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كل معادلات وتحويلات الكيمياء العضوية للثانوية العامة 2016 -ثانوية خمس نجوم

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كل معادلات وتحويلات الكيمياء العضوية للثانوية العامة 2016
كل معادلات وتحويلات الكيمياء العضوية للثانوية العامة 2016

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كل معادلات وتحويلات الكيمياء العضوية للثانوية العامة 2016 -ثانوية خمس نجوم

  1. 1. ١ ‫ت‬ ١-‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ز‬٢- ٣-‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اق‬ ‫ا‬٤-‫و‬ ٥-‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬٦-‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ٧-‫رو‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬٨-‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ٩-‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬١٠-‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ١١-‫ا‬ ‫ل‬١٢-‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ١٣-‫دى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬١٤-‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ١٥-‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬١٦-‫أو‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ١٧-‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬١٨-‫ن‬ ‫أ‬٢-‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ١٩-‫آ‬‫ز‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬٢٠-‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ٢١-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٢٢-‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ن‬ ٢٣-١،١-‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ٢٤-٢،١‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ٢٥-‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ٢٦-‫روآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬‫روآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ٢٧-‫دى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ٢٨-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫آ‬ ٢٩-‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ارى‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٣٠-‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬٢-،١-‫و‬ ٣١-‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ٣٢-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ٣٣-‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ٣٤-‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ٣٥-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ٣٦-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أر‬ ٣٧-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬ ٣٨-‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ٣٩-‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أآ‬ ٤٠-‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٤١-‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٤٢-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫و‬:-‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أر‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ٢ ٤٣-‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫دة‬‫ول‬٤٤-‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ٤٥-‫ا‬٤٦-‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ٤٧-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٢-،٢-٤٨-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٤٩-‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫وات‬ ٥٠-‫أ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ٥١-‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫أ‬ ٥٢-‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٥٣-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ٥٤-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أآ‬ ٥٥-‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وأآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ٥٦-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬‫ا‬ ٥٧-‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫درى‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ C6H5COOCH2CH3 & CH3CH2COOC6H5 ٥٨-‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ٥٩-‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬٢-‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ٦٠-‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ٦١-‫ا‬‫زة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وآ‬ ٦٢-‫ر‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬725o C ٦٣-‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ٦٤-‫دى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ٦٥-‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ‫وات‬ ‫و‬:- ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أر‬
  2. 2. ٣ ١-‫د‬)١(‫د‬)٦( ٢-n( CH2 = CH2 ) → ( - CH2 - CH2 ) ٣-CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + E ٤-‫د‬)٥٦()٢٠()٢٦( ٥-CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2‫د‬)١٧( ٦-‫د‬)٧(‫د‬)١٠( ٧-C2H5HSO4 C2H4 + H2SO4‫د‬)١٠( ٨-‫د‬)٥( ٩-NH4CNO NH2 - CO - NH4 ١٠-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥١()٥٥()١( ١١-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢١()٢٦( ١٢-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)١٩()٢٤( ١٣-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٢()٢٣( ١٤-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢١()٢٥) (‫د‬٢٥‫ه‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وم‬( ١٥-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٣٤()٤٣( ١٦-C3H7OH C3H6 + H2O‫د‬)٣٢( ١٧-‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)٢٥()٣٧( ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬)٢١( ١٨-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٣٥()٤٢( ١٩-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٣٠()٤٠( ٢٠-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)١٣(‫د‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬)٤١( ٢١-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥١()٨٥()٤٣( ٢٢-C2H5ONa + H2O → C2H5OH + NaOH ‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥٠()٥٥()١( ٢٣-‫د‬)١٨(‫ا‬ ‫وم‬ ‫و‬‫د‬ ٢٤-‫د‬)٧(C2H4 + Br2 → CH2Br - CH2Br ‫ـــــــــ‬ ‫ا‬ 180o c heat H2SO4 (conc) 170o – 180o C ٤ ٢٥-‫د‬)٥١( ٢٦-‫د‬)٧(‫د‬)٨(‫أو‬)٩( ٢٧-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٢()٢٧( ٢٨-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)١٩()٢٨()٧٢( ٢٩-C2H5HSO4 + H2O C2H5OH + H2SO4 2C2H5HSO4 + H2O C2H5 - O - C2H5 + 2H2SO4 C2H5HSO4 C2H4 + H2SO4 ٣٠-CH2 = C - CH3 + HBr → CH3 - C - CH3 ٣١-‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫أر‬–‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٥()٧١( ‫آ‬‫و‬ ‫رو‬–‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٨()٧٢( ٣٢-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٢()٢٨( ٣٣-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢١()٢٥( ٣٤-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٠()٢٣( ٣٥-CH2 = CH - CH3 + HBr → CH3 - CH - CH3 ٣٦-‫ت‬ ‫د‬٥٢٥٤٢٠٢٥٧١ ٣٧-‫ت‬ ‫د‬:-٣١٤١ ٣٨-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٤٥(‫و‬)٤٨( ٣٩-‫د‬)٤٢(‫ل‬ ‫و‬K2Cr2O7‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬KMnO4 ٤٠-‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)٣١( ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬)٧( 180o C 140o C 110o C CH3 CH3 Br Br
  3. 3. ٥ ٤١-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٤١()٣٩( ٤٢-CaC2 + 2H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2‫د‬)١٩( ٤٣-‫د‬)٤٥( ٤٤-‫ت‬ ‫د‬:-)٣٤) (‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬(‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٤١()٣٩( ٤٥-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)١٩()٢٥()٣٧()٤٨( ٤٦-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٥()٣٧(‫ع‬ ‫زه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ )‫ل‬+‫ه‬ ‫ر‬←‫آ‬( ٤٧–‫د‬)٣٣( ٤٨-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٦()٥٢()٦٠()٦٧( ٤٩-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٢٠()٢٦( ٥٠-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥٨()٤٣( ٥١-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥٠) (٥٩()٦٦( ٥٢- ٥٣- CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 