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Barriers to the integration and 
adoption of ICT in Developing 
Countries 
1 
Md. Sa i fuddin Kha l id 
P hD (HCCI ) , MS c & BS c (Comp u t e r S c i e n c e ) 
As s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r 
Re s e a r c h Gr o u p : D4 L e a r n i n g 
De p a r tme n t o f L e a r n i n g a n d P h i l o s o p h y 
Aa l b o r g Un i v e r s i t y , De nma r k 
Ema i l : k h a l i d@l e a r n i n g . a a u . d k 
Africa Panel: potentials & problems related to ICT in Africa with a focus on mobile 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Wednesday 14 May 15.30 – 17.30
Points of departure 
2 
 From the Book “The African Mobile Story”, Edited 
by Prof. Knud Skoby and Idongesit Williams 
1. Chapter 7: Mobile ICT and Education 
Delivery, 
by Nana Kofi Annan, George Olrelans Ofori- 
Dwumfou, and Benjamin Kwofie 
2. Chapter 9: Harnessing ICT for Local 
Government Administration in Africa: 
A Look at the Push-ICT Theory 
Approach in Nigeria, 
by Wilson Joseph, Nuhu Diraso Gapsiso, and 
Musa Usman 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
ICT4D: What are we dealing with? 
3 
 Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT 
 Related terms in current literature: 
 Problem in relation to ICT (including Mobile) 
Integration 
Adoption 
 Causes: 
Barriers, obstacles, challenges, and hurdles 
 Effects: 
Digital divide 
Exclusion and Inclusion 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
Categorization of barriers in education 
4 
 The trend for more than three decades in the cross-disciplinary 
field of educational technology or e-Learning 
 macro-meso-micro level barriers of the education system (Balanskat, 
Blamire, & Kefala, 2006; Tondeur, van Keer, van Braak, & Valcke, 
2008) 
 teachers’ extrinsic or first-order barriers (i.e. institutional, 
incremental) and intrinsic or second-order barriers (i.e. 
fundamental, personal) (Albirini, 2006; Ertmer, 1999; Snoeyink and 
Peggy A. Ertmer, 2001) 
 school-level barriers and teacher-level barriers (A. Jones, 2004), 
 direct and indirect barriers (Hew & Brush, 2006) 
 material and non-material barriers (Pelgrum, 2001), 
 other ways of categorization (Bingimlas, 2009; Ertmer, Ottenbreit- 
Leftwich, Sadik, Sendurur, & Sendurur, 2012; Hew & Brush, 2006) 
Source: Khalid and Lillian (2013) 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
Understanding the barriers: systems approach 
5 
Marco 
(National) 
Level 
Meso 
(Institutional) 
Level 
Micro 
(individual/ 
stakeholder) 
level 
Stakeholders’ 
(administrators, 
teachers, students, 
guardians) roles and 
characteristics 
Education system’s 
external barriers, which 
are national challenges 
Theoretical framework of barriers in 
educational technology integration and 
adoption. 
Source: (Khalid & Nyvang, 2013) 
Partial View of Problem-Tree 
Analysis of Teachers and Students of 
Rural Vocational Institute 
Source: (Khalid & Nyvang, 2013) 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
Understanding the barriers: Percentage by 
emphasis in literature 
6 
 Hew and Brush’s (2006) review paper classified the barriers into six 
main categories as follows: (a) resources (40%), (b) knowledge and 
skills (23%), (c) institution (14%), (d) attitudes and beliefs (13%), (e) 
assessment (5%), and (f) subject culture (2%). 
 In addition, these categories are further classified as direct and 
indirect. 
 The four direct barrier categories are: (a) teachers’ attitudes and 
beliefs towards using technology, (b) teachers’ knowledge and skills, 
(c) institution, and (d) resources. 
 Hew and Brush looked for congruency in the findings of Rogers 
(2000, pp. 459–461) and mapped Rogers’ 10 barrier categories 
within the above mentioned 6 categories (Hew & Brush, 2006, p. 
241). Except for “funding,” the barrier categories of Rogers are 
present in the categorization model of Hew & Brush. 
Quoted from: Khalid and Lillian (2013) 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
Understanding the barriers: Various approaches 
7 
 TPACK Framework: technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge 
(Koehler and Mishra, 2009) 
 From Khalid & Lillian (2013): 
 Resource: availability, accessibility, time, technical support, resource 
quality, funding, and teacher/trainer. 
 Knowledge and Skills: specific technology, technology-supported 
pedagogy (replacement, amplification, and transformation), and 
technology-related-classroom management. 
 Corruption 
 Assessment: (a) pressure to meet higher standards, (b) score high on 
standardized tests, (c) cover vast scope of material within a limited 
amount of time, (d) consequences of promotion or graduation, and (e) 
external requirements of traditional examinations 
 Vision, strategy, and plan: lack of time to make the ICT strategy 
plan, lack of ICT policy plan, ICT integration plan, ICT integration 
leadership, integration support, evaluation of implementation of ICT 
integration, 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
References 
8 
 Hew, Khe Foon, and Thomas Brush. “Integrating Technology into K-12 
Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for 
Future Research.” Educational Technology Research and Development 55, no. 
3 (December 5, 2006): 223–52. doi:10.1007/s11423-006-9022-5. 
 Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Lillian Buus. “A Theoretical Framework Mapping 
Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Technology.” Research and 
Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, Submitted 2013, Status: Accepted 
for peer–review. 
 Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Tom Nyvang. “Application of PLA Methods in 
Educational Technology Research: A Rural Bangladeshi Case.” In Changing 
Education Through ICT in Developing Countries, edited by Marianne 
Georgsen and Pär-Ola Mikael Zander, 107–30. Aalborg: Aalborg University 
Press, 2013. 
http://vbn.aau.dk/files/160291988/Changing_Education_OA_version.pdf. 
