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CONTENTIOUS KNOWLEDGE AND
CONTESTED ISSUES
W HAT ARE CONTROVERSIES AND W HY MAP
CONTROVERSIES?
M D . S A I F U D D I N K H A L I D
A D A P T E D S L I D E S O F P R O F. T O R B E N E L G A A R D J E N S E N , A A U
REMEMBER MARIUS?
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2
REMEMBER DONG?
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3
• VACCINATE OUR CHILDREN?
• REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS?
• EAT GM CROPS?
• HAVE WOLVES IN THE WILD?
• RESTRICT FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION?
• TAX FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS?
• ENFORCE GUN CONTROL?
• ALLOW CIRCUMCISION?
• CLONE HUMANS?
• USE MORE TESTS TO TRACK PROGRESS IN SCHOOLS?
SHOULD WE:
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 4
• HOW DO W E KNOW IF VACCINES HAVE SIDE EFFECTS?
• IS CLIMATE CHANGE REAL?
• IN W HAT SENSE COULD GM CROPS BE CONSIDERED DANGEROUS?
• FROM W HAT PERSPECTIVE ARE W OLVES IN THE W ILD A PROBLEM?
• W HAT IS THE AUTHORITATIVE EXPERTISE ON FREEDOM OF
EXPRESSION?
• HOW W OULD A TAX ON FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS W ORK IN
PRACTICE?
• GUN CONTROL – W HERE IS THAT EVEN A PROBLEM?
• IS CIRCUMCISION PAINFUL? DOES IT MATTER?
• CAN W E PREDICT THE CONSEQUENCES OF CLONING?
• ARE TESTS EFFECTIVE? FOR W HAT?
INVOLVES QUESTIONS LIKE:
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 5
CONTROVERSIES ARE EVERYWHERE
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 6
CONTROVERSIES ARE COMPLICATED
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 7
CAN A CONTROVERSY BE SETTLED
0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 8
• DISAGREEMENTS ARE MERELY ABOUT DIFFERING OPINIONS
• AND WE CANNOT EVEN AGREE ON
THE CORE QUESTION
WHO IT CONCERNS
WHICH EXPERTS ARE RELEVANT FOR ANSWERING IT
AND THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THEY CAN BE TRUSTED
• SO A CONTROVERSY MIGHT BE SETTLED, IF ONLY:
ALL STAKEHOLDERS ARE SUFFICIENTLY INFORMED AND COME
TO COMMON GROUNDS
IN REALITY: THE BAR FIGHT
0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 9
IN REALITY: THE BAR FIGHT
0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 0
• W E ARE RARELY TALKING ABOUT THE SAME THING
• AND SO W E CANNOT REACH AGREEMENT ON
THE CORE QUESTIONS
W HO THEY CONCERN
W HICH EXPERTS CAN ANSW ER THEM
AND W HEN THEN THEY CAN BE TRUSTED
……
• SO CONTROVERSIES ARE NOT EASILY SETTLED
• BUT THEY ARE STILL
UNAVOIDABLE AND NECESSARY TO DEAL W ITH
FRUITFUL PLACES TO LEARN SOMETHING ABOUT SCIENCE,
TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY IN ACTION
• SO CAN W E TREAT THEM AS A RESOURCE?
BAR FIGHTS ARE DIFFICULT TO NAVIGATE…
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 11
 CONTROVERSY MAPPING
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 12
THE MAPPING CONTROVERSIES NETWORK
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 3
• COURSES IN 25+
UNIVERSITIES
• 3 IN COPENHAGEN
• A SHARED
CURRICULUM IN
DIGITAL METHODS
• A DATABASE WITH
THE BEST STUDENT
PROJECTS
• AND AN ON-GOING
RESEARCH AGENDA
PHASE 1
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 4
Understand the
basic concepts
Overview of
tools and
datasets
Choose a good
controversy
1st milestone:
Research design
PHASE 2
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 5
Harvest data Read literature
Crunch and
visualise data
2nd milestone:
We’ve got maps!
