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English 10

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Englishgrade10lm unit11-150610060518-lva1-app6892-150610072527-lva1-app6891

  1. 1. i 10 English Learner’s Material Department of Education Republic of the Philippines Celebrating Diversity through World Literature This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@deped.gov.ph. We value your feedback and recommendations.
  2. 2. ii Celebrating Diversity through World Literature – Grade 10 English - Learner’s Material First Edition 2015 ISBN: Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD Development Team of the Learner’s Material Consultants: Dr. Edizon A. Fermin and Prof. Marla C. Papango Authors: Liza R. Almonte, Lerma L. Flandez, Angelina Lourdes A. Hermosa, Nedia Lagustan, Liberty A. Mangaluz, Elenita R. Miranda, Paul Anthony B. Mendoza, Lito A. Palomar, Grace B. Annette Barradas-Soriano, and Karen B. Villanueva Reviewers: Ruth Alido, Mara Angelie Banares, Jonalyn T. De la Cruz, Benjamin Hanson S. Juan, Jennifer E. Lopez, Carlo Erba Manalo – Pacinos, Dr. Sterling Plata, Jeanette M. Romblon, Leilani T. Señires, and Dr. Roderick Tadeo Language Editor: Dr. Ma. Antoinette Montealegre Production Team: Dir. Jocelyn DR. Andaya, Dr. Melinda P. Rivera, Mr. Ricardo G. Ador Dionisio, and Ms. Anna Marie B. San Diego Illustrators: Angielyn G. Bariñan, Eric S. De Guia, and Jayson M. Gaduena Layout Artists: Matthew Leysa, Camille Francesca Mondejar, and Jerby Mariano Printed in the Philippines by REX Book Store, Inc. Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Bldg., DepEd Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig City Philippines 1600 Telefax: (02) 634-1054 or 634-1072 E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trade-marks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. All means have been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them. Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS and only within the agreed framework may copy from this Learner’s Material. Those who have not entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and authors directly. Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or (02) 439-2204, respectively.
  3. 3. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS MODULE 1: Overcoming Challenges Lesson 1: Discovering Personal Challenges YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Blocks that Block 7 Task 2: You’ve Got a Friend 8 Task 3: Watch and Learn! 9 Task 4: I Think 9 YOUR TEXT Daedalus and Icarus by Nick Pontikis Task 5: Guide for Reading 10 Task 5.1 A Scheme for Schema 10 Task 5.2 The Guiding Path 11 Task 5.3 Anticipation-Reaction Guide 11 Task 6: Vocabulary Spinner 12 Task 7: Of Flight and Light 12 Task 8: Facts and Details 16 Task 9: What’s Going On? 16 Task 10: Digging Deeper 16 Task 11: Fact or Not 16 Task 12: Agree or Not 16 Task 13: Image in My Mind 17 Task 14: Time Line 17 Task 15: Character Cycle 18 Task 16: Grammarian for a Day 18 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 17: Men under Lens 20 Task 18: In Your Own Words 21 Task 19: Imprint in Print 21 Task 20: Design 21 Task 21: Dealing with Personal Challenge 21 Task 22: The Worry Sheet 22 Task 23: Stress Tabs 22 Task 24: Peer Pressure 22 Task 25: React to the Max 24 Task 26: Matter of Judgment 24 Task 27: The Great Eight 25 Task 28: My Purpose 26 Task 29: Bull and Bully 28 Task 30: A Day in a Life 29
  4. 4. iv YOUR FINAL TASK MY TREASURE Lesson 2 : Building Up Defenses YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: What Am I? 32 Task 2: Discrimination Check 32 Task 3: Mirror, Mirror 33 Task 4: Reflection 33 Task 5: Enduring and Essential 34 Task 6: Learning Expectations 35 YOUR TEXT The Gorgon’s Head by Anne Terry White Task 7: Guide for Reading 35 Task 8: Mystery Word 36 Task 9: Dissecting the Text 42 Task 10: Visualizing the Text 42 Task 11: Act and Counter Act 43 Task 12: My Coat of Arms 43 Task 13: Makes Sense to Me 44 Task 14: Triple Treat 45 Task 15: A Hero in Me 46 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 16: Award in the Ward 47 Task 17: Different and Singled Out 47 Task 18: Caps Locked 48 Task 19: Creating a Personal Goal 49 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 20: Your Brochure 50 MY TREASURE Lesson 3: Capitalizing on Strengths and Recognizing our Weaknesses YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Boy-Girl Power! 53 Task 2: Let It Go! 53 Task 3: What Are You Made Of? 54 YOUR TEXT Orpheus by Alice Low Task 4: Mystery Words 54
  5. 5. v Task 5: From Page to Page 55 Task 6: Element-Array 58 Task 7: Alice Low 58 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 8: Piece of Pi 59 Task 8.1 Thin Line 59 Task 8.2 A Quote On Quote 60 Task 9: Modal Modes 61 Task 9.1 Units of Measurement 62 Task 9.2 Classifying Things 62 Task 9.3 Market! Market! 63 Task 10: The Confrontation 63 Task 11: A Gift of Change 64 Task 12: A Letter Later 64 Task 13: Best Magic Ever 64 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 14: Ad Typecast 65 Task 15: Ask a Professional 65 Task 16: Past Forward 65 Task 17: Thanks for the Ad! 66 MY TREASURE Lesson 4: Dealing with Personal Challenges YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Picture Perfect 68 Task 2: A Puzzling Trial 68 Task 3: Three (3) Controls 68 Task 4: Setting Expectations 69 YOUR TEXT Arachne by Olivia Coolidge Task 5: SGDA for the Golden Do 71 Group 1 Word Finder 71 Group 2 Image Makers 72 Group 3 Justifiers 72 Group 4 Theme Builders 72 Task 6: Language Watch 73 A. Which Is Which 73 B. Giving Emphasis 73 C. Scary But Blissful 73 D. Comfort Zone 74 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 7: SGDA for Beyond Text - Real Life Extension 74
  6. 6. vi YOUR FINAL TASKS Task 8: For a VIP (Very Impressive Photo) Essay 75 A. Connect and Decide 75 B. Scout for Remarkable/Influential Figures 76 C. Unlimited 76 MY TREASURE Lesson 5: Winning Over Individual Challenges YOUR JOURNEY YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: Connect to the Past 80 Task 2: Outlook Turn On 81 Task 3: Tune In 81 Task 4: Looking Forward 81 YOUR TEXT How Odin Lost His Eye Retold by Catherine F. Sellew Task 5: SGDA for Understanding the Text 82 Task 6: Language Line 86 A. Sense of Value 86 B. Saving Grace 86 C. Rewarding 87 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 7: 87 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 8: Life Skills Connection 89 The Koran translated by N.J. Dawood Task 9: Giving Your Best 90 MY TREASURE Lesson 6: Turning Challenges to Opportunities YOUR OBJECTIVES YOUR JOURNEY YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1: I Always Connect Game 93 Task 2: View and Make Judgment/Generalization 93 Task 3: Three (3) in Control 94 Task 4: Mapping the Targets 94 YOUR TEXT From the Analects by Confucius translated by Arthur Waley Task 5: SGDA for the Stakes 96
  7. 7. vii Task 6: Language Patrol The Thief Who Became a Disciple translated by Paul Reps 100 A. Like a Disciple 100 B. Looking Ahead 101 C. Using Modals 101 D. Alter Ego 101 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 7: SGDA Leading to Completion 102 YOUR FINAL TASKS Persuasive Essay: Practice and Uphold Positive Attitude by Lee Emm Task 8: Life Skills Connection A. Preparation for My Target - Following the Rules of Thumb 103 B. Call Up for Order Box Game 104 C. Steps in Writing Persuasive Essay 105 D. Drafting 105 E. Sharing through the EQS (Encourage, Question and Suggest) 106 F. Revising and Polishing 107 G. Publishing 107 MY TREASURE
  8. 8. xviii INTRODUCTION This learner’s material is specially designed to provide you with the roads to cooperative, collaborative, and independent learning of the target themes, concepts, and competencies that will develop your 21st century real life-based skills. This module provides you with meaningful tasks to develop your skills for academic success and the world of work. It is anchored on the general principles, goals, and objectives of the K to 12 Basic Education program for Grade 10 that will enable you to become self- actualizing, productive and effective participant of the society and the world at large. This learner’s material provides a variety of texts particularly world literary pieces that are both relevant and meaningful to your life. It offers opportunities for you to be engaged in varied, interesting, motivating, challenging, meaningful, and worthwhile tasks to further develop and improve your listening, speaking, viewing, vocabulary, literary, grammar, and reading skills. These tasks are generated as communicative and real life-based activities anchored on the integration of literature and language skills. Positively, this material will help deepen your understanding on how you can enrich, enhance, and lead a meaningful life. There are four modules in this learning material. Each module builds around a particular text for you to explore meaningfully through a variety of integrated, challenging, and interesting tasks. Module 1 Overcoming Challenges Module 2 Establishing Solidarity Module 3 Reconciling with Nature Module 4 Rebuilding Our Societies Each module consists of six lessons wherein each lesson is developed through the following phases: 1. Your Journey – provides an overview of what you should understand in the lesson. This includes clear directions and purpose of the lesson. 2. Your Objectives – states the expectations in line with what you should know, understand, and be able to do, produce, or perform to show there is transfer of learning. 3. Your Initial Tasks – activates your prior knowledge and prepares you for higher level tasks.
