and knowledge on differences on gender, social and cultural background Home visitation Diversity of learners Community linkages Determines, understands and accepts the learners; diverse background Relates the learner’s background to their performance in the classroom Recognizes cultural backgrounds of learners when providing learning opportunities.
  • 5. FieldStudy| 5 (social and cultural diversity) Peace concept In focus: “Unity in diversity” Episode 7 Home-School Link CONNECT ME  Select a learner from the class that you have observed  Conduct a home visit to your selected learner  Describe the family in terms of -number of siblings Number of siblings in school  Interview the parents about 1. Rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling 2. The learner’s activities and behavior while at home report Reflection on the impact of home and Family life to learning Learning Environment Reflects on the impact of home and family life to learning
  • 6. FieldStudy| 6 The Learner’s Development and Environment SCHOOL AS LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Professional Education Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School At the end of the activity, be competent in determining a school environment that provide social, psychological, and physical environment supportive of learning. A general observation of the campus and the classroom. Do the following tasks: Episode 1 Target Map 1.Visita school.Lookintofacilitiesand supportlearningareasinthe campus, theninthe classroom 2. Accomplishthe checklistasyou move aroundthe school premises. 3. Based onyour gathereddata inthe checklist,describe the school environment. 4. Make a reflectiononthe characteristicsof a school environmentthatpromoteslearning. 5. Present your idea of a good school environment through any of these: a) Descriptive paragraph; b) Photo Essay c) sketch or drawing d) Poem, song or rap Field Study
  • 7. FieldStudy| 7 Move around the campus. Have a good understanding of the activities and tasks to be accomplished in the activity will yield better learning results. SCHOOL FACILITIES CHECKLIST Familiarize yourself with the different areas and facilities of the school. Check the column to indicate their availability. Give a brief description of those that are available on the last column. Facilities Available Not available Description Office of the Principal Small in space but the things are well organized Library Well ventilated, has a great space and learning resources. Counseling Room The area looks comfortable to stay and discuss matters Involving issues with students, staffs, teachers and parents. Canteen/Cafeteria Spacious but crowded when an entire school population dine in for snacks there will be chaos, meals are decent and affordable. Medical clinic Small in space Audio Visual/Media Center Reading center Speech laboratory Science laboratory Apparatus are available for experiments Gymnasium Auditorium Home Economics Room Well arranged and clean Tools
  • 8. FieldStudy| 8 Industrial Workshop area Workable workshop; space is good. PTA Office Room is good with enough space to be discussing issues about and related to school matters Comfort room for boys Needed proper maintenance Comfort room for girls Needed proper maintenance Computer laboratory Others: Covered Court Serves as Multi Functional Hall, a mini-stage was visible, a standard court size basketball court was also present.
  • 9. FieldStudy| 9 Observation Report Name of School Observed: Macabalan National High School Location of the School: Macabalan, Cagayan de Oro City Date of visit: July 07, 2015 The community where the school campus is in was a highly urbanized community of settlers ranging from informal to formal settling families. The income level of the families living in the community ranges from low to average income earning families. The businesses that put-up here are self-sufficient, meaning that the income earned from these businesses are only to supplement daily needs. The employment statistics suggest that work in the community are as laborers, Public Utility Vehicle (PUV) drivers and a marginal blue collar and white collar jobs. The campus in itself is very much accessible to public transportation. A key location in the community and very easy to locate by people not living in the community where the campus is in. Like most public high schools, the population is way over the intended number of students enrolled; they just squeezed in and absorb more students. With the introduction of K-12 program, the campus is just too small to accommodate all. The campus buildings are still usable, showing no signs of decay but proper maintenance could be done like repainting and refurbishing, new buildings are being constructed to accommodate the growing population. The administrative offices are easy to locate, when one is a first-timer in visiting the school campus. It was convenient also for visitors, since most office can be located on one building and across another building. Signs indicating the function of the office and roles are well placed. The staff and teachers were accommodating. It was easy to do your business. Walking around the school campus, the environment was friendly, knowing high school students, they’re rowdy, but it was not the case. The needed facilities are present and functional on the campus.
  • 10. FieldStudy| 10 An observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT Be guided by these tasks as you do your observation. Then accomplish the matrix to record your data. 1. Look at the walls of the classroom. What are posted on the walls? What heroes, religious figures, lessons, visual aids, announcements, do you see posted? 2. Examine how the furniture is arranged. Where is the teacher’s table located? How are the tables and chairs/desks arranged? 3. What learning materials/equipment’s are present? 4. Observe the students. How many are occupying one room? 5. Is the room well-lighted and well-ventilated? CLASSROOM FACILITIES MATRIX CLASSROOM FACILITIES DESCRIPTION (location, number, arrangement, condition) 1. Wall displays Found at the back corner of the room, 1 bulletin board. 2. Teachers table Adjacent to the door, facing the chairs of the pupils. The table is small for a grown man or woman. 3. Learner’s desk Some are old and has defects. 4. Blackboard Big, found in front of the students. The board is old when a teacher writes on it; the chalk writing is hardly visible at the back. 5. Learning Materials/Visual Aids Fraction charts, word problem visual aids 6. Lightings There are four big fluorescent lamps, one is broken or two. 7. Book shelves Found at the back of the class; big but no books. 8. teacher’s stand Not Found 9. Fan There is two; one stand fan and a desk fan available on opposing sides facing the learners. 10. Shoe Rack Found Outside; beside the door.
  • 11. FieldStudy| 11 Observation report Name of School Observed: Macabalan National High School Location of the School: Macabalan, Cagayan de Oro City Date of visit: July 07, 2015 The classroom walls has minimal displays of heroes portraits, there were only four, one quote on one side and a math reminder displayed on the back. The walls is need of repainting for light bright colors so the room can look brighter instead of dim or rather dark, gloomy atmosphere, the lights were not turned on even when it is getting dark Because of the incoming rain. The teachers table is rather small for a full grown man or woman. It leaves little space for a teacher to bring a number of educational materials or other things that he/she might need for a learning experience. Located in the middle of the board, just half meter away, facing the learners desk. The desks are distributed 5 learner’s desk on the left and 5 on the right in a row following 5 more rows going backroom. The classroom accommodates 50 plus students. The room is standard sized classroom. There are 52 students; 27 girls and 25 boys. The room is designed to hold of up to 40-45 students. Proper lighting was installed; ventilation was good, two fans on opposite sides. Wide windows on opposing sides of the classroom with which light can penetrate easily inside and air can pass right through so it’s cooler. Outside noise of the motorcycles, jeeps and other vehicles plying to and fro in the main street is almost none existent, which will not affect the learning of the students . How do the school and the classroom in particular impact on the learning of the students going to school? What are your conclusions? The school campus is intended to create the learner’s environment, comfortable, appealing, encourages learning, growth and curiosity and literally nice, different in a way, to what they are accustomed to, in their living environment at home, so that the school campus and the classroom be conducive to learning and social interaction among their age groups and peers. Analysis
  • 12. FieldStudy| 12 It is therefore a challenge that the school campus administration create an environment to encourage learning, growth socially, intellectually and emotionally, curiosity to learn, challenge the learner for self- development something to look up-to and hope to achieve in the future for the benefit of their social lives and financial growth. It also necessary that as a school, the moralityand rules of society be taught and make them understand that any individual has the social responsibility to other individuals and have respect for the rights of one another, the learner learns to conform to societies laws and the right norms to follow. How does this relate to your knowledge of child and adolescent development/ how does this relate to your knowledge of facilitating learning? A child needs a conducive learning environment for an effective and productive learning. Teenagers are at a critical emotional, psychological development stage. It is at this stage that anyone can leave a deep impression to their lifelong development socially, personally and to the community. As teacher, we can be humble enough to extend our patience longer, understand their change physically, emotionally and psychologically, provide support and understanding, teach the appropriate action and re- action to a situation, share our experience and our emotional maturity, point to the right direction in a professional teacher approach to a student, student-teacher interaction. As a teacher, we can only teach and inform, it is up to the learner how to absorb and apply it to the real world. 1. Would you like to teach in the school environment you just observed? Why? Why not? I would love to teach to the school that I have just observed because the foundation of teaching is not about choosing. It is about adhering to the calling of to be able to teach. Teaching is equality. It is a right never a privilege. It is about pursuing knowledge and sharing it to those who want to learn and to those who would want to pursue it. Reflection
  • 13. FieldStudy| 13 2. What kind of school campus is conducive to learning? The school campus which is conducive to learning is the one with which offers learning the best possible way. It attracts learning, encourages growth both socially and intellectually, can teach the basic norms of society, the rules every individual follow and the social responsibility that goes along with it. An institution that instills to the learner the importance and the deep understanding of the natural order of things. 3. What kind of classroom is conducive to learning? A conducive learning classrooms encourages learning, makes room for growth, understands achievements is a job well done, there is room for interaction emotionally, and intellectually. There is interaction among peers in their age groups and welcomes criticisms and new ideas, An environment wherein a new lesson is being learned, understood and accepted as positive to the impact to their lives in the future. 4. In the future, how can you accomplish your answer in number 3? I can accomplish anything with the help of every individual involve inside the class. Sheer will and determination will not be enough unless there is support from the education system, the teachers and staff, the parents and to the students themselves. Otherwise, it take a miracle to do it. I am just optimistic since I am bound to be in that direction. But I am hoping for the best. A child mind is complex. As a teacher, every child needs a bright future, it is our job to get them surpass us, guide them every step of the way so they get better, their growth will be growth of society. 5. Write your additional learning’s and insights here: At this point, I can comprehend and understand that the need to be constantly learning is critical and vital in many ways. One is self-improvement. As a person individual grows emotionally and physically, the intellectual aspect should constantly grow. Not any single cell in the body is the same. The hole body should grow too. As new
  • 14. FieldStudy| 14 ideas come-in and new generation sets in. You as a person need to be informed “No Man is an Island”. Second is social responsibility. It is not just enough that you yourself grow in every field. You have also the moral and social responsibility to impart the knowledge that you have gained overtime. “By teaching you grow”, Lastly, GO, GROW and GLOW. You GO learn some new skill, stuff, a thing, technique, place to go and learn from, By acquiring new things you GROW, Your GLOW is what you teach and what you impart to others so you can teach them the value of life and the important life lessons in the long journey, By realizing these few themes. The value of self-worth seem brighter my way.. MY PERSONAL ILLUSTRATION OF AN EFFECTIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT An effective school environment, I picture it, would like to be a safe environment and a child friendly school. That can provide learning and growth to its learners or students. An ample space to develop their social, emotional, psychological and intellectual capacity as an individual in society to contribute positively in their own personal and social well being. This stage of their development is one step to becoming a full pledge person with mature and a senseof deeper understanding of what and how important life is and struggles are just a part of learning. It is at this stage that personal connection and interaction happens. We find life-long friendships at this stage of our lives and start to identify ourselves as a person individual.