PHASE 3
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 6
Interpret maps
Narrate your
data
Explain
methods
EXAM
Present and defend controversy mapping
LET’S EXPLORE SOME BASIC
ACTOR-NETWORK POINTS
Mapping Controversies has been called an intuitive way to teach
Actor-Network Theory
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 17
1. THE NOTION OF NETW ORK IS OF USE W HENEVER ACTION IS TO BE
REDISTRIBUTED (P.797)
2. ..FROM A MATTER OF FACT TO A MATTER OF CONCERN (P.799)
3. NETW ORKS ARE A GREAT WAY TO GET RID OF PHANTOMS SUCH
AS NATURE, SOCIETY, OR POW ER, NOTIONS THAT BEFORE W ERE
ABLE TO EXPAND MYSTERIOUSLY AT NO COST (P.802)
4. IF YOU CHANGE THIS DATASCAPE, YOU HAVE TO CHANGE THE
SOCIAL THEORY (P.802)
5. INDIVIDUAL ACTION IS MUCH TOO DISTRIBUTED TO BE DEFINED IN
TERMS OF INTERACTION (P.806)
QUOTES FROM ‘NETWORKS, SOCIETIES,
SPHERES’ (LATOUR 2011)
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 8
CONTROVERSY AS A
METHODOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE
Why Science and Technology Studies have always thrived on
controversies
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 19
Controversies as
Breeching Experiments
Ethnomethodology (Garfinkel 1962)
Breaking open black boxes to make
whatever is assumed (hence
ignored) explicit and available to
inquiry.
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 20
Through
controversies…
…the social fabric of science and
technology is revealed.
SSK (Sociology of Scientific
Knowledge)
SCOT (Social Construction of
Science and Technology)
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 21
Through
controversies…
…the implications of new science
and technology for wider society
become impossible to ignore.
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 22
Through
controversies…
…the material agency of non-
humans becomes apparent.
Actor-Network Theory (ANT)
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 23
SOME QUESTIONS TO ASK OF
CONTROVERSIES
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 24
IS THIS A CONTROVERSY? AND HOW HOT IS IT?
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 5
uncertainty>>>
disagreement>>>
• IS THERE DISAGREEMENT
• AND IS THERE ALSO
DISAGREEMENT ON W HAT W E
DISAGREE ABOUT?
• IS THE KNOW LEDGE BASE
QUESTIONED?
• ARE ALTERNATIVE KNOW LEDGE
CLAIMS BEING MADE?
• IS THE LEGITIMACY OF EXPERTS
BEING QUESTIONED?
• AND ARE ALTERNATIVE EXPERTS
OR ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF
EXPERTISE BEING MOBILISED?
IF YOU ARE A PARTY IN THE CONTROVERSY,
WHAT MATTERS IS:
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 6
uncertainty>>>
disagreement>>>
• HAS THE KNOW LEDGE BASE ON
W HICH YOU BASE YOUR PROJECT OR
YOUR AGENDA BEEN QUESTIONED?
• HAS THE LEGITIMACY OF THE
EX PERTS YOU ASK FOR ADVICE
BEEN QUESTIONED?
• DO YOU HAVE A SUFFICIENT
OVERVIEW OF W HAT CONSTITUTE
THE RELEVANT QUESTIONS FOR
YOUR
USERS/STAKEHOLDERS/AUDIENCE?
• AND CAN YOU REASONABLY EX PECT
THAT THEY W ILL BE CONVINCED BY
THE CASE YOU ARE ADVOCATING
AND THE ARGUMENTS YOU WANT TO
MAKE IN SUPPORT OF IT?
• DO STAKEHOLDERS AGREE ON:
W HAT THE IMPORTANT
QUESTIONS ARE?
WHO CAN ANSW ER THESE
QUESTIONS?
AND W HAT CONSTITUTES A
SATISFACTORY ANSW ER?
• OR DO YOU HAVE TO FACILITATE
SUCH AN AGREEMENT, AND DO
YOU THEN HAVE THE RIGHT
DEVICES AT YOUR DISPOSAL?
• HOW W OULD A FORUM CAPABLE
OF ENCOMPASSING ALL THE
DIFFERENT CONCERNS HAVE TO
BE CONSTRUCTED`?
IF YOU HAVE A MEDIATING ROLE AND NEED TO
REACH A SETTLEMENT OR A COMPROMISE:
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 7
uncertainty>>>
disagreement>>>
• YOUR INTERVENTION
ENVIRONMENT IS CHANGING?