  9. 9. xix 4. Your Text – presents the main reading or literary text and the activities/ tasks that lead you to acquire knowledge, make sense of, and construct meaning out of the information and experiences contained therein. 5. Your Discovery Tasks – includes activities that will expand, enrich, enhance, and broaden your understanding of the target concepts and skills. 6. Your Final Task – presents the real life-based product or performance task as final output for the lesson that serves as evidence of understanding of the target concepts and skills. This is an enabling task for the main real life-based product or performance task covering the entire module. 7. My Treasure – enables you to express your insights, learning, and realization on the lesson. This part contains prompts and other organizers that will help you sum up and synthesize what you have learned. This learner’s material includes formal pre and post assessments in both written response and multiple-choice formats. We hope that through this material, you will be provided with meaningful learning experiences and relevant competencies necessary for you to successfully meet the demands of the 21st century.
  10. 10. 1 Overcoming Challenges
  11. 11. 2 PRE-TEST MODULE 1 General Directions: Read each item carefully and follow directions. Write the letter of the most appropriate answer on your answer sheet. Part 1. Knowledge A. Basic Points to Consider in the Writing Process (Nos. 1-3) Directions: Complete the diagram by writing the three (3) basic points to consider during the preliminary stage of writing the process (1-3) 1. 2. 3. B. Special Terms Directions: Match each term in column B with the most appropriate description in column A. A B ___4. argument A. what needs to be proven by facts ___5. controlling idea B. central idea of a work of literature ___6. mood C. the feeling created in a reader by a literary work ___7. opinion D. a core idea or focus of a written work ___8. tone E. contains the body of evidence used to ___9. theme support a point of view F. refers to the attitude of the writer towards his subject C. Grammar Modals. Directions: Choose from the pool of answers the writer’s/speaker’s intention as hinted by each underlined expression. A. ability B. obligation C. probability D. willingness 10. It’s true that sorrows in life may bring despair. 11. We must find courage even in the small things that we do. 12. We will endure even the greatest sufferings that will come our way. 13. Ordinary trials can be turned into extraordinary moments. 1. 2.3.
  12. 12. 3 D. Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns Directions: Determine whether each underlined word is used as an intensive or reflexive pronoun. Write In for intensive pronoun and Re for reflexive pronoun. 14. You can see yourself more clearly. 15. Judge how much you know about yourself. 16. Life itself offers you many opportunities. Part II. Understanding Reading and Literature Directions: Read each of the following short passages carefully and copy the letter of the word or phrase that best completes each numbered item. 17. The main point of the article is best expressed in sentence no. __. A. 3 C. 10 B. 4 D. 12 18. Exploring the sea of goodness, means you are practicing ______. A. conscientiousness C. kindness B. humility D. sympathy 19. The word subtle in Sentence 5 means _________. A. clear C. refined B. practical D. strained 20. The kind of evidence used by the writer to support her stand is through____. A. anecdotes C. statistics B. examples D. video 21.The generalization or statement about the passage on life or human experience is to __________. A. bring out the best in you C. struggle against the odds B. stand up for one’s belief D. take strength to bear up the odds Exploring the Sea of Goodness Lee Emm 1.) Do you believe that a sea of goodness is possible in this world? 2.) I always believe it is possible. 3.) Doing something good, no matter what the consequences will always make me contented and secure. 4.) There are a lot of ways I can do such, especially in doing something “good” for others. 5.) The steps are easy but zealousness, humility and consistency are the subtle ways. Here are the simple ones: 6.) The first one is I imagine that I am in the place of the other person I’ll do good to. 7.) Next, I’ll imagine how she’ll feel and react. 8.) That way, I’ll think doing good to others will make me at least a better person. 9.) That will make me be grateful that I have done something good. 10.) With these simple but notable ways I can prove to myself, to others and to God that I can explore the sea of goodness in this ever changing world. 11.) How about you, can you explore it also? 12.) I bet you can!
  13. 13. 4 For nos. 22 to 26 22. The word “fought” is a/an _______ of the word “defied” in sentence no. 4. A. connotation C. opposite B. denotation D. symbol 23. This passage would most probably interest a/an __________. A. adolescent C. child B. adult D. old man 24. The passage is most probably a part of a/an __________. A. anecdote C. letter B. autobiography D. persuasive essay 25. To support his claim, the writer uses ____. A. facts C. reasons B. opinion D. statistics 26. An effective persuasive technique used by the author to emphasize his point is through appealing to ________. A. emotion C. reason B. moral D. both A and C For nos. 27 to 29 27. The expression to “throw back your shoulders” means________. A. exercise your shoulders C. be confident and brave B. forget your responsibilities D. show your feelings 28. The passage appeals more to the sense of ________ . A. feeling C. sound B. sight D. taste 29. Most probably, the writer’s purpose in this passage is to ____. A. express a feeling C. reveal the truth B. give an advice D. win other’s approval For nos. 30 to 32 1.) The best way to overcome a disability is to face it head-on and not to let it prevent you from achieving great things. 2.) This is the lesson I draw from the lives of two people whom I admire - the musician Stevie Wonder and the track-and-field star Jackie Joyner-Kersee. 3.) I respect them for their courage and strength in overcoming obstacles. 4.) Both are persons with disabilities who defied obstacles in order to be successful in their fields. 5.) They taught me never to give up no matter how intimidating the obstacles I face in life. from: “Overcome an Obstacle to Succeed” by Eddie Harris “ When the world looks hopeless, And life is not fair, Throw back your shoulders And do not despair.” An excerpt from: Rabbi Ben Ezra by Robert Browning Then, welcome each rebuff That turns earth’s smoothness rough, Each sting that bids nor sit nor stand but go! Be our joys three-parts pain! Strive, and hold cheap the strain’; Learn, nor account the pang; dare, never grudge the throe.
  14. 14. 5 30. The word in the poem which is the opposite of “acceptance” is _____. A. bids C. pangs B. joys D. rebuff 31. Line nos. 5 and 6 appeal more to the sense of _______. A. feeling B. sight C. taste D. touch 32. The tone of the poem is more of _______. A. admiration C. inspirational B. criticism D. pride For nos. 33 to 36 33.The feeling that the writer intends us to have toward life is ________. A. contentment C. fear B. courage D. hopelessness 34. The word in the poem that gives hint to the mood it evokes is _____. A. aspired C. sink B. sail D. succeed 35. The figure of speech used in the poem is ______________. A. alliteration C. personification B. metaphor D. simile 36. The last two lines of the poem express _____________. A. arrogance C. optimism B. courage D. warning Part III. Process Logical Organization. (nos. 37 to 40) Directions: Arrange the following sentences logically to form a coherent paragraph. __37. A. Let’s ask help from other students to repair the existing damage. __38. B. Finally, encourage all to maintain cleanliness and beauty of our surrounding. __39. C. We can restore the beauty of this wall. __40. D. First, let’s raise funds for the repair. Composition Writing (Nos. 41 to 50) Directions: Imagine you are a sales representative persuading the consumers to buy the latest gadget or product you’re promoting/selling. Write a paragraph convincing the public about the advantages of buying the gadget. Convince them using the persuasive techniques you know. You will be given ten (10) points for this task. If you have endured a great despair, Then you did it alone. Getting a transfusion from a fire, Picking the scabs off your heart, Then wringing it out like a sock. - from: “Courage” by Anne Sexton
  15. 15. 6 Module 1 LESSON 1 ______________________________________________________________ Discovering Personal Challenges YOUR JOURNEY Echkart Tolle once said, “When you lose touch with inner stillness, you lose touch with yourself. When you lose touch with yourself, you lose yourself in the world. Your innermost sense of self, of who you are, is inseparable from stillness. I am that is deeper than your name and form.” In your previous journeys, you have been provided with a lot of opportunities to explore and improve yourself. Now that you are in the final stage of your junior high school years, what this lesson promises is to teach you how to increase your effectiveness in responding to problems which challenge your innermost sense of self, your “I am that is deeper than your name and form.” In this lesson, you’ll answer one enduring question about life, that is, “How does discovering personal challenge create a deeper understanding of your innermost sense of self?” YOUR OBJECTIVES In charting the course of your journey in this lesson, you are expected to: • use textual aids in understanding better the text • get information from various text types that can be used in everyday life • determine how connected events contribute to the totality of a material viewed • differentiate formal from informal definitions of words • explain how the elements specific to a selection build their theme • identify features of persuasive texts • identify the elements of public speaking needed to effectively engage in meaningful communication • use reflexive pronouns to create meaningful discourse Your target output at the end of this lesson is a concise oral report about cyberbullying and the criteria for assessment will be verbal skills, nonverbal skills, and content of the presentation.
  16. 16. 7 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1 BLOCKS THAT BLOCK Each block represents a saying or well-known phrase. Identify the phrase or idiom graphically presented in each square. Write your answers on the space provided below. Answers: 1. _________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________ Processing Questions: 1. What is your overall impression about the phrases above? 2. How do they reflect realities in life? n
  17. 17. 8 Task 2 YOU’VE GOT A FRIEND Remember the time when you were weak and low. Fill out the speech balloons with your experiences in life that have to do with your responses in Task 1. Share your work with your classmates. Processing Questions: 1. What can you say about the activity? 2. How did you feel when you recalled all those experiences? 3. What did you feel while sharing your experiences with the class? Why? belittled: late: lost: troubled: ‘here we go again’ : forgotten:
  18. 18. 9 Task 3 WATCH AND LEARN! Watch the video carefully and answer the questions to be asked by your teacher. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_N_dYRb4_4 Task 4 “I THINK” Use the chart to jot down your answers to the three questions. I THINK..... Inspiration to Life - Motivational video of a young boy, an inspiration to millions
  19. 19. 10 YOUR TEXT Task 5 GUIDE FOR READING Task 5.1 A SCHEME FOR SCHEMA Answer the question in each box below. Oral report writing is ..... It is used in ...... It can be organized by ..... What are usually made of wax? To what is wax susceptible? What are the benefits of wax? In what way can wax be harmful?
