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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Multicellular Primary Producers
  2. 2. • Remember how much seaweed was in your household products….. – What were some of the product that contained algae that you found in your home in Lab 2??
  3. 3. Seaweeds • Most found attached to a substrate • Inhibit 2% of seafloor • Life in the inner continental shelf depend upon seaweeds for food • Abiotic Factors most influential are – Light ***** – Temp***** (most diverse in tropical waters) – Tidal exposure – Salinity – Availability of nutrients
  4. 4. Seaweed Structure • Thallus-body • Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves • Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate • Stipe-stem-like structure
  5. 5. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) • Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive • Caulerpa taxifolia – https://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=aT4LY2Kc Ors
  6. 6. Green algae structure/characteristics • Most unicellular • Most are freshwater( we saw some out at pond) • Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis • Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing nucleus divides but cell never divides
  7. 7. Reproduction (draw pic in your reproductive box) • Sexual • Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella • spores released from sporophyte-4 flagella
  8. 8. Representative species • Halimeda • Mermans shaving brush
  9. 9. Phylum Rhodophyta (Red algae) • Primarily marine • Most diverse among seaweeds • Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  10. 10. Structure • Multicellular and less than 1 meter long • Wide variety of shapes and organization among species • Chlorophylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins
  11. 11. Reproduction • Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features……….. 1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes 2. 3 multicellular stages (2n) 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae- 2. Tetrasporophyte 3. Cystocarp
  12. 12. Ecological Roles/ Representative Species • Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans • Some grow on other plants or animals • Help form base of coral reef • Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations • Representative Species: – Porphyra- used as food in oriental dishes – Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings
  13. 13. Phaeophyta (brown algae) • Mostly marine • Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red • Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters) • Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin • Mostly in high latitudes • Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help buoy plant toward light • Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  14. 14. Reproduction • Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta) • Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  15. 15. Ecological role • Habitats for a variety of marine life • Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries • Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  16. 16. Phylum Anthophyta • Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves • Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments
  17. 17. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants) • Related to lilies • Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen • 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium -manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  18. 18. Salt Marsh Plants • Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action • Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance • Species native to Jacksonville (will be responsible for these on the test!!!) – Spartina Alternaflora – Batis Maritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicornia virginica
  19. 19. Mangroves • Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West • 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle • Distinctive by their root system and pods
  20. 20. Mangrove reproduction • Flowers pollinated by wind or bees • Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed) • Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  21. 21. Red Mangrove Black Mangrove Red, White, and Black mangrove White Mangrove leaves

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