• AND ESPECIALLY IF IT IS
GETTING HOTTER?
• HOW CAN YOU KEEP AN EYE ON
IT?
• WHAT CONSTITUTES EARLY
WARNING SIGNALS IN RELATION
TO YOUR PROJECT?
• AND WHERE SHOULD/COULD
YOU BE LOOKING FOR THEM?
IN ANY CASE YOU WILL PROBABLY WANT TO
KNOW IF:
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 8
uncertainty>>>
disagreement>>>
SO WHAT IS GOING TO BE THE
NATURE OF THESE MAPS?
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 29
MAPPING, CHARTING, AND VISUALIZATION
2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 30
• MAPPING, CHARTING, AND
VISUALIZATION ARE THREE
COMPONENTS OF
PRODUCTION MAPPING.
• PRODUCTION MAPPING
REFERS TO A REPEATABLE
AND AUTOMATED PROCESS
OF PRODUCING MAPS AND
CHARTS OF GIS DATA.
• W ORKFLOWS
MAPPING AND CHARTING TOOLS SUPPORT ENTERPRISE
CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION W ORKFLOWS. THESE W ORKFLOWS
GENERATE NUMEROUS CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS .
• CONTEXT
W HAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE MAP? W HAT GEOGRAPHIC AREA
W ILL IT COVER? W HAT SCALE, PROJECTION, AND DATA W ILL BE
USED?
• CARTOGRAPHIC DATA
• SYMBOLOGY
• CARTOGRAPHIC EDITING
• LAYOUT
• PUBLISHING
FROM GIS TO CONTROVERSY MAPPING
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 1
CHARACTERISTICS & ELEMENTS OF
GEOGRAPHIC MAPPING
TO
MAPPING CONTROVERSIES
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 2
GROUP FORMATION AND TOPIC SELECTION>
ROUND 1@HOME
2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 3

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What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and visualized

  • 1. CONTENTIOUS KNOWLEDGE AND CONTESTED ISSUES W HAT ARE CONTROVERSIES AND W HY MAP CONTROVERSIES? M D . S A I F U D D I N K H A L I D A D A P T E D S L I D E S O F P R O F. T O R B E N E L G A A R D J E N S E N , A A U
  • 2. REMEMBER MARIUS? 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2
  • 3. REMEMBER DONG? 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3
  • 4. • VACCINATE OUR CHILDREN? • REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS? • EAT GM CROPS? • HAVE WOLVES IN THE WILD? • RESTRICT FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION? • TAX FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS? • ENFORCE GUN CONTROL? • ALLOW CIRCUMCISION? • CLONE HUMANS? • USE MORE TESTS TO TRACK PROGRESS IN SCHOOLS? SHOULD WE: 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 4
  • 5. • HOW DO W E KNOW IF VACCINES HAVE SIDE EFFECTS? • IS CLIMATE CHANGE REAL? • IN W HAT SENSE COULD GM CROPS BE CONSIDERED DANGEROUS? • FROM W HAT PERSPECTIVE ARE W OLVES IN THE W ILD A PROBLEM? • W HAT IS THE AUTHORITATIVE EXPERTISE ON FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION? • HOW W OULD A TAX ON FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS W ORK IN PRACTICE? • GUN CONTROL – W HERE IS THAT EVEN A PROBLEM? • IS CIRCUMCISION PAINFUL? DOES IT MATTER? • CAN W E PREDICT THE CONSEQUENCES OF CLONING? • ARE TESTS EFFECTIVE? FOR W HAT? INVOLVES QUESTIONS LIKE: 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 5
  • 6. CONTROVERSIES ARE EVERYWHERE 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 6
  • 7. CONTROVERSIES ARE COMPLICATED 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 7
  • 8. CAN A CONTROVERSY BE SETTLED 0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 8 • DISAGREEMENTS ARE MERELY ABOUT DIFFERING OPINIONS • AND WE CANNOT EVEN AGREE ON THE CORE QUESTION WHO IT CONCERNS WHICH EXPERTS ARE RELEVANT FOR ANSWERING IT AND THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THEY CAN BE TRUSTED • SO A CONTROVERSY MIGHT BE SETTLED, IF ONLY: ALL STAKEHOLDERS ARE SUFFICIENTLY INFORMED AND COME TO COMMON GROUNDS
  • 9. IN REALITY: THE BAR FIGHT 0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 9
  • 10. IN REALITY: THE BAR FIGHT 0 7 / 0 2 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 0 • W E ARE RARELY TALKING ABOUT THE SAME THING • AND SO W E CANNOT REACH AGREEMENT ON THE CORE QUESTIONS W HO THEY CONCERN W HICH EXPERTS CAN ANSW ER THEM AND W HEN THEN THEY CAN BE TRUSTED …… • SO CONTROVERSIES ARE NOT EASILY SETTLED • BUT THEY ARE STILL UNAVOIDABLE AND NECESSARY TO DEAL W ITH FRUITFUL PLACES TO LEARN SOMETHING ABOUT SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY IN ACTION • SO CAN W E TREAT THEM AS A RESOURCE?