  20. 20. 11 Hint: Take note of your answer and be able to relate all of them to the selection you are about to read. Enjoy reading! Task 5.2 THE GUIDING PATH Read carefully the succeeding text. Let the chart below be your guide in reading the text. Oral Tradition A myth is an ancient story created to explain natural events. Gods, goddesses, and heroes are among the characters in myths. In addition to explaining events in nature, some myths also present a lesson on how to live, or serve as a warning to follow the rules of the society. The Text “The story of Daedalus and Icarus” is a myth. It discusses adventures and mistakes of heroes or characters. Look For How does Icarus get himself into a difficult situation? As you read this myth, look for what Icarus did to escape from the Crete. Processing Questions: 1. What are some myths that you have read? 2. What makes these stories a myth? Task 5.3 ANTICIPATION-REACTION GUIDE Accomplish the Story Anticipation-Reaction Guide below: 1. Before reading – read the statements in the table on the next page and check the column that corresponds to your response. 2. After reading – review your answers and write in the last column whether you were right or wrong.
  21. 21. 12 Disagree Agree Statement Were you right? Daedalus is a famous architect and inventor. Daedalus created a maze for King Minos so complex that nobody could escape from it. To keep Daedalus from revealing the secrets of the maze, Minos imprisoned him and his son, Icarus. Icarus flew too close to the sun. Icarus drowned in the sea. Task 6 VOCABULARY SPINNER Your teacher will give you instructions on how to play the vocabulary spinner. Task 7 OF FLIGHT AND LIGHT How do personal challenges make you a better person? . . . .
  22. 22. 13 DAEDALUS AND ICARUS Nick Pontikis Daedalus-his name means “skilled worker”- was a famous architect, inventor, and master craftsman known for having created many objects that figure prominently in various myths. He had a beloved son named Icarus. Among the many inventions and creations crafted by Daedalus were the wooden cow he constructed for Queen Pasiphae, the Labyrinth oftheMinotauratKnossosontheislandofCrete, artificial wings for himself and his son Icarus, and he was even said to have invented images. The infamous Labyrinth was so cunningly crafted that Daedalus himself could barely find his way out after constructing it. With countless winding passages and turns that opened into one another, the Labyrinth appeared to have neither beginning nor end. Daedalus built the maze to imprison the Minotaur, half man - half bull beast. His homeland was Athens but his parentage is uncertain. Alcippe, Merope, and Iphinoe are all mentioned at different times as being his mother. His father’s identity was never precisely established, but many claim that it was Metion, son of Erectheus. For a short time, his apprentice was his sister’s son Perdix. But Daedalus was so proud of his achievements that he could not bear the idea of a rival. His sister had placed her son Perdix under his charge to be taught the mechanical arts. Perdix was an apt scholar and showed striking evidence of ingenuity. Walking on the seashore, he picked up the spine of a fish. According to Ovid, imitating it, he took a piece of iron and notched it on the edge, and thus invented the saw. Perdix also put two pieces of iron together, connecting them at one end with a rivet, and sharpening the other ends, and made a pair of compasses. Daedalus was so envious of his nephew’s accomplishments that he seized an opportunity to toss him from the hill of the Acropolis. As he was plunging to his death, however, the goddess Athena turned Perdix into a partridge to save him. Other sources claim instead that his apprentice was his nephew Talos. They say that it was Talos, at the age of twelve, who displayed a skill that nearly rivaled his mentor’s. Daedalus, fearing that the boy would surpass him in talent, murdered the boy by tossing him from the Acropolis of Athens.
  23. 23. 14 He was then tried at the Areiopagus, which was the ancient Greek court, and banished from his home city of Athens. He fled to the island of Crete, where he began to work at the court of King Minos and Queen Pasiphae, in the magnificent palace of Knossos. It is said that Daedalus was the first to conceive masts and sails for ships for the navy of Minos, helping Crete become a naval power. The statues he carved were so exquisite, they looked as if they were alive. It is said that they would have escaped were it not for the chain that bound them to the palace wall. Daedelus also constructed a wooden cow for the queen to hide in to satisfy her amorous longings for a white bull sent by Poseidon. When the dreadful Minotaur was born, Daedalus built the Labyrinth to contain the monstrous half-man, half-bull. For years, Minos demanded a tribute of youths from Athens to feed the creature as punishment for the accidental killing of his son while he was visiting Athens. Eventually, the Athenian hero Theseus came to Crete to attempt to slay the Minotaur. Princess Ariadne, daughter of King Minos and Queen Pasiphae, fell in love with Theseus and asked Daedalus to help him. Daedalus gave her a flaxen thread for Theseus to tie to the door of the Labyrinth as he entered, and by which he could find his way out after killing the monster. Theseus succeeded, and escaped Crete with Ariadne. Minos, enraged at the loss of his daughter, not to mention the killing of his pet Minotaur, shut Daedalus and his son Icarus into the Labyrinth, knowing that Theseus could not have accomplished the deed without inside help. Daedalus managed to get out of the Labyrinth - after all, he had built it and knew his way around. Daedalus decided that he and his son Icarus had to leave Crete and get away from Minos, before he brought them harm. However, Minos controlled the sea around Crete. The King kept strict watch on all vessels, permitting none to sail without being carefully searched by his soldiers. Since Minos controlled the land and sea routes, and there was no route of escape there; Daedalus realized that the only way out was by air. But only the gods could fly! To escape, Daedalus built wings for himself and Icarus, fashioned with feathers held together with wax. Daedalus tried the wings on himself first and was satisfied that his plan would work.
  24. 24. 15 Before taking off from the island, Daedalus warned his son to follow closely behind him. He sternly cautioned Icarus not to fly too close to the sun, as it would melt his wings, and not too close to the sea, as it would dampen them and make it hard to fly. They successfully flew from Crete, but Icarus grew exhilarated by the thrill of flying and began getting careless. The father and son passed the islands of Samos, Delos and Lebynthos, and the further away from Crete they flew, the more cocky became Icarus. Forgetting his father’s stern advice, Icarus flew too close to the sun god Helios, who was pulling the sun behind his chariot high in the sky. The wax holding together his wings softened and melted from the heat and, try as he might, Icarus could not prevent the feathers from falling off his body. Furiously he flapped his arms, but soon no feathers at all were left and he fell to his death, drowning in the sea, as his helpless father watched his son perish with anguish. His father cried, bitterly lamenting his own arts, and called the land near the place where Icarus fell into the ocean Icaria in memory of his child. The Icarian Sea, where he fell, was forever named after him and it is said that the great hero Heracles (Hercules), who was passing by, gave him proper burial. Daedalus grieved for his dead son and then continued to Sicily, where he came to stay at the court of Cocalus in a place called Camicus. On the island’s south coast, Daedalus built a temple for Apollo, and hung up his wings, as an offering to the Olympian god. But vengeful King Minos wasn’t quite done — he then went in pursuit of Daedalus, hoping to locate and trick the great inventor into revealing himself. At each city he visited, Minos offered a reward to whoever could thread a spiral seashell, a seemingly impossible task. Eventually, Minos came to Camicus in Sicily and presented the contest at Cocalus’ court. Cocalus knew of Daedalus’ talents, and gave the shell to him. The clever Daedalus tied the string to an ant, placed the ant at one end of the shell, and allowed the ant to walk through the spiral chambers until it came out the other end. When Minos saw that someone had solved the puzzle, he demanded that Cocalus surrender Daedalus, for he insisted that only he would have been inventive enough to solve the task. King Cocalus promised to do so, but he persuaded Minos to first take a bath and stay for some entertainment. Minos agreed, and was consequently murdered by Cocalus’ daughters, who had been totally impressed by the toys and gifts which Daedalus had bestowed upon them. Daedalus eventually left Camicus, much to the dismay of King Cocalus and his daughters, and ended up in Sardinia with a group led by Iolaus, who was a nephew of Heracles. Source: http://thanasis.com/icarus02.html
  25. 25. 16 Task 8 FACTS AND DETAILS 1. Who hires Daedalus? 2. What does Daedalus design to hold the Minotaur? 3. What does Daedalus invent to help him and Icarus escape from the Labyrinth? 4. What does he warn Icarus not to do? 5. What happens to Icarus? Task 9 WHAT’S GOING ON? 1. Why did Minos imprison Daedalus in the Labyrinth? 2. Why did Minos think that, if Daedalus can’t find his way out, “so much the better”? 3. Minos tells Icarus that the plan is dangerous. Why does he want them to take this risk? 4. Why did Daedalus leave his wings on the altar of Apollo? Why wouldn’t he want to fly some more? Task 10 DIGGING DEEPER 1. In a short paragraph, describe how Daedalus planned to escape from the island prison of Crete. 2. Do you think Daedalus’s plan is a good one? Explain your answer. 3. Which events in the myth could have happened in real life? 4. If you had access to building resources and materials, how would you design a flying machine to help you escape from the island prison of Crete? Task 11 FACT OR NOT Tell whether the statement is a fact or not. Draw WINGS before each number if the statement is a fact and SUN if otherwise. _______ Daedalus was an inventor. _______ King Minos wanted to kill the Minotaur. _______ It would be easy to find your way out of the Labyrinth. _______ Icarus design his own wings. _______ The wings were made of chicken feathers. Task 12 AGREE OR DISAGREE State whether you agree or disagree with the given statements and find evidence from the text to support your claim. 1. King Minos is cruel. Evidence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________
  26. 26. 17 2. Daedalus is talented. Evidence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Icarus is foolish. Evidence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. Daedalus and Icarus should have stayed in the island after escaping from the Labyrinth. Evidence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. Daedalus is responsible for his son’s death. Evidence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Task 13 IMAGE IN MY MIND Your teacher will group you into five. Illustrate the images in your mind as you encountered the following in the story. Group 1: The Labyrinth Group 2: Icarian Sea Group 3: Minos’s shell Group 4: Minotaur Group 5: Icarus’s wings Task 14 TIMELINE Read the text once again. Create a graphic organizer of what happened in each of the following places: 1. The palace of Minos 2. In prison 3. Icarus in the sea 4. Sicily
  27. 27. 18 Task 15 CHARACTER PORTRAIT Extract actions, dialogues, and thoughts of Daedalus from the text you have read, then write a description about the character. Task 16 GRAMMARIAN FOR A DAY A. Scan the paragraphs below. Underline all the pronouns used by the author. He was then tried at the Areiopagus, which was the ancient Greek court, and banished from his home city of Athens. He fled to the island of Crete, where he began to work at the court of King Minos and Queen Pasiphae, in the magnificent palace of Knossos. It is said that Daedalus was the first to conceive masts and sails for ships for the navy of Minos, helping Crete become a naval power. The statues he carved were so exquisite, they looked as if they were alive. It is said that they would have escaped were it not for the chain that bound them to the palace wall. Daedelus also constructed a wooden cow for the queen to hide in to satisfy her amorous longings for a white bull sent by Poseidon. When the dreadful Minotaur was born, Daedalus built the Labyrinth to contain the monstrous half-man, half-bull. For years, Minos demanded a tribute of youths from
  28. 28. 19 Athens to feed the creature as punishment for the accidental killing of his son while he was visiting Athens. Eventually, the Athenian hero Theseus came to Crete to attempt to slay the Minotaur. Princess Ariadne, daughter of King Minos and Queen Pasiphae, fell in love with Theseus and asked Daedalus to help him. Daedalus gave her a flaxen thread for Theseus to tie to the door of the Labyrinth as he entered, and by which he could find his way out after killing the monster. Theseus succeeded, and escaped Crete with Ariadne. B. Pick at least five (5) sentences with pronouns. Rewrite the statements and make the pronouns reflexive. Make sure these pronouns reflect back to the subject of the sentence. 1. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ C. Construct your own sentences by using the following pronouns as reflexive pronouns. 1. (him) _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. (her) __________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. (them) ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. (it) ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
  29. 29. 20 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 17 MEN UNDER THE LENS A. Make a list of all the personal challenges Icarus and Daedalus needed to overcome to escape from the cruel living. Icarus’ Personal Challenges Daedalus’ Personal Challenges B. Pick out similar personal challenges you have experienced, as the two characters. My Personal Challenges Icarus Daedalus Processing Questions: 1. What do the similarities of your personal challenges in life and those of Daedalus and Icarus tell? What new discoveries did you find? 2. What do these discoveries reveal about myths and realities of life?
