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Reconstruction (2)

reconstruction

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Reconstruction (2)

  1. 1. Reconstruction 1865-1877
  2. 2. Civil War 1861-1865
  3. 3. Reconstruction Reconstruction: • Era following the Civil War (1865-1877) • A time for rebuilding the shattered nation • 4 million men, women, and children newly freed
  4. 4. Meaning of Freedom? The Central Question facing American Society: • What did African American Freedom Mean?? • Whites? • Freedom did not = equality • African Americans? • Escaping the injustices of slavery
  5. 5. Visions of Freedom • African Americans: • Immediately claimed their vision of freedom • mobilty, voting, land ownership, owning their own labor, access to basic education • Reconstituted their families • Held political demonstrations/meetings • Established independent churches
  6. 6. Freedmen’s Bureau • established by Congress • Administered by the Union Army • Helped to settle disputes between whites and blacks over land and labor • Ensured justice in the courts • Monitored elections • Organized Schools • 500 by 1866
  7. 7. Visions of Freedom • White Visions: • Defined freedom in very narrow terms • Did not want change • White freedom = mastery • Freedom = privilege not a right • Freedom did not = political or civil equality
  8. 8. Black Codes 1865-1866 • Illustrate White Visions of Black Freedom • Immediately passed by southern state legislatures • Outlined legal rights • Aimed at creating a subservient labor force
  9. 9. Reconstruction • Two Phases of Federal Reconstruction: • Presidential, 1865-1867 • Congressional (Radical), 1867-1877
  10. 10. President Andrew Johnson • Restored former Confederates to Power • Opposed rights for freed people • Supported State’s Rights
  11. 11. Congress • Republican Party/Radical Republicans • Northern Industrialists • Free labor ideology • Pres. Johnson vetoed all attempts to extend rights to freedmen • 1866 gained a majority in Congress/over-rule veto
  12. 12. Radical Reconstruction • Redefined black’s political & economic rights • Supported education • Significant for what it did & did not accomplish
  13. 13. Reconstruction Amendments • First Attempt of Federal Government to define the rights of African Americans • 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments • Southern states had to ratify these amendments to be readmitted to the United States
  14. 14. 14th Amendment, 1868 • African Americans = US Citizens • Equal protection under the law • Put penalties on states that denied suffrage to male citizens • New Role for the Federal Government
  15. 15. Limits of 14th Amendment • Uses the world “male” • Difficult to enforce • Did not guarantee suffrage to African Americans • “equal protection” did not mean equality or equal access to goods and services • Leading to “separate but equal” in Plessy ruling 1896
  16. 16. 15th Amendment, 1870 • Forbid states and and federal government to deny suffrage to any citizen on account of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
  17. 17. Limits of 15th Amendment • Does not mention gender or religion • Does not outlaw literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, property qualifications, or discrimination against women
  18. 18. End of Reconstruction • Northerners grew tired of it • Finally left southern states to deal with their “own people” • Democratic Party became the party of White Supremacy

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