  • 15. FieldStudy| 15 The Learner’s Development and Environment LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Prof Ed Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in differentiating the characteristics and needs of learners from different developmental levels. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 2 Target Map Step 1 Observe 3 groups of learners from different levels (preschool, elem., and high school) Step 2 Describe each of the learners based on your observations Step 3 Validate your observation by interviewing the learners Step 4 Compare them in terms of their interests and needs. Field Study
  • 16. FieldStudy| 16 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on the provided space. Your teacher may also recommend another observation checklist if a more detailed observation is preferred Physical 1. Observe their gross motor skills. How they carry themselves. How they move, walk, run, go up the stairs. Etc. 2. Are gross movements clumsy or deliberate/smooth? 3. How about their fine motor skills? Writing, drawing, etc. Social 1. Describe how they interact with teachers and other adults. 2. Note how they also interact with peers. What to do they talk about? What are their concerns? Emotional 1. Describe the emotional disposition or temperament of the learners (happy, sad, easily cries ,mood-shifts) 2. How do they express their wants/needs? Can they wait? 3. How do they handle frustrations? 4. Describe their level of confidence as shown in their behavior. Are they self-conscious? Cognitive 1. Describe their ability to use words to communicate their ideas. Note their language proficiency. 2. Describe how they figure out things. Do they comprehend easily? Look for evidence of their thinking skills. 3. Were there opportunities for problem solving? Describe how they showed problem solving abilities. On Erickson’s Epigenetic Principle This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities. Our progress through each stage of life is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stage. A little like the unfolding of a rose bud, each petal opens up at a certain time, in a certain order, which nature, through its genetics, has determined. If we interfere in the natural order of development by pulling a petal forward prematurely or out of order, we ruin the development of the entire flower. -Dr. C. George Boeree Tools
  • 17. FieldStudy| 17 Learners’ Development Matrix Record the data you gathered about the learners’ characteristics and needs in this matrix. This will allow you to compare the characteristics and needs of learners at different levels. The items under each domain are by no means exhaustive. These are just sample indicators. You may add other aspects which you may have observed. Development Domain Preschooler Indicate age range of children: _____ Elementary Indicate age range of children observed: _____ High school Indicate age range from children observed: _______ Physical Gross-motor skills Fine-motor skills Self-help skills Others Like average High School students, they move straight and head on. Inside the class nobody moves around but talking and chatting among peers is very evident. Energy presence is very high even when they are on their seat. Nothing is ever constant in their movements, easily distracted with short attention span. Their movements maybe clumsy but it goes with hormone levels high at their age. Social Interaction with teachers Interaction with classmates/friends Interaction amongst the learners, they listen attentively but at times engaged to talking
  • 18. FieldStudy| 18 Interests Others among themselves. Teacher’s authority is well recognized and respected. Choosing friends whom they get along well are evident at this stage, where they could share similar experiences, interests, backgrounds, hobbies. Emotional Moods and temperament, expression of feelings Emotional independence others They have their mood swings, from being happy to sad. They could handle their emotions but control is still a big question. Still emotional dependence is high at this stage of life. Peer-to- peer interaction. A sense of belonging to a group is a plus. Some intend to do group activity with themselves. Cognitive
  • 19. FieldStudy| 19 Communication skills Thinking skills Problem-solving Others Whenever an idea is thrown at them, they answer in unison, They have the ability to talk with sense. Ideas are expressed freely, communicates well with their peers and to the teacher in authority. Their opinions are mostly based from their experiences and reflecting on it. They were able to throwback a question. Evidence that they are thinking. Write the most salient developmental characteristics of the learner you observed. Based on these characteristics, think of implications for the teacher. Level Salient characteristics observed Implications to the Teaching-learning Process Highschool Age range of learners observed 13-14  Able to voice out an opinion  Critically observant  Able to express themselves more profoundly  Therefore, teachers should act and behave accordingly for they will be the model of the students in the development of right Analysis
  • 20. FieldStudy| 20 attitudes and values. 1. While you were observing the learners, did you recall your own experiences when you were their age? What similarities or differences do you have with the learners you observed? I recall my experiences when I was just the same with their age, I am optimistic and curious, rowdy and confused, with the barkadas, peer groups, rock bands, always busy with other things not related with the subjects the teacher is teaching. Short temper and a short attention span. 2. Think of a teacher you cannot forget for positive or negative reasons. How did she/he help or not help you with your needs (physical, emotional, social, and cognitive)? How did it affect you? The teacher that I could not forget was Mr. Paolo. He was an inspiration. Living in a country he did not know and dealing with high school. I bet he was terrified of us back then. But then he has that dedication of a teacher that is inspiring as I thought about it. The communication problem the gap between cultures and the problems of the basic educational teaching the Philippines has. You can just imagine the sacrifices he has made to come here and then teach at the same time. 3. Which is your favorite theory of development? How can this guide you as a future teacher? My favorite theory is; through scaffolding, learners could be developed from their actual zone of development to the zone of proximal development. This really inspires me because I could feel that a teacher’s task is very rewarding since they are instrument of making the child reach their full potential. 4. Share your other insights here. Teaching is both a vocation and a mission. Responding to God’s call is not a simple task and gets even harder when you will do the mission of being the catalyst for change. Yet, touching one’s life is priceless and molding them into the best of what can be is the hardest job, but reward. Reflection
  • 21. FieldStudy| 21 The Learner’s Development and Environment LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Prof Ed Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in managing time, space and resources to provide an environment which is appropriate to the learners and conducive to learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 3 Target Map  Observe a class  Using a checklist, find out the evident classroom components.  Describe how the classroom is structured/designed to allow everyone to participate in the learning activities.  Relate the data in your checklist to the learner’s behavior.  Reflect on how classroom management affects learning. Field Study
  • 22. FieldStudy| 22 An Observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on the provided space. 1. As you observe the class. Look into the characteristics of the learners. Note their ages. 2. How many boys are there? How many girls? 3. Focus on their behavior. Are they already able to manage their own behavior? 4. Can the learners already work independently? 5. Describe their span of attention? 6. Look into their listening skills and ability to concentrate. Name of school: Macabalan National High School Observed: High School Location of the school: Brgy.Macabalan, Cagayan de oro City Date of visit: July 7, 2015 During my observation, I found out that the pupils were mostly 13-14 years old. There are about 52 students, 27 girls and 25 boys in the classroom. Every one of them possesses a unique character and trait which depend largely on their background and how they were raised as children They have diverse backgrounds and each is an individual by their own right. The teacher’s focus is on their learning and behavior, at their age it is expected that management can be unruly most of the time. A very profound sense of patience and humility, understanding to earn them respect and trust. Their behavior is basically based on instinct and needs and wants. Their impulse is to satisfy that need or want. The learner can be trusted to make their own decisions, formulate their ideas to a certain degree that it can be manipulated and controlled. A controlled environment to avoid unnecessary uncalled for situations. Since their span of attention is limited, constant guidance and care is tolerated at maximum level. They have their way concentration, so the best possible way to acknowledge them to concentrate is through their own language, their interests, hobbies, and needs and wants in what they want to do or become in the future.