  30. 30. 21 Task 18 IN YOUR OWN WORDS Daedalus tries to make Icarus pay attention to his instructions, but Icarus got excited and doesn’t obey the rules. • Write an essay about a safety rule that you think is important but people often ignore because it seems like following it will ruin the fun. • Convince your readers why they should obey this safety rule. Task 19 IMPRINT IN PRINT Look in today’s paper for a story about an engineering solution to a problem. This could be anything from coordinating traffic lights, avoiding local flooding problems to developing a new type of rocket ship. Create a chart showing the problem, the solution, and the basic tools (inclined plane, lever, screw, wheel) and forces (gravity, inertia, etc.) involved. Task 20 DESIGN Daedalus is an engineer and designs different inventions in this story. Research on careers in the field of engineering on the following aspects from the library or the internet: 1. Types of engineering careers 2. What these types of engineering careers contribute to society? 3. What qualifications each type require? Share your answer with the class. Task 21 DEALING WITH PERSONAL CHALLENGE Below are some personal challenges encountered by Icarus and Daedalus. How would you deal with these challenges if you encounter them? 1. abuse of power 2. self destruction 3. foolishness 4. lack of contentment 5. aggressiveness 6. hard headedness 7. impetuousness 8. hostility 9. pride 10. boastfulness 11. egocentricity 12. procrastination 13. compulsiveness 14. envy
  31. 31. 22 Task 22 THE WORRY SHEET Things that worry us could be great challenges. What worries you at this moment? What can you do about it? Accomplish the chart below: I worry about What I should do about it 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Task 23 STRESS TABS Stress is a personal challenge. It affects your studies and slows you down in accomplishing a lot of things. Use the chart below to identify what causes you stress and how does it affect you. What causes your stress? How does it affect you? Task 24 PEER PRESSURE Peer pressure is another personal challenge to overcome. How would you respond to a friend who pressures you to do the things described below? I._______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Let’s go and see this much talked about movie on the internet. Let’s cut classes! It’s my treat! Don’t worry!
  32. 32. 23 I : ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ I : ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ I: _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ My brothers are asking me to join their fraternity. Tonight’s going to be the initiation rites. Would you like to join us? Cecil is keeping a cheat sheet of the examination in her bag. She wants us to see it. Khris broke into his dad’s room and took adult materials with him. Let’s check them out.
  33. 33. 24 Task 25 REACT TO THE MAX Your instant reactions tell something about yourself. How would you react in each of the following situations? Write your answer in the thought balloon. Task 26 MATTER OF JUDGMENT Weighing two or more things to solve a problem could be a real challenge. If you were a judge and is to set free one of the following prisoners, who would it be and why? Check the box of your choice and justify your answer on the space provided below. ______ 1. Murderer who has eight (8) children _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ______ 2. Thief who stole your mother’s wedding ring _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 1. You are not invited to your friend’s party. 2. Your parents broke thier promise to send you on a trip. 3.You failed the test. 4.Your best friend spilled out your secret.
  34. 34. 25 ______ 3. Convicted rapist who claims he’s innocent _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. Innocent man convicted of a crime but became a drug pusher while in prison _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Task 27 THE GREAT EIGHT A. Across Thy Mind (ATM) [Logical-Mathematical] • Make a survey within the group on how disciplined the members are using the following scale: Well-Disciplined, Moderately Disciplined, Not Disciplined. • Make a tally of your data according to categories. • Construct a graph of the data. • Interpret your graph and make a conclusion. B. Youth Power [Verbal-Linguistic] • Imagine you are a Sangguniang Kabataan officer and your task is to write a barangay ordinance that will require the youth to participate in the community service activities. C. A Tree for a Day [Naturalistic] • Picture yourself as a tree and express how you feel to the residents of your community who do not care about the environment. Write a letter that will appear on your tree trunk or leaves. D. Goal Setting [Intrapersonal] • Make a list of your strengths and weaknesses. • Set a plan of action on how you would transform your weaknesses into strengths and how you would further improve your strengths. E. Water Proof! • Draw an interpretation of the line “The Filipino Spirit Is Water Proof!” This should show how Filipinos face calamities. F. Strong U [Bodily-Kinesthetic] • Make a dance interpretation of the song “Stronger” by Kelly Clarkson.
  35. 35. 26 G. Sing [Musical] • Sing a song that is in line with any of the following themes: • Nature • Discipline • Patriotism H. Ma’am May I? [Interpersonal] • Interview your teacher about the challenges he/she has to deal with in his/her job and how personal discipline helps him/her make his/her work better. Task 28 MY PURPOSE Create a Personal Mission Statement and discover your purpose. To write your mission statement, begin by answering these questions: 1. What do I value most in life? (List those things.) ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2. What is my life’s purpose? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. What legacy do I want to leave my school? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Now, considering the answers to those questions, draft a personal mission statement.
  36. 36. 27 “Bullying” refers to any severe, or repeated use by one or more students of a written, verbal, or electronic expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination thereof, directed at another student that has the effect of actually causing or placing the latter in reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his property; creating a hostile environment at school for the other student; infringing on the rights of another student at school; or materially and substantially disrupting the education process or the orderly operation of a school; such as, but not limited to, the following: 1. Any unwanted physical contact between the bully and the victim like punching, pushing, shoving, kicking, slapping, tickling, headlocks, inflicting school pranks, teasing, fighting, and the use of available objects as weapons; 2. Any act that causes damage to a victim’s psyche and/or emotional well-being; 3. Any slanderous statement or accusation that causes the victim undue emotional distress like directing foul language or profanity at the target, name-calling, tormenting, and commenting negatively on the victim’s looks, clothes, and body; 4. “Cyberbullying” or any bullying done through the use of technology or any electronic means.The term shall also include any conduct resulting to harassment, intimidation, or humiliation, through the use of other forms of technology, such as, but not limited to texting, email, instant messaging, chatting, internet, social media, online games, or other platforms or formats as defined in DepEd Order No. 40, s. 2012; and 5. Any other form of bullying as may be provided in the school’s child protection or anti- bullying policy, consistent with the Act and this IRR. b. 1. The term “bullying” shall also include: Republic Act No. 10627 or the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013 My Mission Statement ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________
  37. 37. 28 What the law says... What is in my mind... What is in my heart... What does the text tell... 1. Social bullying – refers to any deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive social behavior intended to hurt others or to belittle another individual or group. 2. Gender-based bullying – refers to any act that humiliates or excludes a person on the basis of perceived or actual sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI). c. Bully – refers to any student who commits acts of bullying as defined by the Act or this IRR. d. Bullied or Victim – refers to any student who experiences the acts of bullying or retaliation as defined by the Act or this IRR. Source: The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines Task 29 BULL AND BULLY The text above is lifted from Republic Act No. 10627 or the Anti-Bullying Act of 2013. Study the text carefully and to accomplish the chart below.