  • 11. BAR FIGHTS ARE DIFFICULT TO NAVIGATE… 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 11
  • 12.  CONTROVERSY MAPPING 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 12
  • 13. THE MAPPING CONTROVERSIES NETWORK 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 3 • COURSES IN 25+ UNIVERSITIES • 3 IN COPENHAGEN • A SHARED CURRICULUM IN DIGITAL METHODS • A DATABASE WITH THE BEST STUDENT PROJECTS • AND AN ON-GOING RESEARCH AGENDA
  • 14. PHASE 1 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 4 Understand the basic concepts Overview of tools and datasets Choose a good controversy 1st milestone: Research design
  • 15. PHASE 2 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 5 Harvest data Read literature Crunch and visualise data 2nd milestone: We’ve got maps!
  • 16. PHASE 3 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 6 Interpret maps Narrate your data Explain methods EXAM Present and defend controversy mapping
  • 17. LET’S EXPLORE SOME BASIC ACTOR-NETWORK POINTS Mapping Controversies has been called an intuitive way to teach Actor-Network Theory 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 17
  • 18. 1. THE NOTION OF NETW ORK IS OF USE W HENEVER ACTION IS TO BE REDISTRIBUTED (P.797) 2. ..FROM A MATTER OF FACT TO A MATTER OF CONCERN (P.799) 3. NETW ORKS ARE A GREAT WAY TO GET RID OF PHANTOMS SUCH AS NATURE, SOCIETY, OR POW ER, NOTIONS THAT BEFORE W ERE ABLE TO EXPAND MYSTERIOUSLY AT NO COST (P.802) 4. IF YOU CHANGE THIS DATASCAPE, YOU HAVE TO CHANGE THE SOCIAL THEORY (P.802) 5. INDIVIDUAL ACTION IS MUCH TOO DISTRIBUTED TO BE DEFINED IN TERMS OF INTERACTION (P.806) QUOTES FROM ‘NETWORKS, SOCIETIES, SPHERES’ (LATOUR 2011) 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 1 8
  • 19. CONTROVERSY AS A METHODOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE Why Science and Technology Studies have always thrived on controversies 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 19
  • 20. Controversies as Breeching Experiments Ethnomethodology (Garfinkel 1962) Breaking open black boxes to make whatever is assumed (hence ignored) explicit and available to inquiry. 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 20
  • 21. Through controversies… …the social fabric of science and technology is revealed. SSK (Sociology of Scientific Knowledge) SCOT (Social Construction of Science and Technology) 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 21
  • 22. Through controversies… …the implications of new science and technology for wider society become impossible to ignore. 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 22
  • 23. Through controversies… …the material agency of non- humans becomes apparent. Actor-Network Theory (ANT) 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 23
  • 24. SOME QUESTIONS TO ASK OF CONTROVERSIES 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 24
  • 25. IS THIS A CONTROVERSY? AND HOW HOT IS IT? 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 5 uncertainty>>> disagreement>>> • IS THERE DISAGREEMENT • AND IS THERE ALSO DISAGREEMENT ON W HAT W E DISAGREE ABOUT? • IS THE KNOW LEDGE BASE QUESTIONED? • ARE ALTERNATIVE KNOW LEDGE CLAIMS BEING MADE? • IS THE LEGITIMACY OF EXPERTS BEING QUESTIONED? • AND ARE ALTERNATIVE EXPERTS OR ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF EXPERTISE BEING MOBILISED?