  • 23. FieldStudy| 23 An Observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT 1. Are there areas in the classroom for specific purposes (storage of teaching aids, books, students’ belongings, supplies, etc.) 2. Are there rules and procedures posted in the room? 3. Did the students participate in making the classroom rules? 4. What are the daily routines done by the teacher? (Prayer, attendance, assignment of monitors, warm-up activities, etc.) How are they done? 5. Is there a seating arrangement? What is the basis of this arrangement? 6. Observe the noise level in the classroom. How is this managed? 7. If a learner is not following instructions is off-task, what does the teacher do? (behavior strategies) 8. What does the teacher do to reinforce positive behaviors? (behavior strategies) Observation notes: There are areas in the classroom where they store teaching aids as well as the student’s belongings and supplies that can be found on one corner of the classroom, specifically, a makeshift room. There are no rules attached to the neither walls nor procedures that are posted. The rules are pre-made rules they have to follow. Their daily routines are cleaning inside and outside the classroom in the morning before class and in the afternoon after class, unlike before as I recall we have weekday groups e.g. Friday group, Monday groups, they all clean the room as expected of them. Prayer before a subject is started headed by an appointed prayer leader. Following a roll call, attendance and subject /topic to be discussed, there is an initial recap of topics being discussed prior. Their seating arrangement is mixed. Girls are allowed to mix in with the boys. Their noise level is manageable; the teacher let them take turns in speaking so that everybody can hear them. If a certain pupil is not following instructions or misbehaving, the teacher calls her/his attention and talk to the pupils after the class. The strategies that the teacher used to reinforce positive behavior are giving praises and rewards.
  • 24. FieldStudy| 24 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT MATRIX Aspect of Classroom Management Description Effect on the learner 1. Specific Areas in the classroom Students’ belongings are properly arranged. The pupils are comfortable inside the classroom since the areas are well manage 2. Classroom Rules Not posted Students are well informed and aware of the rules even if not written nor posted. Pupils are informed and aware of classroom rules because there is an equivalent punishment for it. But time to time constant reminder is necessary since they will tend to forget about the written rules, especially if not posted. 3. Classroom Procedures The procedure such as “NO LOITTERING” between class hours to avoid distractions. Pupils follow the instructions to continue the lesson smoothly 4. Daily Routine Cleaning inside and outside the classroom, flag ceremony, prayer and warm-up activities Pupils are responsible enough to do their responsibilities and the rules and procedures. 5. Seating Arrangement The girls are mixed with the boys. The pupils are comfortable in their seating arrangement 6. Handling misbehavior/ off task behavior The teacher calls the attention of the pupils/students, and later on they will talk after class. The pupils/students would behave when called by the teacher but is well aware of whatever the consequences. 7. Reinforcement of positive behavior Praises the student’s good performance and giving awards like an extra points on grades The pupils are motivated to study harder.
  • 25. FieldStudy| 25 1. How did the classroom organization and routines affect the learners’ behavior? Through classroom organization and routines, pupils/students actively participate in the classroom discussions. The lesson plan is carefully prepared such that all discussions are directed towards the achievement of its objectives which students could reach the goals of the teaching- learning process. 2. What should the teacher have in mind when she/he designs the classroom organization and routines? What theories and principles should you have in mind? Teacher should put in his/her mind that designing the classroom organization and routines that would avoid some of the distractions that keeps the students from functioning effectively and would affect the students behavior and learning. Behaviorist theory should be considered, that the teacher’s role is to establish rules and procedures and to communicate these rules clearly to students to implement appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of the rules. 3. Which behavior strategies were effective in managing the behavior of the learners? In motivating students? Why were they effective? The behavior strategy that is effective in managing the behavior of the learner is being a role model to the pupils, meaning to say that teachers should show that they are responsible if they want pupils to be responsible as well Student’s motivation is also effective through the use of appropriate instructional materials. Analysis
  • 26. FieldStudy| 26 1. Imagine yourself organizing your classroom in the future. In what grade/year level do you see yourself? What routine and procedures would you consider for this level? Why? If I were a teacher, I will prefer to teach in 4th year class because at this stage, they are more mature than in lower grades. They are still manageable though they are independent, they can work in their own with out being told by the teacher. I would impose routines like cleaning inside and outside the classroom before and after the class, prayer and checking the attendance, and also the rules and regulations to be followed strictly so that there would be a smooth flow of teaching-learning process. It also in this stage that the quest to know more starts, paving the way for curiosity of the world outside the campus, opinions are high, and a deep search for identity is crucial. A mentor and someone to look up-to will be the key to uplift what they can do and will do in the future to enriched their lives. 2. Make a list of the rules you are likely to implement in this level. Why would you choose these rules? The following rules are: Speak English and Filipino Avoid loitering during class hours Ask permission before leaving the classroom Respect yourself, others and environment Always maintain the cleanliness of the classroom I would choose theses rules because they are observable and achievable that would prevent the students from misbehaving. 3. Should learners be involved in making class rules? Why? Students should also be involved in making the class rules so that it would be clear to them and they will understand the importance of the rules and regulations that there is an appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of these rules. The students discipline should start from them in following the rules and regulations. Reflection
  • 27. FieldStudy| 27 The Learner’s Development and Environment INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION (focusing on differences in gender, racial, religious backgrounds) Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Prof Ed Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School At the end of this activity, gain competence in determining teaching approaches and techniques considering the individual differences of the learners. The learners’ individual differences and the type of interaction they bring surely affect the quality of teaching and learning. This episode is about observing and gathering data to find out how student diversity affects learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 4 Target Map Step 1:observe a class indifferent parts ofa school day(beginning of the day, class time, recess etc) Step 2: describethecharacteristics ofthelearners interms ofage, gender and asocial culturaldiversity Step 3: Describe the interaction that transpires inside and outside the classroom Step 4:interview your resource teacher about the principlesandpractices that she uses in dealing with the diversity in the classroom Step 5: Analyze the impact of individual differences on learners’ interaction Field Study
  • 28. FieldStudy| 28 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations: An Observation Guide for the Learners’ Characteristics Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your observation report on the space provided on the next page. 1. Find out the number of students; gather data as to their ages, gender, racial groups, religious and ethnic backgrounds. During class: 1. How much interaction is there in the classroom? Describe how the students interact more with the teacher than others. 2. Observe the learners seated at the back and the front part of the room. Do they behave and interact differently? 3. Describe the relationship among the learners. Do the learners cooperate with or complete against each other? 4. Which students participate actively? Which students ask for most help? 5. When a student is called and cannot answer the teacher’s question, do the classmates try to help them? Or do they raise their hands so that the teacher will call them instead? Outside class: 1. How do the students group themselves outside the class? Homogeneously, by age? By gender? By racial or ethnic groups? Or are the students in mixed social groupings? If so, describe the groupings. 2. Describe how the learners interact with each other? What do they talk about? Tools
  • 29. FieldStudy| 29 OBSERVATION REPORT Name of the School Observe: Macabalan National High School School Address: Macabalan, Cagyan de Oro City Date of Visit: July 07,2015 All of them participate in the class. Each of them is called to answer the questions or do the board-work exercises especially in math subject. Their seating arrangement does not affect their learning and the teacher could accommodate and give attention to them. There are really good students who excel and answer the questions correctly. But there are instances that a certain pupil could not give the answer correctly. Other pupils will raise their hands to help him. In a group activity, each group has their own leader and reporter, while the members share their ideas to compete with other group.