  38. 38. 29 Task 30 A DAY IN A LIFE What would you do to stop or at least minimize the cases of bullying if you would be any of the following for a day? Group 1: A Senator Group 2: A School Janitor Group 3: A Teacher Group 4: A Parent Group 5: A Priest/Nun YOUR FINAL TASK You have been informed that the final task for this quarter is to write a short but persuasive text. A concise oral presentation on the causes / effects of cyberbullying, would help you prepare for such a performance at the end of the quarter. In preparing for your oral report, the following rubric would guide you: TRAIT 4 3 2 1 NONVERBAL SKILLS EYE CONTACT Holds attention of entire audience with the use of direct eye contact, seldom looking at notes Consistent use of direct eye contact with audience, but still returns to notes Displayed minimal eye contact with audience, while reading mostly from notes No eye contact with audience, as entire report is read from notes BODY LANGUAGE Movements seem vivid and help the audience visualize Made movements or gestures that enhances articulation Very little movement or descriptive gestures No movement or descriptive gestures POISE Student displays relaxed, self- confidence, secure about self, with no mistakes. Makes minor mistakes, but quickly recovers from them; displays little or no tension Displays mild tension; has trouble recovering from mistakes. Tension and nervousness is obvious; has trouble recovering from mistakes Oral Presentation Rubric COMMENTS: VERBAL SKILLS 4 3 2 1 ENTHUSIASM Demonstrates a strong positive feeling about topic during entire presentation Occasionally shows positive feelings about topic Shows some negativity toward topic presented Shows absolutely no interest in topic presented ELOCUTION Student uses a clear voice and correct precise pronunciation of terms so that all audience members can hear presentation. Student’s voice is clear. Student pronounces most words correctly. Most audience members can hear presentation. Student’s voice is low. Student incorrectly pronounces terms. Audience members have difficulty hearing presentation. Student mumbles, incorrectly pronounces terms, and speaks too softly for a majority of students to hear COMMENTS:
  39. 39. 30 MY TREASURE “Personal challenges help one become a better person. Recognizing these challenges would help one become better prepared for life.” My journey through this lesson enabled me to learn ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ It made me realize that _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ I, therefore, commit to ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ CONTENT 4 3 2 1 S U B J E C T KNOWLEDGE Student demonstrates full knowledge by answering all class questions with explanations and elaboration. Student is at ease with expected answers to all questions without elaboration. Student is uncomfortable with information and is able to answer only rudimentary questions. Student does not have grasp of information; student cannot answer questions about subject. ORGANIZATION Student presents information in logical, interesting sequence which audience can follow. Student presents information in logical sequence which audience can follow. Audience has difficulty following presentation because student jumps around. Audience cannot understand presentation because there is no sequence of information. MECHANICS Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors. Presentation has no more than two misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Presentation has three misspellings and/or grammatical errors. Student’s presentation has four or more spelling and/or grammatical errors. COMMENTS:
  40. 40. 31 Module 1 LESSON 2 ___________________________________________________________________ Building Up Defenses YOUR JOURNEY The most important component of defense is awareness. In the previous lesson, you have been made aware of your personal challenges and that is your initial step into building a defense against life’s inevitable challenges. In this lesson, you will perform a lot of activities that will help you strengthen yourself amid discrimination. Specifically, you will be asked to answer the important question, How do I build the best defenses against challenges to achieve the best quality of life? YOUR OBJECTIVES In charting the course of your journey in this lesson, you are expected to: • determine the effect of textual aids on the understanding of a text • get information from various text types that can be used in everyday life • determine how connected events contribute to the totality of a material viewed • explain how the elements specific to a genre contribute to a theme of a particular literary selection • express appreciation for sensory images used • use intensive pronouns in meaningful discourse Be reminded that your expected output in this lesson is a quality brochure on building defenses against discrimination and the criteria for assessment are: organization, graphics, relevance of content, and conventions.
  41. 41. 32 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1 WHAT AM I? Read each statement closely, and identify what is suggested by each statement. 1. I am a vitamin you need if you have colds. What am I? 2. I am what you use when it’s raining. What am I? 3. I am what you wear when the sun is at its peak. What am I? 4. I once protected China from invaders, now I am a wonder for visitors. What am I? Answers: 1. _______________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _______________________________________ 4. _______________________________________ Make sense of all your answers together to come up with the answer to this riddle. What “D” is built for protection? The first one to give the correct answer wins. Task 2 DISCRIMINATION CHECK You probably have experienced, observed, or learned about a lot of discrimination at home, in school, or among your peers? List down the different forms of discrimination in the table below. DISCRIMINATION Family School Peers • Share and compare your list with a partner. • Add items from people’s list to yours.
  42. 42. 33 Task 3 MIRROR, MIRROR You must have known people who have successfully overcome discrimination. Pair up, and reflect on the question below: Think of a person who gave you inspiration in dealing with discrimination. How does he/she inspire you? Write your answers in the balloon. • Share your answer with your classmates. Task 4 REFLECTION Watch/listen to the song “Reflection” from the movie Mulan and answer the questions that follow. Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWooGBya_nk Processing Questions: 1. What is the song all about? 2. What type of discrimination was underscored in the song? 3. Does this kind of discrimination on women still exist these days? How or in what way? 4. Pick out your favorite lines from the song and explain why you picked those lines. Share your answers with a partner. Your teacher will ask the class to sing the song aloud.
  43. 43. 34 Task 5 ENDURING AND ESSENTIAL As you embark on this journey, the tasks / activities you’re engaged will help you answer this enduring and essential question: How do I build the best defenses against challenges to acquire the best quality of life? Remember this question as you work on the different parts of this lesson. • List your initial answers to the enduring question. Write your responses in the box below. .
  44. 44. 35 Task 6 SETTING EXPECTATIONS What do you expect to learn from this lesson? Write your targets in the box As you explore this lesson, you can add targets to the list you made and consider how the tasks will help you become better prepared for life. YOUR TEXT Task 7 GUIDE FOR READING The Author Anne Terry White (1896), who was born in Russia, has worked as a teacher, a social worker, and a translator of Russian literature. Amongst her most-loved tales is the “Gorgon’s Head.” . Oral Tradition An oral tradition is the manner in which information is passed from one generation to the next in the absence of writing or a recording medium. In the days before near- universal literacy, bards would sing or chant their people’s stories. They employed various techniques to aid in their own memory and to help their listeners keep track of the story. This oral tradition was a way to keep the history or culture of the people alive, and since it was a form of story-telling, it was a popular entertainment. Read the following text carefully. Note the following background information as you read the text.
  45. 45. 36 Accomplish the Story Anticipation Guide below: 1. Before reading, mark the checklist with a (/) if you agree or (x) if you disagree with the statement. 2. After reading, fill in the column with the page number of the text where you found the correct answer for each statement. 3. Reflection: Are you correct? If not, what did you learn? Agree/Disagree Page No. Reflection A Gorgon is a monster. Perseus is a hero. Perseus could be successful in killing Medusa without the help of the gods. None may look upon the Gorgon and live. The sight of them turns men to stone. Andromeda is killed by a monster. Task 8 MYSTERY WORD Study the definitions and word forms. Then, rearrange the letters in bold to form the correct word for each item below. Write the word in the box. 1. to escape or avoid (verb) eveda - 2. dangerous (adjective) . erpisulo - 3. poisonous (adjective) vsmuoneo - 4. ashamed (verb) aeadhbs - 5. satisfy, gratify (verb) peeapsa – 6. brave (adjective) vorlsaou – How do I build the best defenses against challenges to acquire the best quality of life possible for me? Look For As you read the myth, look for the heroic qualities of Perseus and the personal challenges he has to overcome to acquire “the Gorgon’s head”.
  46. 46. 37 THE GORGON’S HEAD From Ancient Greece Anne Terry White Acrisius, King of Argos, came home from Delphi with a heavy heart, for he had received a dreadful oracle. “No sons shall be born to you,” the priestess had told him. “But you shall have a grandson, and by his hand you shall die.” Now the King had an only daughter, who was yet a maiden. So in his distress he thought: “I will evade my fate. I will shut Danae up away from the sight of men in a house of bronze all sunk underground.” And he carried out his cruel plan. But Acrisius forgot to take the gods into account. Part of the roof of the house was open to the sky. And one day, as lovely Danae sat sadly looking up at the passing clouds, Zeus beheld the maiden. Changing himself into a shower of gold, he stormed into her chamber. When afterwards a son was born to Danae, she hid him from her father’s sight. Nevertheless, the King discovered the baby and was more than ever filled with fear. He dared not kill little Perseus directly lest the gods avenge the murder. Instead, he had a great chest built, placed Danae and her boy in it, and set them adrift upon the sea. All day and all night the chest tossed upon the waves. Danae lulled her child with song, and he slept. But when dawn came, a great wave picked up the chest and carried it close to the tiny island of Seraphos. It happened that a fisherman, Dictys by name, saw the chest bobbing on the waves close to the shore. He dragged the box to land and opened it. When he beheld the pitiful mother with the helpless little child, his heart was moved. He took them both to his wife, for Dictys was childless, and there in the kindly fisherfolk’s humble home Perseus grew up. Now Danae had been a beautiful maiden. And when Perseus has grown into a fine tall youth, she was still beautiful. So it was not strange that King Polydectes, who was Dictys’ Brother, fell in love with her and made her his wife. But the King hated the youth-just because Danae doted on him-and sought some way to get rid of him. At last Polydectes said to his stepson, “The time has come, Perseus, for you to win glory for yourself in some bold adventure.” Young Perseus thought so, too. But what should the adventure be?