 Koehler, M. J., and P. Mishra. “What Is TPACK.” Contemporary Issues in 
Technology and Teacher Education, 2009. 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
Discussion 
9 
Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014

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Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries

  • 1. Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries 1 Md. Sa i fuddin Kha l id P hD (HCCI ) , MS c & BS c (Comp u t e r S c i e n c e ) As s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Re s e a r c h Gr o u p : D4 L e a r n i n g De p a r tme n t o f L e a r n i n g a n d P h i l o s o p h y Aa l b o r g Un i v e r s i t y , De nma r k Ema i l : k h a l i d@l e a r n i n g . a a u . d k Africa Panel: potentials & problems related to ICT in Africa with a focus on mobile Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Wednesday 14 May 15.30 – 17.30
  • 2. Points of departure 2  From the Book “The African Mobile Story”, Edited by Prof. Knud Skoby and Idongesit Williams 1. Chapter 7: Mobile ICT and Education Delivery, by Nana Kofi Annan, George Olrelans Ofori- Dwumfou, and Benjamin Kwofie 2. Chapter 9: Harnessing ICT for Local Government Administration in Africa: A Look at the Push-ICT Theory Approach in Nigeria, by Wilson Joseph, Nuhu Diraso Gapsiso, and Musa Usman Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 3. ICT4D: What are we dealing with? 3  Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT  Related terms in current literature:  Problem in relation to ICT (including Mobile) Integration Adoption  Causes: Barriers, obstacles, challenges, and hurdles  Effects: Digital divide Exclusion and Inclusion Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 4. Categorization of barriers in education 4  The trend for more than three decades in the cross-disciplinary field of educational technology or e-Learning  macro-meso-micro level barriers of the education system (Balanskat, Blamire, & Kefala, 2006; Tondeur, van Keer, van Braak, & Valcke, 2008)  teachers’ extrinsic or first-order barriers (i.e. institutional, incremental) and intrinsic or second-order barriers (i.e. fundamental, personal) (Albirini, 2006; Ertmer, 1999; Snoeyink and Peggy A. Ertmer, 2001)  school-level barriers and teacher-level barriers (A. Jones, 2004),  direct and indirect barriers (Hew & Brush, 2006)  material and non-material barriers (Pelgrum, 2001),  other ways of categorization (Bingimlas, 2009; Ertmer, Ottenbreit- Leftwich, Sadik, Sendurur, & Sendurur, 2012; Hew & Brush, 2006) Source: Khalid and Lillian (2013) Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 5. Understanding the barriers: systems approach 5 Marco (National) Level Meso (Institutional) Level Micro (individual/ stakeholder) level Stakeholders’ (administrators, teachers, students, guardians) roles and characteristics Education system’s external barriers, which are national challenges Theoretical framework of barriers in educational technology integration and adoption. Source: (Khalid & Nyvang, 2013) Partial View of Problem-Tree Analysis of Teachers and Students of Rural Vocational Institute Source: (Khalid & Nyvang, 2013) Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 6. Understanding the barriers: Percentage by emphasis in literature 6  Hew and Brush’s (2006) review paper classified the barriers into six main categories as follows: (a) resources (40%), (b) knowledge and skills (23%), (c) institution (14%), (d) attitudes and beliefs (13%), (e) assessment (5%), and (f) subject culture (2%).  In addition, these categories are further classified as direct and indirect.  The four direct barrier categories are: (a) teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards using technology, (b) teachers’ knowledge and skills, (c) institution, and (d) resources.  Hew and Brush looked for congruency in the findings of Rogers (2000, pp. 459–461) and mapped Rogers’ 10 barrier categories within the above mentioned 6 categories (Hew & Brush, 2006, p. 241). Except for “funding,” the barrier categories of Rogers are present in the categorization model of Hew & Brush. Quoted from: Khalid and Lillian (2013) Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 7. Understanding the barriers: Various approaches 7  TPACK Framework: technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (Koehler and Mishra, 2009)  From Khalid & Lillian (2013):  Resource: availability, accessibility, time, technical support, resource quality, funding, and teacher/trainer.  Knowledge and Skills: specific technology, technology-supported pedagogy (replacement, amplification, and transformation), and technology-related-classroom management.  Corruption  Assessment: (a) pressure to meet higher standards, (b) score high on standardized tests, (c) cover vast scope of material within a limited amount of time, (d) consequences of promotion or graduation, and (e) external requirements of traditional examinations  Vision, strategy, and plan: lack of time to make the ICT strategy plan, lack of ICT policy plan, ICT integration plan, ICT integration leadership, integration support, evaluation of implementation of ICT integration, Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 8. References 8  Hew, Khe Foon, and Thomas Brush. “Integrating Technology into K-12 Teaching and Learning: Current Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Future Research.” Educational Technology Research and Development 55, no. 3 (December 5, 2006): 223–52. doi:10.1007/s11423-006-9022-5.  Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Lillian Buus. “A Theoretical Framework Mapping Barriers of Integrating and Adopting Educational Technology.” Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, Submitted 2013, Status: Accepted for peer–review.  Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Tom Nyvang. “Application of PLA Methods in Educational Technology Research: A Rural Bangladeshi Case.” In Changing Education Through ICT in Developing Countries, edited by Marianne Georgsen and Pär-Ola Mikael Zander, 107–30. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press, 2013. http://vbn.aau.dk/files/160291988/Changing_Education_OA_version.pdf.  Koehler, M. J., and P. Mishra. “What Is TPACK.” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2009. Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014
  • 9. Discussion 9 Global Wireless Summit 2014, Aalborg, Denmark Monday, November 24, 2014