  • 30. FieldStudy| 30 1. Identify the persons who play key roles in the relationships and interactions in the classrooms. What roles do they play? Is there somebody who appears to be the leader, a mascot/joker, an attention seeker, a little teacher, a doubter/pessimist? In a classroom, pupils differ from each other in their skills, innate talents and abilities. There are pupils that plays as a leader, a little joker that makes all his classmates laugh, an attention seeker because she likes to sing and she has a beautiful voice. There is also a little teacher not to do bad things. In each role they play in the relationship and interactions in the classroom, it only shows that they have different characteristics and interests. 2. Are students coming from minority group accepted or rejected by the others? How is this shown? The each student were different because each family is unique. Some pupils who belonged to minority group were still accepted by their classmates. At their age, they just want to have fun and play together because they respect each other despite their differences in attitudes, skills, socio-economic status and abilities. The teacher also shows that they are accepted and they belong in the class by making her classroom as perfect as can be. 3. How does the teacher influence the class interaction considering the individual differences of the students? The teacher influences the class interaction by encouraging learners to share their personal experiences through sharing to the class or by groups, students are made to internalize that they have something in common with the rest though they possess differences. Another way is using varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity. 4. What factors influence the grouping of learners outside the classroom? The factors that bring about the grouping of learners outside the classroom are; socio-economic status, ways of thinking / learning approach and habits, hobbies, interests and way of life, and genre. Analysis
  • 31. FieldStudy| 31 1. How did you feel being in that classroom? Did you feel a sense of oneness or unity among the learners and between the teacher and the learners? I feel glad and comfortable in observing that classroom since the teacher acknowledge our presence and the students are very polite to us. I could feel that the teacher is well respected by her pupils because they listen attentively and participate during discussions. In that way, I can sense the oneness among the students and the teacher. 2. In the future, how would you want the learners in your classroom to interact? How will you make this happen? I want my learners in the future to be active learners. I could make this happen by imposing rules and regulations that would discipline my pupils to make them behave in the class that provide a positive classroom atmosphere. Through good classroom management and teaching strategies that would consider student diversity, I could effectively make my pupils and competitive learners. 3. How will you encourage all learners, regardless of religious, ethnic or racial background, to interact and participate? I could encourage all learners regardless of religious, ethnic or racial background to interact and participate by initiating co- curricular activities/experiences that are aimed to promote diversity awareness, cultural shows and intramurals, exposing them to other students with diverse backgrounds and experiences also serves to help students focus on their awareness of themselves. Reflection
  • 32. FieldStudy| 32 The Learner’s Development and Environment INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION (focusing on different levels of abilities) Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Prof Ed Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Macabalan National High School At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining, understanding and accepting the learners’ diverse backgrounds; an in relating the learners’ background to their performance in the classroom. To reach your target, do the following tasks: 1. Observe two or more learners of different abilities but from the same grade or level 4.Write a narrative Report and a brief Reflection on your Experience 3.Observe them as They participate in a Classroom activity 2.Find out some information About their background Episode 5 Target Map Field Study
  • 33. FieldStudy| 33 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An Observation Guide for Individual Differences Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your observation report on the space provided. 1. Observe the class to see the differences in abilities of the learners. 2. Try to identify the students who seem to be performing well and those that seem to be behind. 3. Validate your observations by asking the teacher about the background (family, socio-economic, presence of some learning disabilities, etc.)Of these children. 4. Observe the behavior of both the high achieving and low-achieving learners. Note their dispositions, pace in accomplishing tasks, interaction with teacher, and interaction with others. 5. Observe the teacher’s method in addressing the individual learning needs of the students in his/her class. Tools
  • 34. FieldStudy| 34 OBSERVATION REPORT Name of the School Observed: Macabalan National High School School Address: Macabalan , Cagayan de Oro City Date of Visit: July 07,2015 As I have observed the High School class, I was observing, I noticed that there are individual differences among the learners not only in physical aspects but also with their abilities and capabilities in general. There are pupils who have the potential to be great, an active learner who participate in class, though some are passive learners. As observed the behavior of competitive learners to passive ones; the competitive learners are participative in class and during discussions or even group activities, they tend to achieve more and perform well in class compared to passive learning students. Passive learners are confined in one space and waits to learn, never enthusiastic as to the curiosity of learning. The teacher uses and encourages group interaction by group activities and interactive learning to encourage learning to passive ones. The teacher tries to balance the learning interaction between passive learners and active learner.
  • 35. FieldStudy| 35 1. Did your observation match the information given by the teacher? Were you able to correctly identify who among the students performed well and who did not? What behavior helped you identify them? (Volunteering to answer responding to teacher’s directions, etc.) Yes the information given by the teacher matched my observation. I could identify the students who performed well since they are the ones who are actively participating in class when the teacher asks questions. Others would just listen and preferred to be called by the teacher first before they answer and sometimes hesitates in giving answers. That way, I have identified those top achievers in the class. 2. Describe the differences in ability levels of the students in the class. Is there a wide gap between the students who are performing well and those that are not? The class that I have observed has a lot of students , so there is a wide gap between the students who are performing well and those are not. Since the teacher tries to accommodate their needs, almost all of them could perform well given variable scenarios and cases. But there are students who are ashamed to show their skills. They don’t have much confidence in giving their answers. 3. Describe the methods used by the teacher in handling the students’ differences in abilities. How did the students respond to the teacher? The teacher uses student-centered learning procedures such as class discussions and small group work. But it always depends on the subject matter. The teaching strategies vary from time to time. Your Analysis
  • 36. FieldStudy| 36 1. Recall the time when you were in the elementary or high school. Recall the high and low achievers in your class. How did your teacher deal with differences in abilities? Was your teacher effective? When I was a high school student, there were rankings in class as to standings in the curriculum, first quarter etc. The effect was different. Some students challenge themselves much more and compete but most are satisfied and got comfortable with the standings, the following quarter they drop a few points and lowered their rankings. Some students just are okay with it, I think the difference was how students would react to the situation. The teacher wants it to work as increase the students level of competitiveness but in our class it was not a great method because over all it failed, maybe because we were not the “Honors class”. The mentality of the general section was to pass the subject, we were high school, the interests and wants are very different. 2. With the principle of individual differences in mind, what methods and strategies will you remember in the future to ensure that you will be able to meet the needs of both the high and low achievers in your class? I must create an environment in the classroom with due competition in mind, encourages free flowing of ideas and work toward a common goal to be better than themselves. I will practice the law of exercise, wherein I will practice more often the best strategies that will motivate the learners to learn, law of readiness that I must be prepared all the time and law of association or belongingness that I will treat my students equally whether they are fast or slow learners. Your Reflections
  • 37. FieldStudy| 37 The Learner’s Development and Environment HOME-SCHOOL LINK Name of FS Student: Kristofferson C. Solamin Course: Professional Education Resource Teacher: Cooperating School: Gusa National High School extension (Cugman) At the end of this activity you will gain competence in reflecting on the impact of home and family life to learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks:  Select a learner from the class whom you have observed.  Conduct a home visit to your selected learner.  Describe the family in terms of (number of siblings, number of siblings in school)  Reflect on how the feelings of belongingness and acceptanceand cooperation are emphasized in the play.  Interview the parents about  the rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling. -the learner’s activities and behavior while at home. Episode 6 Target Map Home and School Link Field Study
  • 38. FieldStudy| 38 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An Observation/Interview Guide for Home-School Link Read the following carefully before you begin to observe/ interview. Then write your observation report on the provided space. The Learner 1. Make a general observation of the learner. Describe him in each of the domains of development.  Physical-body built and height (thin, chubby, underweight, overweight) level of physical activity (fast, slow, lethargic, active, etc.)  Social-interaction with teachers and classmates (loner, shy, sociable, friendly, gets into fights, likes by others, etc.)  Emotional moods, temperament, cry easily, lose temper, happy, show enthusiasm, excited, indifferent, etc.)  Cognitive (appears to understand lessons, copes with the lessons, excels, lags behind, showing reasoning skills, turns in assignments and requirements, etc.) Interview the Teacher 1. What are the most noticeable characteristics of the learner? (emotional disposition, behavior and discipline, sense of responsibility, study habits, academic performance, relationship with peers, relationship with adults, social adjustment) 2. How does the teacher communicate with the parents? How often? What do they discuss? Agree on? Interview with Parents 1. Conduct a home visit. Once there, observe the home set-up. ( home is orderly, family pictures in the living room) 2. Use the interview questions on the next page. Just ask the questions with which you feel comfortable. Tools
  • 39. FieldStudy| 39 Suggested Parent Interview Guide Your teacher may ask you to use a more detailed interview guide. Be free to translate the questions, if necessary. Name of learner: Chloe Abigail Sumampong Date of Birth: September 16, 2001 Age: 13 years old Grade/ Year Level: High School Gender: Female Number of Siblings: 4 Birth order: Fourth child Parents: Mother: Nilda Sumampong Age: 39 years old Occupation: Housewife Educational Attainment: College Level Father: Dionisio Sumampong Age: 42 years old Occupation: Contract Worker Educational Attainment: High School Level Learner’s Physical Aspect: Healthy and Physically fit. Body built medium build, skin color brown, almond eyes, and long hair. Cheerful disposition. Mother’s health during pregnancy with the learner: The mother during pregnancy is in good health, mentally fit and physically able. Ailments or health problem of the learner as a child: The child suffered chicken pox at 6 years old, the usual colds and fever. Age of the learner when he started to walk/talk: She started to walk when she was 9 months old and talk when she was 1 year old. Food preferences of the learner as a child and at present: She likes finger foods such as street foods, i.e. proben, chicken skin, fishballs, manggang hilaw, junk foods, soda, orange juice Who took care of him/her as a child? Both the parents’ take care of the child, but since the father is at work. The mother got a lot of time taking care of the child.