  47. 47. 38 “I think,” the wily Polydectes said, “It would be a good idea for you to cut off the Medusa’s head. That would bring you to the greatest fame.” All unsuspecting, Perseus set off to find Medusa, not knowing in the least how perilous an adventure he had undertaken. For Medusa was one of the three Gorgons, terrible winged monsters who lived alone on an island. They had teeth like the tusks of a boar, hands of brass, and snakes instead of hair. Perseus did not know where to look for the Gorgons. Nor did he know which of them was Medusa. And this was important, for Medusa was the only one of the three that could be slain. From place to place the prince went on in his quest, getting more and more discouraged. Then one day he beheld a young man of great beauty, wearing winged sandals and a winged cap, and carrying in his hand a wand around which two golden serpents twined. Perseus knew at once that this was Hermes and was overjoyed when the god said: “Perseus, I approved the high adventure you have in mind. But you must be properly equipped for it. Without the winged sandals, the magic wallet, and the helmet of invisibility, but I will take you to the Gray women. You can find out from them.” “And will they indeed tell me?” Perseus asked. “Not willingly,” Hermes replied. “But you can make them do it. They have but one eye shared among the three. Snatch it from them as they pass it from one to another and none can see. And do not give it back till they tell you what you want to know.” With that, Hermes gave Perseus a magnificent curved sword. “You will need it,” he said, “for Medusa’s scales are hard as metal.” Perseus had just taken the sword when there was a sudden brightness in the sky, and he beheld the goddess Athene descending toward them. “Of what use will be your sword, my brother,” she said to Hermes, “when none may look the Gorgons and live? The sight of them as you well know, turns men into stone. Take my bright shield, Perseus. Look into it instead of at the monster as you approach to do battle, and you will see the Medusa reflected as in a mirror.” So saying, the goddess disappeared, and the brightness with her. On and on with god-companion, Perseus journeyed, farther than man had ever been. At last they came to the end of the earth. There the weird Gray Women sat, passing their eye from one to another just as Hermes had said. Danae’s son knew what to do. He left the god and crept quietly towards them, waited till one had taken the eye from her forehead, and snatched it away as she passed it to her sister. The Gray Women raised a fearful clamor when they realized that a stranger had their eye. They howled and they threatened. But without the eye they were helpless, and in the end they grudgingly told Perseus the way to the Nymphs of the North. So again Perseus went on, this time to find the happy beings who possessed the three priceless things he needed. And when the Nymphs heard the reason he
  48. 48. 39 wanted them, they were willing to give him the winged shoes, the helmet that would make him invisible, and the magic wallet that would become the right size for whatever he wish to carry. Fully equipped now, Perseus lightly sped through the air over land and over sea to the fearful island of the Gorgons. As he approached, he could see, scattered in the fields and along the roads, statues of men and beasts whom the sight of the Gorgons had turned stone. And, at last, from high above, he beheld the monsters themselves reflected in his shield. Their scale-covered bodies glistened in the sun, their great wings were folded, the snakes that were their hair lay hideously coiled and intertwined. The Gorgons were asleep. But which of the three was Medusa? Perseus could see no difference among them. Suddenly he heard Athena’s voice: “Descend, Perseus, and strike! The Gorgon nearest the shore is Medusa.” Perseus swept down, and still gazing into the shield, boldly swung his blade. With one stroke he cut off the gristy head. Then, springing into the air, he thrust his prize, all writhing and hissing, into the magic wallet. Up leaped the Gorgon sisters, for they heard the rattle of Medusa’s scales as the severed body thrashed about. They turned their snaky heads and when they saw Perseus, they roared with fury. Flapping their great wings, they set off in pursuit. But they could not outstrip the winged sandals. Over lands and peoples the hero flew, on and on. He had lost his way now, for Hermes had left him. Below, the Lybian desert stretched endlessly. Perseus did not know what those sands were, nor did he guess that the ruby drops falling from Medusa’s head were turning into venomous snakes that would inhabit the desert forever. But now he saw a sight that made his heart beat fast with excitement and wonder. Fastened by chains to a cliff by the sea was a beautiful maiden. Had it not been that a slight breeze stirred her hair and that tears flowed from her eyes, he would have thought her a statue. Perseus almost forgot to keep his winged sandals moving, so struck was he by her rare beauty. “Lovely maiden, you should not wear such chains as these,” he stammered out, “but rather those which bind the hearts of lovers. I pray, you, tell me your name and why you are bound like this.” Do you think Perseus can slay the Gorgon by his own hands?
  49. 49. 40 At first the girl made no reply, so abashed was she before the youth. But when he urged her again and again to speak, she told him all her story. “I am Andromeda,” she said, “Daughter of Cepheus, King of the Ethiopians. The beautiful Cassiopeia is my mother. It is her beauty that has chained me here for the gods are jealous, and in nothing may we mortal surpass them. Woe, woe the day my mother vaunted herself fairer than the daughters of Nereus! The sea god has sent a serpent to prey upon our people, and my death alone can appease his anger. So, says the oracle.” She had scarcely finished speaking when the loud roaring of the waves announced that the monster was on his way. Andromeda shrieked. At her cry, her frantic father and mother came running. They clung to their daughter and lamented. “Enough of tears!” Perseus said to them sternly. “I am Perseus, son of Zeus and Danae. Now I will make this contract with you-that Andromeda shall be mine if I save her from the serpent.” “Indeed, indeed, valorous youth, she shall be yours! Only save her from the monster, and you shall have our Kingdom as well as our daughter.” The monster was coming on, his breast parting the waves like a swift ship. Suddenly Perseus sprang into the air and shot high up in the clouds. Seeing the youth’s shadow upon the sea, the monster attacked it in fury. Then Perseus swooped like an eagle from the sky and buried his sword up to the hilt in the beast’s right shoulder. The creature reared upright, then plunged beneath the water, and turned around and around like some fierce wild boar in the midst of baying hounds. Nimbly avoiding the snapping jaws, Perseus dealt blow after blow wherever he had the chance to strike. Red blood poured from the monster’s mouth. The air was so filled with spray that the hero’s winged sandals grew heavy. He dared not trust himself to them longer. Spying a rock over which the waves were breaking , he braced himself against it with his left hand, and four times he drove his sword into the monster’s side. As the creature sank to its death, Perseus heard shouts of joy from the shore. And when he looked, Andromeda already stood free beside her parents. “I will take fair maiden without dowry,” Perseus said. And that very day the wedding was celebrated. Torches were tossed in the air, incense was thrown on the flames. Garlands were hung from the palace’s roof. And everywhere the sound of lyres and pipes and singing was heard. Now while the marriage feast was at its height, the door of the banquet hall was suddenly flung open, and in burst a mob of shouting, riotous men. Foremost stood Andromeda’s uncle, Phineas, javelin in hand. “Behold, I am here!” he cried. “I have come to avenge the theft of my promised bride.” How do you think would Andromeda react to this offer if this happens in our time?
  50. 50. 41 “What are you doing, Brother?” the father cried. “Do you, who stood by and watched while Andromeda was put in chains and did nothing to help her, dare to be indignant because another has snatched the prize? Let the man who rescued her have the reward he was promised! He has not been chosen in preference to you, but in preference to certain death.” Phineas said not a word. He looked from the King to Perseus, undecided at which to aim his weapon, then hurdled it at the hero. The spear stuck in Perseus’ couch. Perseus leaped up from the cushions, wrenched out the spear, and hurdled it back at his foe. Had Phineas not taken refuge behind the altar, he would have perished. As it was, one of his followers received the weapon full in his forehead. Then the rioters went wild. Weapons were hurdled, and the feast turned into a battle. Thick as hail, javelins sped by Perseus’ ears. He set his shoulders against a great stone column and struck down one man after another. But at last he realized that valor could not withstand the numbers against him. “If I have any friends here, let them hide their faces!” he shouted. With this he drew Medusa’s head out of the wallet. One of the attackers was just preparing to cast his javelin, but before he could cast, he was turned to stone. Another, who was about to thrust his sword through Perseus, stood frozen with it in his hand. A third was turned to stone even as he uttered a taunt. Two hundred men became stony statues before Phineas yielded, crying: “Put away your horrible weapon. Hide it! Grant me only my life and may the rest be yours!” “What I can give you, most cowardly Phineas, I will!” Perseus replied. “You shall be a lasting monument here in the palace of my father-in-law.” The unhappy Phineas tried to turn away his eyes, but even as he did so, his flesh turned to stone. When at the year’s end, Perseus sailed home with Andromeda, Polydectes’ hatred had in no way lessened. The King was furious that his stepson had returned, and refused to believe that he had actually slain Medusa. With scornful truants he upbraided the young man for having come home empty-handed. It was more than Perseus could bear. “I shall prove to you that what I say is true!” he cried, “hide your eyes, all you who are my friends!” and he showed the Gorgon’s head to cruel Polydectes. That was the last time Perseus ever used the horrible head. He gave it most willingly to Athene, who kept it ever after. Do you think that Perseus’ extraordinary ability is a gift? Why or why not?
