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MontesquieuPresentado por: Kiara Jiménez
1689-1755   Cronista y pensador político francés que    vivió en la llamada Ilustración.                          Es uno ...
Cartas Persas   Lettres persanes (1721), una    sátira basada en la    correspondencia imaginaria entre    un visitante p...
Fábula de los trogloditasEn esta fábula, Montesquieu, da a entender que lascostumbres son más eficaces que la ley y que la...
 Su ideología política advierte la  existencia de tres tipos posibles de  gobierno: república, monarquía y  despotismo, c...
 Montesquieu desarrolló las ideas de John Locke acerca  de la división de poder. En su obra El espíritu de las  leyes man...
Del espíritu de las Leyes (1748) En esta obra, elaboró una teoría sociológica del gobierno y del  derecho, mostrando que ...
Teoria de la separacion de        poderes. Poder Legislativo: el que hace las leyes por  un tiempo, o a perpetuidad y cor...
 Una sociedad no podría subsistir sin un gobierno. La reunión de  todas las fuerzas particulares forma lo que se llama un...
 El enfoque sociológico de Montesquieu  lo conduce a la observación de las  particularidades  climatológicas, territorial...
Gracias….!!
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Montesquieu

  1. 1. MontesquieuPresentado por: Kiara Jiménez
  2. 2. 1689-1755 Cronista y pensador político francés que vivió en la llamada Ilustración. Es uno de los filósofos y ensayistas ilustrados más relevantes en especial por la articulación de la teoría de la separación de poderes. El pensamiento del señor de La Brède es complejo y tiene esa personalidad propia que le convierte en uno de los pensadores más influyentes en el seno de la historia de las ideas políticas.
  3. 3. Cartas Persas Lettres persanes (1721), una sátira basada en la correspondencia imaginaria entre un visitante persa de paseo por París, que hace notar los absurdos de la sociedad contemporánea. Donde por medio de la mirada oriental de sus protagonistas se critican los usos y costumbres occidentales, recurriendo en ocasiones al humor negro y ridiculizando constantemente a la corte francesa.
  4. 4. Fábula de los trogloditasEn esta fábula, Montesquieu, da a entender que lascostumbres son más eficaces que la ley y que la virtudpesa a los hombres y ni el mejor de los regímenespolíticos perdura más que un tiempo limitado. Aparece en Cartas Persas..!!
  5. 5.  Su ideología política advierte la existencia de tres tipos posibles de gobierno: república, monarquía y despotismo, cada uno con sus propias normas y pautas de actuación. Para Montesquieu, la república debe gobernarse por el principio de la virtud, el amor a la patria y la igualdad. La monarquía se rige por el honor, mientras que el despotismo está gobernado por el terror. El reparto del poder del estado es necesario para evitar la acumulación en una sola mano que pueda ejercerlo de manera despótica.
  6. 6.  Montesquieu desarrolló las ideas de John Locke acerca de la división de poder. En su obra El espíritu de las leyes manifiesta admiración por las instituciones políticas inglesas y afirmó que la ley es lo más importante del Estado.
  7. 7. Del espíritu de las Leyes (1748) En esta obra, elaboró una teoría sociológica del gobierno y del derecho, mostrando que la estructura de ambos depende de las condiciones en las que vive cada pueblo: en consecuencia, para crear un sistema político estable había que tener en cuenta el desarrollo económico del país, sus costumbres y tradiciones, e incluso los determinantes geográficos y climáticos. plantea que «debe establecerse un gobierno de forma tal que ningún hombre tenga miedo de otro»
  8. 8. Teoria de la separacion de poderes. Poder Legislativo: el que hace las leyes por un tiempo, o a perpetuidad y corrige las que están hechas o las deroga, cuando ya son inútiles. El Poder Ejecutivo: es el que decide en las relaciones exteriores, la paz o la guerra, se ocupa de la seguridad territorial, y de las relaciones exteriores enviando o recibiendo embajadores. El Poder Judicial: es el que se ocupa de dirimir conflictos entre particulares y castigar los delitos. Estos poderes deben conservar su independencia, para ejercer recíproco control, y estarán obligados a actuar de común acuerdo, limitándose en casos de abuso, al resolver los problemas que se produzcan en el curso normal de los hechos.
  9. 9.  Una sociedad no podría subsistir sin un gobierno. La reunión de todas las fuerzas particulares forma lo que se llama un Estado político. Las fuerzas particulares no pueden reunirse sin que se reúnan todas las voluntades. La reunión de estas voluntades es lo que se llama estado civil. La ley, en general, es la razón humana en cuanto gobierna a todos los pueblos de la tierra; las leyes políticas y civiles de cada nación no deben ser más que los casos particulares a los que se aplica la razón humana. Por ello, dichas leyes deben ser adecuadas al pueblo para el que fueron dictadas. Deben adaptarse a los caracteres físicos del país, al clima, a la calidad del terreno, a su situación, a su tamaño y al género de vida. Deben adaptarse al grado de libertad que permita la constitución, a la región, inclinaciones, riqueza, costumbres y maneras.
  10. 10.  El enfoque sociológico de Montesquieu lo conduce a la observación de las particularidades climatológicas, territoriales y morales que acompañan las formas políticas. “El imperio del clima es el primero de todos los imperios,” apunta Montesquieu. Es el que da una elaboración más coherente del determinismo geográfico. Hay factores materiales causativos (condiciones climáticas) que ordenan los acontecimientos socioculturales pero la cultura NO es posible de explicar por el cambio de la voluntad de los hombres Le interesaba, sin embargo, no una exposición consecuente de las causación cultural, sino que deseaba mostrar cómo los legisladores debían ajustar sus leyes a las condiciones del clima y del suelo.
  11. 11. Gracias….!!

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