  • 40. FieldStudy| 40 Learner’s Social Aspect: Describe your child sociability (friendly, outgoing or shy, loner) - She is friendly, easy to deal with, manageable, cheerful disposition. Who were the learner’s playmates? - She usually plays with her classmates, neighbors, and friends with same age. As a child then was he/she allowed to play outside? - Allowed with adult supervision. Is he/she allowed to go out with friends? Yes. Do you have rules for him/her to follow regarding going out? What are these rules? - Permission either the mother or to the father before going out, - Prescribed Curfew hours 10 pm. - No Dates Allowed. - No Boyfriends, only after college. - Constantly communicate through text/call. - No Parties, No drinking or Smoking. - No joyride with PUVs jeeps. Emotional –Moral What are your expectations of your child? -Put herself on her studies and finish school and continuously pray. Have respect to parents, specially, and the elderly. How do you provide a nurturing environment for your child? - Through providing her with the necessities of life, food on the table, clean and presentable clothes and a loving home. A home filled with support for her ambition and aspirations and love. Does your child go to you when she/he feels down or has a problem? What do you do to meet his/her emotional needs? - Sometimes she asks for advices, I do my best to give her good advices to comfort her and led her to the right path, I know. What do you do when he/she is not successful in something? - I encourage her not to give up and pray for the better. Impart with the hope that ”Maybe, it was not meant for you and God has other plans”
  • 41. FieldStudy| 41 How do you discipline your children? - I will discipline my children through giving a “whole lecture” as needed when they have did something wrong. A constant reminder that life is hard and most of the time hard work is usually not enough. Do you have rules in the house? What are they? - Rules include cleaning the house; ironing, laundry, washing dishes, helping/assisting mom with work and doing assignments/ projects. How do you impose the rules? - Rules are implied, a constant reminder, and daily routine. The rules help the family go through the day. What are the consequences of breaking the rules? - The consequences of breaking the rules are to be whipped by a piece of broom stick and given a “long lecture”, a constant reminder that every one in the family contributes in bringing in food to the table. Learner’s Cognitive Aspect: What are the child’s interests? - The child shows interest into sports playing volleyball. What is he/she good at in school: - She is good in English. She is also good in playing volleyball. In what subject does he/she have difficulty? - She finds Mathematics a difficult subject. How do you monitor his/her performance in school? How do you motivate him/her? - Constant monitoring about her studies and asking the teacher about her progress in school. It is all about the “little things” new accessories, a new dress, shoes, a small reward like allowing to go out with friends. Do you have rules at home to help him develop good study habits? What are these rules? How are they implemented? - She does her homework/ projects right after school, then study, and help with house chores.
  • 42. FieldStudy| 42 After you have gathered all the necessary data. Write the Learner’s profile using the outline below. Type the profile in a separate sheet and attached it to this learning episode. THE LEARNER’S DEVELOPMENT PROFILE (outline) The Learner’s Development Profile Name of the learner: Chloe Sumampong School: Gusa National High School extension(Cugman) Date of Home visit: July 07, 2015 Date of Birth: September 16,2001 Age: 13 years old Grade/ Year Level: High School Gender: Female Family Profile Number of Siblings: 4 siblings Birth order: Fourth child Parents Mother: Nilda Sumampong Age: 39 years old Occupation: Housewife Educational attainment: College Level Father: Dionisio Sumampong Age: 42 years old Occupation: Contract worker Educational attainment: High School Level Physical Development The child is physically fit, mentally strong and healthy. She is very active in all activities. Can work independently, Level of competitiveness are high. Social Development The learner has a friendly disposition and sociable. She knows how to interact with her teachers, classmates and friends outside the school. She communicates well, concerning her own welfare and to other around her.
  • 43. FieldStudy| 43 Emotional-Moral Development The child grows with self confidence and assurance that her family will support her all the way. From authoritative type of parenting she receives love, respect and warmth from her parents and siblings. Cognitive Development Her cognitive aspect continuously developed as she comes to school and study. She is not the same as the other learner. She learns fast and participates actively during class activities. Findings The Child is friendly, active socially and academically and she socializes to peers, teachers and staff, her own age group and higher and lower age group brackets, people outside school she knows and cautious to strangers. She likes to play volleyball that is where most of her friends are at, common interests. She also participates in school activities, programs and forums. The school environment has motivated the child be socially active and academically sound. The child’s willingness to learn and be part of a community or groups is present. Conclusions I conclude that the school and home contributes a great impact in developing the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and so as to the total personality of the pupils. Hence the learning of the child begins at home. The child learns values, good attitude and discipline. However, school plays a vital role in molding the child. Since the school is made for the purpose of developing physical, social, emotional-moral and cognitive aspect of the learner. The total development of the child depends in school as well as the teacher which is the most important person in school that bears knowledge and values to share with the learner. Recommendations For the parents, they are responsible in guiding and disciplining their children. They must be open with their children. They should ask them about their studies, habits and show encouragement to focus and study hard so as to become successful in their life. For the teachers, the use of technologies is a great way to enhance learning which they impart to the students to have a good quality of teaching.
  • 44. FieldStudy| 44 Your findings and recommendations in the learner Development Profile will help you answer the questions here. 1. From your home visit and interview, what do you think is the style of parenting experienced by the learner? Explain your answer. The home that I interviewed, the practice of authoritative style of parenting is enforced. The parenting habits of Filipinos that is directed to their children, corporal punishment is prevalent and is the most common method to discipline their children. Parents achieve positive results through these parenting style but the laws of the Republic of the Philippines provide ample protection for the security and safety of the child. Anything beyond the force enforced to the child is abuse. The child is not a child at risk nor a child abused, I observe that the child is well loved by her parents and siblings, she constantly receives the amount of care and respect from family members. She is guided by her parents and siblings older and more experienced, mature than her. 2. Relating your data with what you learned from child development, what family factors do you think contribute to the development and over-all adjustment of the learner in school? The family factors that contribute to the development and over-all adjustment of the learner in school are first, the emotional- moral development; on how the learners are nurtured by her parents, second is the economic aspect and status of the family, and last is the socio-cultural background of the family. 3. Does the communication between the home-school have an effect on the learner? If yes, what are these effects? Learner can absorb the way they communicate in their home, they can bring this in school which reflects how the learner nurtured and reared by her parents at home. Analysis
  • 45. FieldStudy| 45 1. Reflect on your own development as a child. What type of parenting did you experience? How did it affect you? In my own experiences, the type of parenting style is authoritative style. They have a clear and reasonable expectations and limitations for us. For instance, my mother would let me play and go with my friends outside but never too far away so that she can see us easily and to make sure we are safe. She also encouraged us to join any school activities depends on our skills and interest. She always told us the old saying “Do not do unto others the things that you don’t want others do to you”. 2. As a future teacher, how would you establish good home-school collaboration? How can you work well with the parents? How can you help them? How can they help you? As a future teacher I intend to be, I will build a good working relationship to the parents. Their collaboration would be a great help in regards to home-school link. I will make certain that they will do their part in providing the needs of their children, academically, ensure that her rights, as a child, are respected and recognized. Always lay down the opportunities that can be achieved by the child so she can try to set higher objectives for herself as a student and as a person. Constantly remind parents that their children are an investment and the only thing they can impart on their children is knowledge and education. What they achieve in life will directly impact the family over-all. I will work with the parents it is through the parents that how I will go about their child. I can help by informing them of the child’s progress and performance in school. I can inform their child’s potential and the opportunities that the child can obtain and achieve. As a person, helping someone achieve their dreams is like; they have something that I myself can no longer achieve in my current capacity. Seeing someone surpass you in one field specially Reflections
  • 46. FieldStudy| 46 your own student is an accomplishment. When I teach, my goal is to try to push my students to achieve their goals and their dreams anyway they possibly can, if they cannot, they need to look for another dream and goal to accomplish. I want them to achieve something in life that they can be proud of, that once in their short lives they did something right and was on top of the world. Because when they are own their own and they are older, there will be no one to push them. I can only pray that someone will pull them up.