  51. 51. 42 Now that Polydectes was dead, Danae yearned to go home again and be reconciled with her father. So Perseus made the fisherman Dictys King of island and sailed with his mother and Andromeda to Greece. But it happened that when they came to Argos, King Acrisius was away from home. Games were being held in Larissa, and Perseus, hearing of them, decided to go there and take part. And there at the game it was that the oracle which Acrisius had received at Delphi was strangely fulfilled. For when it came to Perseus’ turn to throw the discus, he threw it so that it swerved to one side. It landed among the spectators and killed an old man. That old man was King Acrisius, who had gone to such cruel lengths to avoid the fate which the gods had ordained. Task 9 DISSECTING THE TEXT 1. What is the “dreadful oracle” that was delivered to King Acrisius? 2. What adventure does Polydectes suggest that Perseus undertake? 3. List three perilous encounters that Perseus experienced during his adventure. 4. Explain how the oracle given to King Acrisius is fulfilled. 5. What is Polydectes’ true motive in sending Perseus to kill Medusa? 6. Medusa was beheaded by Perseus, yet her head continued to have power. Explain how the evil Gorgon’s head is beneficial to Perseus. 7. What heroic characteristics does Perseus have? 8. What help does he get on his quest? 9. How does Perseus’ quest enable him to prove himself a hero? Task 10 VISUALIZING THE TEXT Your teacher will group you into five. Each of the groups will be given a specific task to work on. Group 1: Create a timeline of events in the story. Why are these significant events? Group 2: Create a Venn diagram that compares the characteristics of Perseus and Medusa. Provide evidence. Group 3: Create a diagram that shows the challenges of Perseus in his quest to acquire the Gorgon’s head. How did you choose them? Group 4: Using the Gorgon’s head as a diagram, point out at least five utterances of Perseus that strike your group the most. Explain why? Group 5: Create a diagram that shows the relationship of all the characters in the myth. Cite the reasons for these relationships. Processing Questions: 1. How did you feel about the activity? 2. What diagram was assigned to you? 3. Did you find diagramming difficult? Why or why not? 4. How do these textual aids help you in understanding the text?
  52. 52. 43 Task 11 ACT AND COUNTERACT Examine all the group outputs from the previous task. Note down your observations about the outputs of the other groups. Don’t write anything about your own group’s output. Group Observations 1 2 3 4 Processing Questions: 1. What specific characteristics does each diagram have? 2. Are there notable similarities or differences among the diagrams? 3. How would these diagrams help you in understanding the text as a whole? Task 12 MY COAT OF ARMS To be able to kill the Gorgon, Perseus built a line of defenses. Identify what these defenses are through the coat of arms diagram on the next page. Explain the value of each of those defenses as Perseus faced his challenges.
  53. 53. 44 Task 13 MAKES SENSE TO ME Pick out at least ten sentences from the myth “The Gorgon’s Head” that shows sensory images. Identify the senses to which these statements appeal. 1. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 6. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
  54. 54. 45 7. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 9. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 10. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Task 14 TRIPLE TREAT Below are paragraphs lifted from “The Gorgon’s Head.” Task A. Circle all the pronouns from the paragraph. That was the last time Perseus ever used the horrible head. (1-2) He gave it most willingly to Athene, who kept it ever after. (3) Now that Polydectes was dead, Danae yearned to go home again and be reconciled to her father. (4) So Perseus made the fisherman Dictys King of island and sailed with his mother and Andromeda to Greece. (5-6) But it happened that when they came to Argos, King Acrisius was away from home. (7) Games were being held in Larissa, and Perseus, hearing of them, decided to go there and take part. (8) And there at the game it was that the oracle which Acrisius had received at Delphi was strangely fulfilled. (9) For when it came to Perseus’ turn to throw the discus, (10-11) he threw it so that it swerved to one side. (12) It landed among the spectators and killed an old man. That old man was King Acrisius, who had gone to such cruel lengths to avoid the fate which the gods had ordained. Task B. Paraphrase at least five sentences by transforming the circled pronouns into reflexive or intensive pronouns IF APPLICABLE. Write R on the blank before each item if the pronoun is Reflexive or I if intensive. ____ 1. _______________________________________________________ ____ 2. _______________________________________________________ ____ 3. _______________________________________________________ ____ 4. _______________________________________________________ ____ 5. _______________________________________________________ Task C. Using the previous examples of reflexive and intensive pronouns, compare and contrast the two kinds of pronouns.
  55. 55. 46 Reflexive Intensive Task 15 A HERO IN ME A hero saves the day. Saving people and saving lives could be in any form possible. Complete the chart below by answering the questions that follow: List down all the acts of heroism done by Perseus... List down all the little acts of heroism that you did lately… What personal challenges does Perseus have to overcome to fulfill acts of heroism? What personal challenges have you overcome to fulfill acts of heroism?
  56. 56. 47 What realizations about heroism have you made from this comparison? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 16 AWARD IN THE WARD Examine the editorial cartoon below and answer the questions that follow. Source: www.nordis.net Processing Questions: 1. What is the cartoon all about? 2. What kind of discrimination is shown in the cartoon? 3. What would you do if you were in the shoes of the one discriminated against? Task 17 DIFFERENT AND SINGLED OUT In this activity, your teacher will ask you to work in groups. As a group, you will identify specific scenarios where discrimination is present or evident. Accomplish the chart on the next page. Discrimination is the unequal treatment provided to one or more parties on the basis of a mutual accord or some other logical or illogical reason.
  57. 57. 48 Discrimination Examples How do we build a defense? Age Gender Marital Status Physical Appearance Religious Affiliation Nationality Task 18 CAPS LOCKED Many situations would require you to make use of your strengths. Each cap below represents a characteristic you need to use in deciding how to go about the situation described in the task context. Examine the situation and complete the colored caps chart that follow. White cap – is the optimistic cap that sees all the positive and bright side of the situation. Black cap – is the pessimist cap and sees nothing but the disadvantages of the situation. Yellow Cap – is the creative cap and sees the creative and out-of-this-world side of the situation. Red Cap – is the emotional cap and expresses feelings about an issue. Blue Cap – is the rational cap and judges situations based on facts and obvious evidence. The local tourism office of your community finally launched your barangay as a tourism spot exclusively inviting foreign clients. However, the office has issued a memorandum that only those who are at least 5’7” in height for girls and 5’9” for boys could seek employment in the tourism office. It also required applicants with competitive English communication skills.
  58. 58. 49 CAPS YOUR RESPONSES White Green Red Black Yellow Blue Task 19 CREATING A PERSONAL GOAL Building up defenses is like creating a strategies to help you reach your personal goal. Each defense is critical in achieving success. Using the organizer below, create a personal goal for the next five years. What strategies will you develop to reach your personal goals? Explain why you chose them. Processing: Go back to our motive question before reading “The Gorgon’s Head.” Now is the time to answer the question: How do I build the best defenses against challenges to achieve the best quality of life possible for me? __________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
  59. 59. 50 YOUR FINAL TASK Task 20 YOUR BROCHURE You were informed at the beginning of the lesson that you are to create a quality brochure that will feature your own defenses against discrimination. You can now start planning for your brochure. You can make use of internet sources for important information to make your work substantial. Your brochure will be graded using the following rubric: Source: www.rubrics4teachers.com s
  60. 60. 51 MY TREASURE “When you build defenses, you are minimizing the risk of encountering future problems. Through these strategies, you learn how to cope with the changing times and how to turn each challenge into something beneficial.” My journey through this lesson enabled me to learn __________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ It made me realize that ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ I, therefore, commit to__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Reference: Imagine. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_YXSHkAahE retrieved October 24, 2013
  61. 61. 52 Module 1 LESSON 3 _____________________________________________________________ Capitalizing on Strengths and Recognizing our Weaknesses YOUR JOURNEY None of us is created perfect. All of us are endowed with strengths. At the same time, we also have weaknesses. Being positive allows us to be better persons as we capitalize on our strengths and as we address our weaknesses to improve ourselves. This lesson allows you to discover how to make the most of your strengths and improve your weaknesses. How far would you go in knowing the real you? What risks are you willing to take to successfully overcome the hurdles of life? YOUR OBJECTIVES In this lesson you should be able to accomplish the following: • determine how textual aids like advance organizers help in understanding of a text • determine the implicit and explicit signals, verbal, and non-verbal, used by the speaker to highlight significant points • express insights based on ideas presented in the material viewed • differentiate formal from informal definitions of words • explain how the elements specific to a genre contribute to the theme of a particular literary selection • formulate a statement of opinion or assertion • describe helpful techniques in effective public speaking • use words and expressions that emphasize a point. Be reminded that your expected output in this lesson is a quality Information Ad (TV, radio, or print) that would campaign on capitalizing strengths and weaknesses.The criteria for assessment are: concept, design, and visuals and copy quality.
  62. 62. 53 YOUR INITIAL TASKS Task 1 BOY-GIRL POWER! Joaquin and Cristina are trapped in a magic box. They want to be free! Using the chart below, list down the individual strengths that Joaquin and Cristina could use to free themselves from the box. Processing Questions: 1. What qualities of Joaquin have you identified? How about Cristina? 2. In what way could these qualities help them escape from the box? 3. Does the chart help you sort boys’ and girls’ characteristics? Could you think of other organizers that would best fit the purpose? 4. Do you think we could interchange the qualities of Joaquin and Cristina? What would interchanging their qualities imply? Task 2 LET IT GO! Listen to the song entitled “Let It Go” from the movie Frozen. Determine implicit and explicit signals from the lyrics that are used by the composer to highlight significant points. Source: Let It Go. Disney’s FROZEN as interpreted by Idina Menzel. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=iEKLFS-aKcw. Published December 13, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
  63. 63. 54 Processing Questions: 1. What is the song all about? 2. What explicit and implicit signals were used by the singer to highlight significant points? 3. How do these signals add value to the lyrics and overall meaning of the song? Task 3 WHAT ARE YOU MADE OF? Below are materials that symbolize certain levels of your expectations at the moment. Considering the objectives of the lesson, share everything that you know about capitalizing on strengths or weaknesses on the stone tablet; all that you are not sure of in the quill; and all that you still want to know in the pencil. __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ YOUR TEXT Task 4 MYSTERY WORDS Knowing the following words will help you as you read Orpheus. Remember how these words are defined.