C-Cl + KOH(aq) C- OH + KCl‫ارة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬‫و‬ COOC2H5 ‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ا‬ COOH + C2H5OH HCl ‫ف‬ + H2O ‫و‬ + C2H5OH COOC2H5 CONH2 + NH3 ‫ا‬ ٦ ٥٤-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٥٢()٥٦( ٥٥-‫د‬)٥١( ٥٦-‫ت‬ ‫د‬)٦٩(‫و‬)٧٠( ٥٧-CH3CH2COOC6H5 + H2O HCl ( dil ) CH3CH2COOH + C6H5OH CH3CH2COOC6H5 + NH3 → CH3CH2CONH2 + C6H5OH C6H5COOCH2CH3 + H2O HCl ( dil ) C6H5COOH + CH2CH3OH C6H5COOCH2CH3 + NH3 → C6H5CONH2 + CH2CH3OH ٥٨-‫د‬)٦٩( ٥٩-‫د‬)٤٢( ٦٠-‫د‬)٢٩( ٦١-‫د‬)٤( ٦٢-‫د‬)٦( ٦٣-‫د‬)٨(‫د‬ ‫أو‬)٩( ٦٤-‫د‬)٢٠( ٦٥- + C2H5OH COOC2H5 COOH + H2O ‫و‬ COOH + CH3OH HCl ‫ف‬ + H2O COOCH3 ‫وات‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬
  4. 4. ٧ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ CH3COONa + NaOH CaO heat CH4 + Na2CO3 ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬:- CH4 + Br2 ‫ء‬ CH3Br + HBr )‫ل‬ ‫ا‬( CH4 + Cl2 ‫ء‬ C + 4HCl )‫ع‬( C8H18 ‫ى‬ ‫ارى‬ C4H8 + C4H10 CH4 ٥١٠٠٠‫م‬ C + 2H2 )‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬( CH4 + H2O ٥٧٢٥‫م‬~‫ز‬ CO + 3H2 )‫ز‬( ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:- C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬:- C2H4 + H2O + O C2H4 + H2O2 C2H4 + H2 C2H6 & C2H4 + HBr C2H5Br CH3 – CH = CH2 + HCl ‫ف‬ ‫رآ‬ CH3 – CH – CH3 C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬:- 2C2H2 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O + 2C )( 2C2H2 + 5O2 ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ 4CO2 + 2H2O + E )‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬( C2H2 + I2 C2H2I2 C2H2I4 C2H2 + H2O CH3CHO C2H2 + HI C2H3I CH3 – CHI2 HgSO4 / 60O C H2SO4 40% H2SO4 (conc) 170o – 180o C ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ KMnO4 ‫ى‬ ‫و‬ CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH Cl H2SO4 (dil) ٥ ١١٠‫م‬ + I2 ‫أ‬ ١٥٠~٣٠٠٥ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ + HI ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ C2H4 + Br2 → C2H4Br2 ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥ ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩ ١٠ ١١ ١٢ ١٣ ١٤ ١٥ ١٦ ١٧ ١٨ ٨ ‫ا‬:- 3C2H2 C6H6 )‫ا‬( + NaOH + Na2CO3 )‫ا‬( + Zn + ZnO )‫ل‬ ‫ا‬( C6H14 C6H6 + 4H2 )‫ن‬ ‫ا‬( ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬:- C6H6 + 3H2 C6H12 )‫ن‬ ‫ه‬( C6H6 + 3Cl2 ‫ء‬ C6H6Cl6 )‫ن‬( + Cl2 + HCl + CH3Cl + HCl }‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ل‬{ + H2SO4 CONC + H2O }‫ا‬{ + HNO3 + H2O }‫ة‬ ‫ا‬{ 2 + 2H2SO4 conc + 2H2O ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬:- C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Cl AlCl3 CH3 SO3H NO2 CH3 CH3 SO3H CH3 SO3H ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ب‬ FeCl3 H2SO4 Conc + ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ COONa CaO ‫ارة‬ OH ‫ارة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫أ‬ ١٥٠~٣٠٠٥ ‫م‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دى‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ١٩ ٢٠ ٢١ ٢٢ ٢٣ ٢٤ ٢٥ ٢٦ ٢٧ ٢٨ ٢٩ ٣٠
  5. 5. ٩ C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH CH3 – CH = CH2 + H2O CH3 – CH – CH3 CH3 – C = CH – CH + H2O CH3 – C –CH2 – CH3 C2H5Cl + NaOH C2H5OH + NaCl + NaOH + NaBr ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬:- ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬:- 2C2H5OH + 2Na → 2C2H5ONa + H2 ( ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ) CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O (‫ة‬ ‫)ا‬ ‫روآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬:- C2H5OH + HBr C2H5Br + H2O CH3 CH3 CHOH H2SO4 (dil) ٥ ١١٠‫م‬ ‫ارة‬ CH3 CH3 CHBr ‫ارة‬ H2SO4 ١١٠٥ ‫م‬ CH3CH3 H2SO4 ١١٠٥ ‫م‬ OH CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 C-Br + KOH(aq) C- OH + KBr‫ارة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬‫و‬ OH Cl + NaOH ٥ ٣٠٠‫م‬ ٣٠٠ OH + NaCl H2SO4 conc ZnCl2 ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ٣١ ٣٢ ٣٣ ٣٤ ٣٥ ٣٦ ٣٧ ٣٨ ٣٩ ٤٠ ١٠ OH + 