  • 47. FieldStudy| 47 Optional Reflection Activities 2. H- Humility and high hopes O- On our home M- Make family members E- Educate them selves for the better. S- Student-Parent-Teacher C- Communication should be H- Handled in an O- Organized manner O- Orderly conduct that will L- Lead to Learning L – Learn to I - Instill N - New K - Knowledge
  • 48. FieldStudy| 48 THE LEARNER I. The Biological and Physiological Development of the Learner 1. The Prenatal Period - from conception to birth - all parts of the human body are already formed - inherited characteristics from parents are also imparted to the child during this period 2. Infancy of Babyhood - From birth to two years - Basic physical and physiological behavior patterns begin to develop - The child begins to learn the rudiments of right and wrong - “oral stage” wherein the child usually puts into his mouth anything he happens to take hold of - Usually, the child uses tantrums to call attention - Baby teeth are already out by the end of the period 3. Early Childhood - +From two to six years - “pre-school age” - Exploratory and inquisitive period - The child begins to learn some social relationship - Learns some physical and manual skills
  • 49. FieldStudy| 49 - The child can walk and run with steadiness, talk understandably, and can already follow simple directions by the end of the period 4. Late Childhood - From six or seven to eleven or twelve years - “elementary school age” - The child learns some manual skills taught at home and in school - Learns the essential subjects (reading, writing, arithmetic) - Joins peer groups - Further learns what is right and wrong and how to relate himself to and with others - Becomes critical of others - Begins to get attracted to opposite sex 5. Puberty Stage - From twelve or thirteen or fourteen years - “early high school age” - The urge of sex begins to assert itself very rapidly - Man is already capable of procreation - Physical and physiological changes in both sexes take place very fast 6. Early Adolescence - From puberty to seventeen years - “late high school age” - Rapid sex maturation occurs - Some young people get married at this stage - Voice, feeling, and thinking continue to change - Youth continue their studies and develop their life ambitions and aspirations in life 7. Late Adolescence - From eighteen to twenty-one years - The process of development continues - “college age” - There is already independence
  • 50. FieldStudy| 50 - Development of intellectual and social skills continues 8. Early Adulthood - From twenty-one to forty years - New life adjustments occur (courtship, marriage, parenthood, employment, etc.) - Higher studies may be pursued - Start of productive years 9. Middle Age - From forty to sixty-five - A man or a woman must have achieved most of his or her aspirations - Preparation for retirement - Some physical and physiological functions begin to deteriorate 10. Old Age - starts at age sixty-five - “retirement period” - Some physical and physiological and mental functions continue to decline - Some ailments and characteristics of old age occur (deafness, failing eyesight, forgetfulness, baldness, etc.) II. Developmentalism  Developmentalism - Pestalozzianizm” - This system subjects the individual to develop mental tasks arranged from easy to difficult  Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi - Swiss educator who developed the system of Developmentalism
  • 51. FieldStudy| 51 BASIC FACTS ABOUT DEVELOPMENT  Development is Sequential - Development follows strictly a definite sequence of steps or stages of progression  The rate of development is not the same for all individuals - Some persons develop and learn faster than others - Uneven rate of growth and learning is caused by: a. Heredity - Gives all the potentialities for growth and development b. Environment - Provides the direction of the growth and development of an individual III. Individual Differences “ - uniqueness of an individual” Heredity 1. Age - A big factor in making one different from another. - Older learners have more physical strength and higher level of comprehension than younger ones. - Mature learners have greater capacity to receive instruction 2. Sex - Determines certain roles; males are expected to be aggressive, fearless and capable of doing heavier work while females are expected to be passive, demure and prim and because of these attributions, females are just expected to do the lighter works. - Determines the direction of growth and development of individuals.
  • 52. FieldStudy| 52 3. Physical Condition - Naturally, healthier persons progress more rapidly in their development that those who are less healthy. - Normally, normal people develop faster and better and able to attain higher status than the handicapped people. 4. Intelligence (mental ability) - People do not have the same level of intelligence, some are more intelligent than the others, and those who are more intelligent progress and grow faster than those who are less intelligent. 5. Aptitude and Special Talent - People who were given special aptitudes and talents are somehow given the chance to often show excellence of performance and leadership in their respective fields of specialization far above the ordinary individuals. 6. Temperament (emotional maturity and stability) - There are individuals who are easily irritated and tensed even with trivial things, symptomatic of emotional immaturity and instability. - Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable are more patient in studying their lessons hence; learn faster than those who are more temperamental. 7. Extroversion – Introversion, Dominance-Submissiveness - Extroverts are like dominants that are usually gregarious and enjoy interacting with people. - Introverts and Submissiveness prefer jobs that can be performed in peace, quite, and with less contact with people. 8. Effort-making Capacity
  • 53. FieldStudy| 53 - An important trait, one with much effort-making capacity studies and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits steadiness in his work. - Having this capacity is a great determinant to success. 9. Criminal Tendency - Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble makers, and they commit anti social acts, in or out school. Environment 1. Family Background - If the parents suffer ignorance and wrong values, the children likewise suffer the adverse consequences because such parents cannot pay much attention to the proper upbringing of their children. - Children coming from affluent families are educated parents with the right values can grow and develop more progressively than children coming from the poor families. 2. Community Background - Children coming from squatter or slum areas and from crimes infested areas have very slim chance of growing progressively because of the bad influence of their neighborhood. - Children coming from affluent areas, and from average social class, have all the opportunities offered by the society for them to attain optimum growth and development. 3. School - Good schools can develop pupils better than poor schools. - Components make the difference between good and poor schools:
  • 54. FieldStudy| 54  Teacher. If teachers are efficient, pupils learn well than when the teachers are inefficient, the pupils may suffer seatback.  Facilities. If facilities are adequate, learners learn rapidly, otherwise the pupils will be retarded in their learning.  Location. Children studying in a school located in a quiet place and are conducive to learning; learn more than the children studying in a school near noisy surroundings. TEMPERAMENT I. Emotion as it affects the Learner - Emotion is stirred-up state or disorganized behavior caused by a situation which the individual cannot cope with. II. Theories of Emotion 1. Evolutionary Theory “Emotion is the primitive matrix from which all later mental powers are developed” 2. James-Lange Theory “Bodily changes are antecedents of the mental state” 3. Cannon-Dana Theory “Emotion is the result of the action and reaction of the cerebral cortex and the diencephalon” 4. Emergency or Conflict Theory “Emotion is a mechanism that enables an individual to meet conflicts or emergencies.”
  • 55. FieldStudy| 55 III. Importance of Emotion 1. Emotion shapes up the personality of a person 2. Emotion either makes us strong to do actions or prevents us from doing any action during emergencies. 3. Emotion enables us to cope with conflicts and emergencies. 4. Emotion dominates our lives. IV.Methods of Eradicating Undesirable Emotional Behavior 1. Disuse - Avoid that which causes the undesirable behavior. If one is afraid of the dark, do not give him a chance to be in the dark. 2. Frequent Application of the Stimulus - If a child is afraid of the dark, bring him often to the dark. 3. Ridicule or Scorn -If a male child is fearful of the dark, call him a “coward” or “you are not a man”. His pride will dare him go into the dark. 4. Social Imitation - If a child is afraid of puppies, show him that other persons are not afraid of puppies and that he can handle them without getting harmed. 5. Verbal Appeal - Give as my plausible reasons as possible against an undesirable emotional attitude.