  64. 64. 55 1. Inspiration A. something that brings on creative activity B. motivation 2. Lyre A. a small stringed musical instrument B. similar to a harp 3. Entranced A. to put somebody into trance B. charmed 4. Condemned A. to express an unfavorable or adverse judgment B. doomed 5. Summoned A. sent for B. called forth Processing Questions: 1. What did you notice in the way these words are defined? 2. How do you differentiate definition A from B? 3. Which is a better way to define a word? Task 5 FROM PAGE TO PAGE To what extent would you use your strengths to save the person you love? ORPHEUS Alice Low There were nine goddesses called Muses. Born out of Zeus and a Titan named Mnemosyne, each muse presided over a different art or science. Calliope, one of these sisters, was the inspiration of poets and musicians. She was the mother of Orpheus (a mortal because his father was one) and gave to her son a remarkable talent for music. Orpheus played his lyre so sweetly that he charmed all things on earth. Men and women forgot their cares when gathered around him to listen. Wild beasts lay down as they gathered around him as if they were tame, entranced by his soothing notes. Even rocks and trees followed him, and the rivers changed their direction to hear him play. Myths are stories about gods, goddesses, and heroes passed from one generation to another. Many Greek myths have a great deal of influence on our culture. For ages, writers, artists, and musicians have used mythological characters as their inspiration. “Orpheus,” whose story shall be discussed today, is one of the mythological characters around the world.
  65. 65. 56 Orpheus loved a young woman named Eurydice, and when they were married, they looked forward to many years of happiness together. But soon after, Eurydice stepped on a poisonous snake and died. Orpheus roamed the earth, singing sad melodies to try to overcome his grief. But it was no use. He longed for Eurydice so deeply that he decided to follow her to the underworld. He said to himself, “No mortal has ever been there before, but I must try to bring back my beloved Eurydice. I will charm Persephone and Hades with my music and win Eurydice’s release.” He climbed into a cave and through a dark passage that led to the underworld. When he reached the river Styx, he plucked his lyre again, and Cerberus, the fierce three- headed dog who guarded the gates, heard the sweet music and lay still to let him pass. Orpheus continued to play his lyre tenderly as he made his way through the gloomy underworld. The ghosts cried when they heard his sad music. Sisyphus, who had been condemned to roll uphill forever, stopped his fruitless work to listen. Tantalus, who had been sentenced to stand in a pool of receding water, stopped trying to quench his thirst. And even the wheel to which Ixion was tied as punishment stopped turning for one moment. At last Orpheus came to the palace of Hades and Persephone, King and Queen of the underworld. Before they could order him to leave, he began his gentle song, pleading for Eurydice. When stern Hades heard Orpheus’ song, he began to weep. Cold Persephone was so moved that, for the first time in all her months in the underworld, her heart melted. “Oh, please, my husband,” she said to Hades, “let Eurydice be reunited with Orpheus.” And Hades replied, “I, too, feel the sadness of Orpheus. I cannot refuse him.” They summoned Eurydice, and the two lovers clasped each other and turned to leave. What words can be used to describe Orpheus’ gift?
  66. 66. 57 “Wait!” said Hades to Orpheus. “Eurydice is yours to take back to earth on one condition.” “What is that?” asked Orpheus “She must follow you, and you must not look back at her until you are on earth again.” “I understand,” said Orpheus, “and I am forever grateful.” Orpheus and Eurydice left the underworld and made their way through the dark passage that led to the upper world. At last they reached the cave through which Orpheus had descended. “I can see daylight ahead” called Orpheus to Eurydice. “We are almost ther.” But Eurydice had not heard him, and so she did not answer. Orpheus turned to make sure that she was still following him. He caught one last glimpse of her arms stretched out to him. And then she disappeared, swallowed by darkness. “Farewell,” he heard her cry as she was carried back to the underworld. Orpheus tried to follow her, but this time the gods would not allow it. And so he wandered the earth alone. He sang his sad songs to the trees and longed for the time when he, too, would die and be reunited with his beloved Eurydice in the underworld. Processing Questions: 1. What was the greatest strength of Orpheus? What was his weakness? 2. What effect did Orpheus’ music have on people and gods? Cite two examples of this. 3. Why did Orpheus decide to rescue his wife from the underworld? 4. Why did Orpheus look back to see if Eurydice was following him? 5. What reasons might the gods have for allowing Orpheus and Eurydice to be reunited? 6. Explain why the gods gave a condition to Orpheus and to his bride to return to earth. 7. What main characteristic of this text makes it a myth? 8. To whom does Orpheus owe his talent? Why was he able to win the sympathy of the gods? 9. In what situations were the gods willing to help humans? 10. Does the story reveal certain realities about Greeks? What are these? 11. What does the story reveal about the concept of gods in Greek Mythodology? If you were Orpheus, would you have looked back to see if Eurydice was following? Why or why not?
  67. 67. 58 Task 6 ELEMENT-ARRAY Study the bulb puzzle below. Supply each part of the puzzle given the plot of story Orpheus Processing Questions: 1. How do the elements help you understand the flow of the story? 2. What is the theme of the story? 3. In what way do the elements contribute to your understanding of the selection’s over-all theme? Task 7 ALICE LOW Read the story Orpheus once again. Determine the tone, mood, technique, and purpose of the author in writing the text. Photo Source: Summer Sunset Series. http://www.writerscenter.org/fritzlow.html. Retrieved March 7, 2014 Alice Low Tone of my story... Mood of my story... Technique of my story... My purpose in writing is...
  68. 68. 59 YOUR DISCOVERY TASKS Task 8 PIECE OF PI You will be watching the 2012 film adaptation of “Life of Pi” by Yann Martel. While watching, take note of the important details in the movie. Be ready to answer the succeeding questions. Task 8.1 THIN LINE Create a timeline of events for the movie “Life of Pi.” How did the connected events contribute to the totality of the movie? Processing Questions: 1. In his introductory note Yann Martel says, “This book was born as I was hungry.” What sort of emotional nourishment might “Life of Pi” have given to its author? 2. Pondicherry is described as an anomaly, the former capital of what was once French India. In terms of storytelling, what makes this town an appropriate choice for Pi’s upbringing? 3. Yann Martel recalls that many Pondicherry residents provided him with stories, but he was most intrigued by this tale because Mr. Adirubasamy said it would make him believe in God. Did Pi’s tale alter your beliefs about God? In what way? 4. Early in the novel, we discover that the narrator majored in religious studies and zoology, with particular interests in a sixteenth-century Kabbalist and the admirable three-toed sloth. In subsequent chapters, he explains the ways in which religions and zoos are both steeped in illusion. Discuss Movie Adaptations — This is the transfer of written work, in whole or in part, to a feature film. It is a type of derivative work. The movie “Life of Pi” by Yann Martel, is an example of a film adapted from a novel.
  69. 69. 60 some of the other ways in which these two fields find unlikely compatibility. 5. Pi’s full name, Piscine Molitor Patel, was inspired by a Parisian swimming pool that “the gods would have delighted to swim in.” The shortened form refers to the ratio of a circle’s circumference divided by its diameter. What is the significance of Pi’s unusual name? 6. How would the novel’s flavor be different if Pi’s sole surviving animal was the zebra or orange juice? (We assume that if the hyena had been the only surviving animal, Pi would not have lived to tell us his story.) 7. Pi sparks a lively debate when all three of his spiritual advisors try to claim him. At the heart of this confrontation is Pi’s insistence that he cannot accept an exclusively Hindu, Christian, or Muslim faith; he can only be content with all three. What is Pi seeking that can solely be attained by this apparent contradiction? 8. What do you make of Pi’s assertion that we are all “in limbo, without religion, until some figure introduces us to God”? Do you believe that Pi’s piousness was a response to his father’s atheism? 9. Among Yann Martel’s gifts is a rich descriptive palette. Regarding religion, he observes the green elements that represent Islam and the orange tones of Hinduism. What color would Christianity be, according to Pi’s perspective? 10. How do the human beings in your world reflect the animal behavior observed by Pi? What do Pi’s strategies in dealing with Richard Parker teach us about confronting the fearsome creatures in our lives? 11. Besides the loss of his family and possessions, what else did Pi lose when the Tsimtsum sank? What did he gain? 12. Nearly everyone experiences a turning point that represents the transition from youth to adulthood, albeit seldom as traumatic as Pi’s. What event marks your coming of age? 13. How does Mr. Patel’s zoo-keeping abilities compare to his parenting skills? Discuss the scene in which he tries to teach his children a lesson in survival by arranging them to watch a tiger devour a goat. Did this in any way prepare Pi for the most dangerous experience of his life? 14. Pi imagines that his brother would have teasingly called him Noah. How does Pi’s voyage compare to the biblical story of Noah, who was spared from the flood while God washed away the sinners? Task 8.2 A QUOTE ON QUOTE
  70. 70. 61 Below are notable quotations from the movie. Get a partner and make a dialogue using the quotations. Employ the techniques in effective speaking taught by your teacher. • “I suppose in the end, the whole world of life becomes an act of letting go, but what always hurts the most is not taking a moment to say goodbye.” • “Faith is a house with many rooms.” • “Doubt is useful; it keeps faith a living thing. After all, you cannot know the strength of your faith until it is tested.” • “No one has seen that island since, and you’d never read about those trees in any book. And yet, if I hadn’t found those shores I would have died, if I hadn’t discovered that tooth I would have been lost alone forever.” • “Even when God seemed to have abandoned me, He was watching. Even when he seemed indifferent to my suffering, He was watching and when I was beyond all hope saving, He gave me rest and gave me a sign to continue my journey.” • “It happened, it happened. Why should it have to mean anything?” • “For castaways, who must share their lifeboats with large, dangerous carnivores, it is advisable to establish a territory as your own.” Processing Questions: 1. Describe the effective speaking techniques used by your partner for each of the quotations above. 2. How can these techniques help you in persuading your partner? Task 9 MODAL MODES Task 9 below are selected scenes from the movie. Create a sentence using modals that express probability. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________