  • 26. IF YOU ARE A PARTY IN THE CONTROVERSY, WHAT MATTERS IS: 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 6 uncertainty>>> disagreement>>> • HAS THE KNOW LEDGE BASE ON W HICH YOU BASE YOUR PROJECT OR YOUR AGENDA BEEN QUESTIONED? • HAS THE LEGITIMACY OF THE EX PERTS YOU ASK FOR ADVICE BEEN QUESTIONED? • DO YOU HAVE A SUFFICIENT OVERVIEW OF W HAT CONSTITUTE THE RELEVANT QUESTIONS FOR YOUR USERS/STAKEHOLDERS/AUDIENCE? • AND CAN YOU REASONABLY EX PECT THAT THEY W ILL BE CONVINCED BY THE CASE YOU ARE ADVOCATING AND THE ARGUMENTS YOU WANT TO MAKE IN SUPPORT OF IT?
  • 27. • DO STAKEHOLDERS AGREE ON: W HAT THE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS ARE? WHO CAN ANSW ER THESE QUESTIONS? AND W HAT CONSTITUTES A SATISFACTORY ANSW ER? • OR DO YOU HAVE TO FACILITATE SUCH AN AGREEMENT, AND DO YOU THEN HAVE THE RIGHT DEVICES AT YOUR DISPOSAL? • HOW W OULD A FORUM CAPABLE OF ENCOMPASSING ALL THE DIFFERENT CONCERNS HAVE TO BE CONSTRUCTED`? IF YOU HAVE A MEDIATING ROLE AND NEED TO REACH A SETTLEMENT OR A COMPROMISE: 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 7 uncertainty>>> disagreement>>>
  • 28. • YOUR INTERVENTION ENVIRONMENT IS CHANGING? • AND ESPECIALLY IF IT IS GETTING HOTTER? • HOW CAN YOU KEEP AN EYE ON IT? • WHAT CONSTITUTES EARLY WARNING SIGNALS IN RELATION TO YOUR PROJECT? • AND WHERE SHOULD/COULD YOU BE LOOKING FOR THEM? IN ANY CASE YOU WILL PROBABLY WANT TO KNOW IF: 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 2 8 uncertainty>>> disagreement>>>
  • 29. SO WHAT IS GOING TO BE THE NATURE OF THESE MAPS? 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 29
  • 30. MAPPING, CHARTING, AND VISUALIZATION 2/7/2017 AALBORG UNIVERSITY 30 • MAPPING, CHARTING, AND VISUALIZATION ARE THREE COMPONENTS OF PRODUCTION MAPPING. • PRODUCTION MAPPING REFERS TO A REPEATABLE AND AUTOMATED PROCESS OF PRODUCING MAPS AND CHARTS OF GIS DATA.
  • 31. • W ORKFLOWS MAPPING AND CHARTING TOOLS SUPPORT ENTERPRISE CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION W ORKFLOWS. THESE W ORKFLOWS GENERATE NUMEROUS CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS . • CONTEXT W HAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE MAP? W HAT GEOGRAPHIC AREA W ILL IT COVER? W HAT SCALE, PROJECTION, AND DATA W ILL BE USED? • CARTOGRAPHIC DATA • SYMBOLOGY • CARTOGRAPHIC EDITING • LAYOUT • PUBLISHING FROM GIS TO CONTROVERSY MAPPING 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 1
  • 32. CHARACTERISTICS & ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHIC MAPPING TO MAPPING CONTROVERSIES 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 2
  • 33. GROUP FORMATION AND TOPIC SELECTION> ROUND 1@HOME 2 / 7 / 2 0 1 7 A A L B O R G U N I V E R S I T Y 3 3

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/technology/268670-the-solution-to-drone-safety-is-to-empower-the-smallest-ones https://u.osu.edu/ratliff.121/2015/08/24/civilian-drones/
  2. http://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/latest/extensions/production-mapping/what-is-mapping-charting-and-visualization.htm