  • 56. FieldStudy| 56 6. Reconditioning - If a child does not like to take medicine because it is bitter, make the medicine sweet. If he is afraid to take a bath, let him play with water of possible. V. Means of Indirect Adjustment of Frustration 1. Sublimation or Substitution  Sublimation. An indirect but socially acceptable expression of emotion or drive  Substitution. Is replacing an activity for another in which the individual fails to excel. 2. Compensation and Overcompensation  Compensation. A socially acceptable means of adjustment to make up for deficiency or inferiority, physical or otherwise.  Overcompensation. An extreme form of compensation less rational and often anti-social. 3. Fantasy or Introversion - Act of imagining success and satisfactions that are not attained. Types:  Conquering hero type. Imagines himself to be victorious hero.  Suffering Hero or Martyr type. Believes that the world is sympathetic to his cause. 4. Rationalization - Act of giving some socially acceptable reasons for one’s frustrations Methods:  Sour Grapes Mechanism. Finds fault in a motive which fails to attain.
  • 57. FieldStudy| 57  Sweet Lemon Mechanism. Finds satisfaction in his failure because it is a blessing in disguise.  Projection. Act of blaming somebody or something for one’s failure. 5. Stimulation of Physical Ailments  Hysteria, Simulation of localized ailments. Usually a combination of screaming and crying  Neurasthenia. Simulation of generalized bodily ailments. A nervous breakdown is an evident 6. Nomadism - Act of wandering aimlessly. 7. Regression - Act of submerging into the subconscious state or forgetting. - If one is wronged, instead of taking revenge he just forgets the matter. 8. Delusions - Strong beliefs in things opposite to reality. - Usually, patients in the mental hospital suffer from delusions. 9. Regression - Act of seeking infantile expression of motives. - A grown-up person acts like a child is an example. 10. Escapes through alcohol and drugs - Act of excessive drinking of liquor and taking prohibited drugs to forget or ease up frustrations. PERSONALITY I. Components of Personality
  • 58. FieldStudy| 58 1. Physical or Biological Traits and Characteristics  General physical appearance size of the body, height, weight, color of hair, manner of walking, health, etc. 2. Capacities  Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in art, music, science, etc. 3. Psychosocial Traits  Good manners, gregariousness, extroversion-introversion, dominance-submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle, patterns of adjustments, etc. 4. Spiritual and Moral Values  Piety, honesty, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality, responsibility, devotion to duty, absence of anti-social tendencies, etc. 5. Temperament  Emotional maturity and stability  The ability to keep one’s cool when under stress and strain, the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc. II. Mind Theories of Personality A. Type Theories 1. Physique: Body Types a. Kretschemer’s Classification 1. Asthenic – tall, thin body associated with schizophrenia or schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder
  • 59. FieldStudy| 59 characterized by splitting of personality dissociation, emotional deterioration and out of ideational content. 2. Pyknic – short, fat body with cyclothymic temperament, a mild manic-depressive psychosis involving recurring cycles of exhilaration and depression. 3. Dysplastic – bodily defective and handicapped 4. Normal – has only mild forms of asthenic and pyknic characteristics and has bodies and temperaments that are appropriate and accepted as normal by the majority. b. Sheldon’s classification (not confirmed) 1. Endomorphic (endomorph, n) – prominence of the intestine and other visceral organs, round but weak muscles and bones. 2. Mesomorphic (mesomorph, n) – athletic with strong and rippling muscles, broad shouldered and narrow-hipped. 3. Ectomorphic (ectomorph, n) – tail, thin, stoop shouldered, with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive nervous system. 2. Temperament Types a. Sheldon Temperament Types are: 1. Viscerotonic – predominantly endomorphic, loves to eat, seeks bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and movement, and slow in reactions. 2. Somatotonic – predominantly mesomorphic, energetic, like exercise, direct in his manners, and loves competitive aggressiveness. 3. Cerebrotonic – predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and emotional, worries much, does not like groups and loves solitude. b. Greek classification usually attributed to Hippocrates. Temperament is dependent upon the predominant body fluid.
  • 60. FieldStudy| 60 1. Sanguine – warm-hearted, pleasant quick to react, balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid blood. 2. Melancholic - suffers from depression and sadness, unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is the black bile. 3. Choleric – easily angered and quick to react, easily excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow bile. 4. Phlegmatic – listless, slow, apathetic, calm emotion, weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm. 3. Behavior: Psychological Types a. Introvert – refers to be alone, shy. Withdrawn but may be a leader in a discussion if this level of intelligence is high. b. Extrovert –tends or prefers to be amidst people, very sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and outgoing, chooses an occupation that deals with people like sales, or promotional work. c. Ambivert – the normal that is in-between the two extremes of introversion and extroversion. B. Trait Theories 1. Allport’s Personal Dispositions a. Secondary Traits –when the traits are so many that they merely express isolated interests or modes of responding and are better characterized as attitudes than traits such as likes and dislikes, positive or negative attitude toward something. b. Central Traits – when the traits are too few to describe a person c. Cardinal Traits – when a person is dominated by a singles outstanding trait that makes him stand out and he becomes a reference personality whose characteristics we expect others to know.
  • 61. FieldStudy| 61 2. Cattell’s Theory of Surface and Source of Traits a. Surface Traits – mostly learned or acquired values that make man acceptable or not socially such as honest or dishonest, truthful or untruthful, sociably or shy, affectionate or cold. b. Source Traits – more innate or inborn such as mental ability, dominance-submissiveness, emotional stability, and introversion-extroversion. III. Developmental Theories 1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development - Holds that we undergo maturational scheme of psychosexual stages and at each stage, psychosocial crises occur which is successfully met lead to maturity of psychological development. a. Compulsive Personality - characterized by excessive cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess, and punctuality. b. Authoritarian Personality – characterized by “highly conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and cynicism, desire for power, concern over sex. 2. Learning Theories - Personality is the result of learning through reward and punishment. The things learned become habits and traits that make up the individual’s personality distinct from those of others. 3. Role Theories - Describe personality according to the manner in which the individual meets the various demands that society makes upon his role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen.”
  • 62. FieldStudy| 62 a. Age – sex positions – a child should act like a child, a man acts like a man, and woman as a woman. b. Occupational positions –a farmer develops a farmer personality, a doctor personality, a lawyer, personality, etc. c. Prestige positions – a slave has a slave personality, a millionaire has a millionaire personality, a President has a President Personality, etc. d. Family, Clan, Household – a father has a breadwinner personality, a child has a subservient to the parents, the head of a clan must have that personality, etc. e. Position in association groups based on congeniality or common interest – on orchestra member must act as such, member of a Lion’s Club acts as a Lion’s Club member, etc. IV. Theories of Personality Dynamics 1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory a. The Id - This consists of innate instinctual drives of sexual and aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of primitive, irrational pleasure seeking of drives such as sex, hunger, thirst, etc. b. The Ego - This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in socially approved ways: there is rational thinking. c. The Superego - This is conscience, the sense of right and wrong, that works according to the ideal. - When Id predominates, man becomes irrational and commits anti-social acts; when the ego predominates, man becomes socially good; when the superego predominates, man does the exceptional ideal such as becoming heroes, scientists, writers, explorers, etc. -
  • 63. FieldStudy| 63 2. Lewin’s Field Theory - The individual is embedded in a field called his life space, which is usually his environment, in which conflicts arise and the alternatives open to the individual to resolve conflicts. STUDENT DIVERSITY Factors that bring about Student Diversity 1. Socioeconomic status- the millionaires’ lifestyle differs from that of the middle income or lower income group. 2. Thinking/learning style – some of you learn better by seeing something; others by just listening; and still others by manipulating something. 3. Exceptionalities – the one that has difficulty in spoken language, comprehension or in seeing. Hearing and etc. How student Diversity Enriches the Learning Environment  Students’ self-awareness is enhanced by diversity- exposing students to others with diverse backgrounds and experiences also serve to help students focus on their awareness of themselves.  Student Diversity contributes to cognitive development- the opportunity to gain access to the perspectives of peers and to learn from other students, rather than in instructor only, may be especially important for promoting the cognitive development of the learners. Supreme Court justice, William J. Brennan said “the classroom is peculiarly the marketplace of ideas”.  Students’ diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible members of society.- Suzzanne Morse stresses one competency that has strong implications for instructional strategies that
  • 64. FieldStudy| 64 capitalize on diversity. “The capacity to imagine situations or problems from all perspectives and to appreciate all aspect of diversity”.  Student Diversity can promote harmony- when diversity is integrated into the classroom teaching and learning process. It can become the vehicle for promoting harmonious race relations. Some tips on Student Diversity Encourage learners to share their personal history and experiences- students will be made to realize that they have something in common with the rest. They also differ in several ways.  You can encourage or even initiate co-curricular experiences that are aimed at promoting diversity awareness.  Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote students’ multicultural and cross-cultural awareness  Let students interview other students in campus who are from diverse backgrounds  Invite students to internet discussion groups or e-mail; have students visit foreign countries and talk to natives of those countries.  Ask students if they have even the personal target to prejudice or discrimination and have them share these experiences with other members of the class. Aside from highlightingdiversity, identify patterns of unity that transcend group differences. Communicate high expectations to students from all subgroups. Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity in learning styles. Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse backgrounds. Adapt to the student’s diverse backgrounds and learning styles by allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it. Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student learning.