2 Na ONa + H2 ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫آ‬/‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬:- C2H5OH + (O) CH3CHO + H2O CH3CHO + (O) CH3COOH )‫أ‬( ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬:- ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬:- ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬ ‫ا‬ 2 2 OH + NaOH ONa + H2O ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫آ‬/‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ت‬ H2SO4 conc+ 3HNO3 OH NO2 NO2 NO2 + 3H2O OH ٢،٤،٦‫ل‬ ‫و‬ )( K2Cr2O7 H2SO4 CHOH + (O) C = O + H2O CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 K2Cr2O7 H2SO4 ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ C2H5OH + C2H5OH C2H5 – O – C2H5 + H2O H2SO4conc 140 o C ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٢‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ئ‬ C2H5OH C2H4 + H2OH2SO4conc 170 o – 180 o C ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ + 3HNO3 + CH2OH CH OH CH2OH 3H2O CH2ONO2 CH O NO2 CH2O NO2 ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ٤١ ٤٢ ٤٣ ٤٤ ٤٥ ٤٦ ٤٧ ٤٨
  6. 6. ١١ CH3 COOH ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬: ‫ا‬ C2H5OH + O CH3CHO + H2O CH3CHO + (O) CH3COOH C2H2+H2O CH3CHO CH3CHO + O CH3COOH ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ 2 + 3O2 2 + 2H2O ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬ ‫ا‬ +←+‫ه‬‫رو‬ 2CH3COOH + Mg → ( CH3COO )2Mg + H2 K2Cr2O7 H2SO4 HgSO4/ 6OO C H2SO4(40%) V2O5 ٥ ٤٠٠‫م‬ 2 + 2Na → 2 + H2 ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬‫أ‬ COOH COONa ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫وات‬‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ + 3HNO3 + 3H2OH2SO4 conc 50o C CH3 CH3 NO2 NO2 NO2 ٢،٤،٦‫و‬T. N. T ٤٩ ٥٠ ٥١ ٥٢ ٥٣ ٥٤ ١٢ +‫ة‬←+‫ء‬ CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O + NaOH → + H2O +‫ت‬ ‫آ‬)‫ت‬(←+‫ء‬+CO2 CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2 ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬: CH3COOH + 2H2 C2H5OH + H2O ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬: CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬:- ‫ا‬:- ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: CuCrO4 200o C COOC2H5 ‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ا‬ COOH + C2H5OH HCl ‫ف‬ + H2O ‫و‬ H2SO4 Conc CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O H2SO4 conc ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ COOH + C2H5OH HCl ‫ف‬ + H2O COOC2H5 ‫ا‬ ‫وات‬ ‫ا‬ CH3COOC2H5 + H2O CH3COOH + C2H5OH ‫ا‬+‫ء‬+‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ HCl HCl COOH COONa ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫وات‬‫و‬ ٥٥ ٥٦ ٥٧ ٥٨ ٥٩ ٦٠ ٦١ ٦٢ ٦٣
  7. 7. ١٣ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ‫درى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬+‫ى‬←+‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH → CH3COONa + C2H5OH + C2H5OH COOC2H5 COONa + NaOH ‫ا‬+‫در‬←‫ا‬ ‫أ‬+‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ CH3COOC2H5 + NH3 → CH3CONH2 + C2H5OH + C2H5OH COOC2H5 CONH2 + NH3 ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ CH2OH CH OH CH2OH ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ز‬ CH2OCOR1 CH OCOR2 CH2OCOR3 ‫ده‬ ‫ض‬ ‫أ‬ R1COOH R2COOH R3COOH + + 3H2O O - C - OH O OH - C - + H O – CH2 – CH2 – OH - H2O O - C – O – CH2 – CH2 – OH O OH - C - ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ون‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ٦٤ ٦٥ ٦٦ ٦٧ ٦٨ ٦٩ ١٤ ‫وخ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬:- ‫ا‬:- ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬:- ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬:- CO OH O H + H O – CH3 COOCH3 OH - H2O COOH O H + HO – CO – CH3 COOH O – CO – CH3 - H2O ٦٩ ٧٠ Cl + 2HNO3 H2SO4 conc Cl Cl + 2H2O +2 NO2 NO2 NO2 + Cl2 ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ب‬ Fe + HCl NO2 Cl ٧١ ٧٢

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