  • 65. FieldStudy| 65 Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse backgrounds. You can form groups of students with different learning styles, different cultural background. LEARNING/THINKING STYLES AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE LEARNING/THINKING STYLES- refer to the preferred way an individual processes information. They describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. Furthermore, styles are usually considered to be bipolar dimensions. Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory input and maintain dominance in one of the following types. Visual Learners- these learners must see their teacher’s actions and facial expression to fully understand the content of the lesson. They tend to prefer sitting in front so no one would block their view. Ri Charde breaks sown visual learners into: o Visual iconic- those who prefer this form of input are more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic displays or pictures in order to solidify learning. o Visual –symbolic- those who prefer this form of input feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as mathematical formulas or the written word. Auditory Learners- they learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. They interpret the underlying meaning s of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Auditory learners also fall into two categories:  The “Listeners”- they remember things said to them and make the information their own.  The “Talkers”- they are the ones who prefer to talk and discuss. They often find themselves talking to those around them.
  • 66. FieldStudy| 66 Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners- persons benefit much from a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. Global-Analytic Continuum  Analytic – tend to forward the linear, step by step processes of learning. They are “tree seers”.  Global- learn towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than in particle elements. They are the “forest seers” o A successive processor (left brain)- prefers to learn in a step by step sequential format, beginning with details leading to a conceptual understanding of the skill. o A simultaneous processor (right brain)-prefers to learn beginning with the general concept and then going on to specifics. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES The theory of multiple intelligences was first described by Howard Gardner in Frames of Mind (1983). Gardner defines intelligence as ability or set of abilities that allow a person to solve problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures. Forms of Intelligences  Visual/Spatial Intelligence (Picture smart)- learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing concepts in action in order to understand them.  Verbal/Linguistic (word smart)- learning through the spoken and written word. This intelligence was always valued in the traditional classroom and in traditional assessments of intelligence and achievement.  Mathematical/Logical (number smart/ logic smart)- learning through reasoning and problem solving. Also highly valued in the traditional classroom.  Bodily/Kinesthetic (body smart)- learning through interaction with one’s environment. This intelligence is not the domain of overly active learners. It promotes understanding through concrete experience.
  • 67. FieldStudy| 67  Musical (music smart)-learning through patterns, rhythms and music. This includes auditory learning, but the identification of patterns through all the senses.  Intrapersonal (self smart)- learning through feelings, values and attitudes. This is decidedly affective component of learning through which the students place value on what they learn and take ownership for their learning.  Interpersonal (people smart)- learning through interaction with others. Not the domain if children who are simply talkative or overly social..  Existential (spirit smart)- learning by seeing the big picture. Why are we here? What is my role in the world? – this intelligence seeks connections to real world understanding and application of new learning. LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES DISABILITY- is a measurable impairment or limitation that interferes with a person’s ability to walk, lift, hear or learn. It may refer to a physical, sensory or mental condition. HANDICAP- is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability or impairment. The degree of disadvantage is often dependent on the adjustment made by both the person and his environment. Specific of Exceptionalities Learning Disabilities- involves difficulties in specific cognitive processes like perception, language, memory or metacognition. Examples: Dyslexia – difficulty in reading Dyscalculia- difficulty in number operations Dysgraphia- difficulty in writing Aphasia- difficulty in language Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- is manifested in either or both of these: 1. Difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention 2. Recurrent hyperactive and impulsive behavior.
  • 68. FieldStudy| 68 Emotional /Conduct Disorders- this involves the presence of emotional states like depression and aggression over a considerable amount in time that they notably disturb learning and performance in school. Autism- is a condition manifested by different levels of impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors and limited interests. Mental retardation- refers to significant sub-average intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior. Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments Physical and health impairments- this involves physical or medical conditions (usually long-term) including one or more of these: 1. Limited energy and strength 2. Reduced mental alertness 3. Little muscle control. Severe and Multiple Disabilities- refers to the presence of two or more different types of disability at times at a profound level. Visual Impairments- these are conditions when there is malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevent normal vision even with corrective lenses. Hearing impairments- these involves malfunction of the ear or auditory nerves that hinder perception of sounds within the frequency range of normal speech. Giftedness-this involves a significantly high level of cognitive development. There is usually high ability or aptitude in one or more of these objects. THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE
  • 69. FieldStudy| 69 The classroom climate- is more a product of the interaction between and among teacher and students than that of the physical condition of the classroom. The conducive classroom is one that is business like yet non-threatening. It is a classroom where:  Expectations, rules and procedures, limits on behavior are made clear from the very first day of school;  The teacher, who is the leader, is fully aware of what is happening and is in control of the classroom proceedings and yet conveys the message that she/he is interested in the concerns of students as individuals and the class as a whole.  Students are made responsible for their own behavior. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT- is basically the processes of gathering information about the student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of making decisions. Purposes of Assessment  Diagnosis- is used to determine any special learning need that a learner may have.  Placement- the learner can be placed in the best learning environment where he can better learn and develop.  Effectiveness of the progress- can also provide data about how a particular curriculum or program is effective in meeting the goals.  Student Feedback- to have objective information that can be used to communicate to the learner his current level of performance.  Research- assessment results can also be used as a source of very useful data in a wide range topic in the field of educational research. Research –based Principles of Assessment for Learning
  • 70. FieldStudy| 70  Assessment for learning should be part of effective planning and learning.  Assessment for learning should focus on how students learn.  Assessment of learning should be considered central to classroom practice.  Assessment of learning should be considered as a key professional skill for teachers.  Assessment for learning must be sensitive and constructive because it has an emotional impact  Assessment of learning should be consider the importance of learners motivation.  Assessment of learning should promote commitment to learning goals and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are assessed.  Assessment of learning should include constructive guidance on how learners can improve.  Assessment of learning develops learner’s skills on self- assessment.  Assessment of learning should recognize the full range of achievements of all learners CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Some guiding principles in classroom management and their implications to teaching.  Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom management. Inside the classroom, we could always expect some disciplinary problems, but some teacher could immediately handle the said problems. Instead of formulating immediate medicine for the behavioral problems, the teacher should focus on how to prevent these predicaments to occur. As much as possible, lets avoid these dilemmas because it’s too pathetic for us to cry over spilled milk.  Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs. To avoid turmoil inside the classroom, the teacher must ascertain routines from the start of the class, up to the class
  • 71. FieldStudy| 71 dismissal. This could also help a lot in saving much time and effort because their work is already routinized.  Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day. As much as possible, the teacher must avoid dull moments inside the classroom to motivate the students to always pay attention to the speakers. The teacher must scheme smooth transitions of activities inside and outside the classroom through the day.  Strike a balance variety and challenge in students’ activities in the classroom. There should be a variation of activities inside the classroom to avoid the students and even the teacher from being bored.  As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom Even if the teacher is not around, she is still responsible for the students. That is why she must know the things that are happening inside the classroom and what her students are up to.  Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they became major disruptions. Disruptions seem to be part in every classroom and in every lesson. No matter how big or small the hitch is, it could still give so much distraction not only to the teacher, but foremost to the students. That is why, if the disruption is still controllable, the teacher must try to stop it before it becomes too late for her to control the situation, and worse, it could spoil the whole transition of the lesson inside the classroom.  Reinforce positive behavior To motivate the students to always do the good and right thing, the teacher should always pay even the simplest compliment in her students’ actions especially to the appreciating ones.
  • 72. FieldStudy| 72  Treat minor disturbances calmly If a simple rising of the voice could control the simple problem, then do it. There’s no need for you to be hysterical and over-react on something that’s just under control.  Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process. Some teachers change seating arrangement quarterly. This is to enhance interactions between the teacher and students.  Make good use every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional time. The teacher must use time in order to attain all activities planned and therefore, can meet the objectives of the class. Routines can be established for efficient and effective learning The routines can be established for efficient and effective learning are the following:  Beginning and ending the class day period  Transitions  Getting/distribution of material and equipment  Group work  Seatwork and teacher-led activities Techniques are effective in the maximization of instructional time Here are some research-based effective techniques to maximize the academic time for instruction:  Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions  Remain involved with the students during the entire class period allowing for no idle time  Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead time