SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 21
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
CARTOGRAPHY OF CONTROVERSIES
ABOUT MOOCS
MD. SAIFUDDIN KHALID AND ELSEBETH K. SORENSEN
KHALID@LEARNING.AAU.DK & ELSEBETH@LEARNING.AAU.DK
AALBORG UNIVERSITY, DENMARK
Global Learn Berlin 2015:
Global Conference on Learning and Technology "The Local Global Conference"
16-17 April, 2015
Outline
• Introduction
• Motivation and Scope
• Objectives
• What Comprises a Controversy
• ANT and Cartography of Controversies Method
• Digital Techniques: Constraints and Facts
• From a Framework of Controversy-website to
Framework of Research Paper
• Mapping controversies about MOOCs
• Conclusion and Future works
Introduction
• MOOCs (e.g. Edx, Coursera, Udacity, Udemy, FutureLearn,
P2PU, Moodle, MIT’s OCW, etc.) are educational
technologies: highly debated issue, polarized among
proponents, boosters, skeptics, and opponents.
• “Cartography of controversies” is a method that guides the
application of actor network theory (ANT) and originated from
science and technology studies (STS) discipline.
• “Adopted and developed in several universities in Europe
and the US, the cartography of controversies is today a full
research method, though, unfortunately, not a much
documented one” (Venturini, 2010, p. 258).
• The method is documented for website production as the
medium of communication but not as a research paper (see,
fx, Venturini, 2010).
Objectives
• To adopt the cartography of controversies method in the
fields of education and educational technology.
• This paper documents and demonstrates how
controversial issues can be documented by using the
method cartography of controversies and proposes that
such investigations can be reported as a genre of the
scholarly article.
• It includes observations and explorations of the contents in
the online digital media and analyzes of the nature of
controversies about MOOCs.
• It demonstrates the application of some of the digital tools
for the data collection and analyzes.
What Comprises a Controversy
• MACOSPOL: Controversy is every aspect of a science
and technology concept or product that has not yet
stabilized.
• Simply put, “controversies are situations where actors
disagree (or better, agree on their disagreement)”
• “[I]n the widest sense: controversies begin when actors
discover that they cannot ignore each other and
controversies end when actors manage to work out a
solid compromise to live together.” (Venturini, 2010, p.
261).
What Comprises a Controversy (Cont.)
• Five features of social controversies (Venturini, 2010):
1. “Controversies involve all kind of actors, human groups/beings and
non-human actors” (e.g. technical and scientific artefacts, biological
and natural elements and etc.),
2. “Controversies display the social in its most dynamic form” (i.e. an
actor can break into a network and a heterogeneous network can
coalesce to function as an actor),
3. “Controversies are reduction-resistant” (i.e. context dependent and
non-generalizable) and “the difficulty of controversy is not that actors
disagree on answers, but that they cannot even agree on
questions”,
4. “Controversies are debated” (i.e. taken-for-granted ideas are
questioned and discussed),
5. “Controversies are conflicts”, not necessarily involving fights (i.e.
actors with different levels of power struggle to reverse or conserve
social values and opinions.
• A good controversy is not (1) cold, (2), past, (3) boundless, or (4)
underground, that is, open to public debate.
ANT and Cartography of Controversies
Method
• Latour et al. “attempts to create a new research tool, to
follow the dynamics of science and technology. ‘Socio-
Technical Analysis’ develops new quantitative indicators
and graphic representations with which to map the
development of a scientific controversy or a technical
innovation.”(1992, p. 33)
• Venturini (2010), a student of Latour, elaborates
• how to explore controversies with actor-network
theory
• how to represent controversies with digital methods
ANT and Cartography of Controversies
Method (Cont.)
Venturini’s five layers of controversy and observation
lenses:
• From statements to literatures
• From literatures to actors
• From actors to networks
• From networks to cosmoses
• From cosmoses to cosmopolitics
Digital Techniques:
Constraints and Facts
• A search engine does not search the whole web;
• the content on the web does not include all the content
on the Internet;
• the content on the Internet only a subset of the content
in the digital media;
• the digital content is a subset of the data in the World.
From a Framework of Controversy-
website to Framework of Research Paper
Framework for controversy website comprising 9+1 layers
as a pedagogical tool to facilitate university students as a
deliverable alternative to project report (Venturini, 2012):
1. The glossary of terms and non-controversial elements.
2. The document repository.
3. The analysis of scientific literature or Scientometrics.
4. The review of media and public opinion
5. The tree of disagreement
6. The scale of controversies
7. The diagram of actor-networks.
8. The chronology of the dispute.
9. The table of cosmoses
10.Perform public debate
Mapping controversies about MOOCs
Layer 1. The glossary of terms and non-controversial
elements.
• xMOOCs: e.g. Udacity, Coursera, edX
• cMOOCs: constructivist pedagogical model, learner
autonomy, includes – LMSs, wiki and web pages.
• quasi-MOOCs: e.g. Khan Academy and MIT’s
OpenCourseWare (OCW)
Layer 2. The document repository.
• Public access: http://tinyurl.com/nh6qy58
Layer 3. Scientometrics
Analysis on 340 documents; Scopus search result from query
using ”MOOC AND massive open online course”
Layer 3. Scientometrics
Figure 1. MOOC documents in
Scopus by subject area
Figure 2. MOOC documents in
Scopus by type
Layer 3. Scientometrics (Cont.)
Figure 3. MOOC papers by authors from
developed countries (affiliation inst.)
Figure 4. MOOC papers by authors from
developing countries (affiliation institution)
Figure 5. Main authors, keywords and sources (actor-networks) in relation to MOOC
documents in Scopus
Layer 3. Scientometrics (Cont.)
Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion
Figure 6 Interest over time on “MOOC” and “MOOCs”, including news headlines
linked to alphabets
Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion (Cont.)
Figure 7. Regional interest using the term
”MOOCs”
Figure 8. Regional interest using the
term ”MOOC”
Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion (Cont.)
Figure 9. Partial view of the actor-network mapping of Twitter hashtag #MOOC
Layer 5-9: Work-in-progress
Example of analysis approach, considering one of the news
articles from Google trends graph
Layer 5: The tree of disagreement
• 1. Can MOOCs fill gaps for high schools students in relation to
their needs? 2. Should high schools students gain credits for
participation in MOOCs?
Layer 7: The diagram of actor networks
• Actors: EdX, Coursera, secondary education students, and St.
Margaret’s Episcopal School.
Layer 9: Actor-ideology representation by the table of cosmoses:
• Education sectors, under which there can be higher education
and Secondary education.
Layer 8: The chronology of the dispute.
Layer 10: Perform public debate (excluded)
Conclusion and Future Work
• The paper takes the point of departure from the STS
discipline applying the theory of ANT by recently devised
cartography of controversies method to explore the
Internet-accessible media.
• We discuss a 10-layer framework published by Venturini,
one of the students of Latour, as a way to adapt the
framework suitable for academic publication genre,
instead of a making a website.
• We covered the first four layers of the mapping in
sufficient details but could not include some of the
network analysis, and summarized the approach being
applied to the rest of the work-in-progress layers (i.e.
layer 5-9).
Conclusion and Future Work (Cont.)
• The controversy of MOOC is considered as a case
• Data collected from Scopus, Google Trends, Twitter and
the Internet of website (using URL Harvester and
Crawler Tools),
• Presented the cartographies by using Scientometric
analysis tools (i.e. Scopus, ScienceScape and Excel)
and network data collection and various visualization
tools (NodeXL, Google Trends, Navicrawler, Gephi,
OpenHeatMap).
Questions and Comments
For access to the paper, references,
and to raise questions/provide
feedback please visit:
https://www.researchgate.net/publicati
on/275023999_Cartography_of_Contr
oversies_about_MOOCs
Citation:
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Elsebeth Korsgaard
Sorensen. “Cartography of Controversies about
MOOCs.” In Proceedings of Global Learn 2015,
2015:25–35. FernUniversität in Hagen,
Regionalzentrum Berlin: April 16-17, 2015:
Association for the Advancement of Computing in
Education (AACE), 2015.
http://www.editlib.org/pv/150845/.
Access to the Author Version
of the Paper, via Researchgate

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Andere mochten auch

What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...
What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...
What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction Design
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction DesignSession ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction Design
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction DesignKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive Systems
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive SystemsSession 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive Systems
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive SystemsKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductEvaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network Theory
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network TheoryMapping Experiences with Actor Network Theory
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network TheoryLiza Potts
 

Andere mochten auch (7)

What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...
What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...
What does mapping controversies mean and why controversies are charted and vi...
 
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)
Introduction to Interaction Design Course 2017 (5 ECTS)
 
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction Design
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction DesignSession ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction Design
Session ID1 Lecture 1 -What is Interaction Design
 
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive Systems
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive SystemsSession 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive Systems
Session 1 Lecture 2 PACT A Framework for Designing Interactive Systems
 
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductEvaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
 
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network Theory
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network TheoryMapping Experiences with Actor Network Theory
Mapping Experiences with Actor Network Theory
 
reveal.js 3.0.0
reveal.js 3.0.0reveal.js 3.0.0
reveal.js 3.0.0
 

Ähnlich wie Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs

Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conference
Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 ConferenceConole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conference
Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conferencegrainne
 
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3SMCFrance
 
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for research
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for researchEveryday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for research
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for researchFrancesca Di Donato
 
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...Ramine Tinati
 
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010Ongoing activities october 15th 2010
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010ictseserv
 
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - OntologiesPhilosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - OntologiesNicolae Sfetcu
 
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American context
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American contextOpen Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American context
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American contextTecnológico de Monterrey
 
Social Construction Of Technology
Social Construction Of TechnologySocial Construction Of Technology
Social Construction Of Technologygabb2118
 
Forty Years of the OTA
Forty Years of the OTAForty Years of the OTA
Forty Years of the OTAMartin Wynne
 
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...Enrico Motta
 
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation Processes
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation ProcessesEfficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation Processes
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation ProcessesMikko Ahonen
 
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1Lauri Eloranta
 
A framework of Web Science
A framework of Web Science A framework of Web Science
A framework of Web Science vafopoulos
 
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?Christian Bokhove
 
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DH
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DHLorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DH
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DHlorna_hughes
 
Technology for liberal education: the state of the art
Technology for liberal education: the state of the artTechnology for liberal education: the state of the art
Technology for liberal education: the state of the artBryan Alexander
 
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration Patterns
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration PatternsActivating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration Patterns
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration PatternsCommunitySense
 
شبكات التواصل
شبكات التواصلشبكات التواصل
شبكات التواصلNoha Abdelmoaty
 
Lee-ACA emerging tech show
Lee-ACA emerging tech showLee-ACA emerging tech show
Lee-ACA emerging tech showBryan Alexander
 

Ähnlich wie Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs (20)

Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conference
Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 ConferenceConole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conference
Conole Keynote Ascilite 2009 Conference
 
Cook et al
Cook et alCook et al
Cook et al
 
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3
Franck Rebillard, Professeur Université Paris 3
 
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for research
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for researchEveryday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for research
Everyday digital scholarship: Using web-based tools for research
 
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...
WSI Stimulus Project: Centre for longitudinal studies of online citizen parti...
 
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010Ongoing activities october 15th 2010
Ongoing activities october 15th 2010
 
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - OntologiesPhilosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies
Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies
 
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American context
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American contextOpen Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American context
Open Educational Resources: Experiences of use in a Latin-American context
 
Social Construction Of Technology
Social Construction Of TechnologySocial Construction Of Technology
Social Construction Of Technology
 
Forty Years of the OTA
Forty Years of the OTAForty Years of the OTA
Forty Years of the OTA
 
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...
Research in Intelligent Systems and Data Science at the Knowledge Media Insti...
 
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation Processes
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation ProcessesEfficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation Processes
Efficient Use of Internet and Social Media Tools in Innovation Processes
 
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1
Introduction to Computational Social Science - Lecture 1
 
A framework of Web Science
A framework of Web Science A framework of Web Science
A framework of Web Science
 
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?
Computational Social Science – what is it and what can(‘t) it do?
 
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DH
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DHLorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DH
Lorna hughes 12 05-2013 NeDiMAH and ontology for DH
 
Technology for liberal education: the state of the art
Technology for liberal education: the state of the artTechnology for liberal education: the state of the art
Technology for liberal education: the state of the art
 
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration Patterns
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration PatternsActivating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration Patterns
Activating Research Collaboratories with Collaboration Patterns
 
شبكات التواصل
شبكات التواصلشبكات التواصل
شبكات التواصل
 
Lee-ACA emerging tech show
Lee-ACA emerging tech showLee-ACA emerging tech show
Lee-ACA emerging tech show
 

Mehr von Khalid Md Saifuddin

Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at Scale
Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at ScaleLearning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at Scale
Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at ScaleKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and have
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and haveStudents find it difficult to explain what skills they need and have
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and haveKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DC
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DCKhalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DC
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DCKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School ChildrenConsiderations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School ChildrenKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Workshop introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...
Workshop  introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...Workshop  introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...
Workshop introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User Stories
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User StoriesScrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User Stories
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User StoriesKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacySystematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacyKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video Production
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video ProductionCSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video Production
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video ProductionKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Competence and education development in the globalization perspective
Competence and education development in the globalization perspectiveCompetence and education development in the globalization perspective
Competence and education development in the globalization perspectiveKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing CountriesBarriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing CountriesKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schools
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schoolsExploring the use of i pads in danish schools
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schoolsKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural Bangladesh
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural BangladeshSchool-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural Bangladesh
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural BangladeshKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, Greece
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, GreecePecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, Greece
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, GreeceKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...Khalid Md Saifuddin
 

Mehr von Khalid Md Saifuddin (20)

Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at Scale
Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at ScaleLearning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at Scale
Learning Technology for Improving Teaching Quality at Scale
 
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and have
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and haveStudents find it difficult to explain what skills they need and have
Students find it difficult to explain what skills they need and have
 
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...
Cross-location and Cross-disciplinary Collaborative Prototyping Using Virtual...
 
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...
Problematizing the rapid changes in didactics, material and spatial condition...
 
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DC
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DCKhalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DC
Khalid and Peture E-Learn 2016 2 Washington DC
 
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School ChildrenConsiderations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children
Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with School Children
 
Workshop introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...
Workshop  introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...Workshop  introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...
Workshop introduction to web 2.0 technologies and educational application of...
 
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User Stories
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User StoriesScrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User Stories
Scrum and ISO 9241:210 Interaction Design Process and User Stories
 
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacySystematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy
Systematic review and meta-analysis of teachers’ development of digital literacy
 
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video Production
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video ProductionCSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video Production
CSCL 2015 Tracing Sequential Video Production
 
Competence and education development in the globalization perspective
Competence and education development in the globalization perspectiveCompetence and education development in the globalization perspective
Competence and education development in the globalization perspective
 
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...
Software-based Clicker Systems for Classroom Activities of Secondary and Tert...
 
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...
Barriers to the Integration and Adoption of iPads in Schools: A Systematic Li...
 
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing CountriesBarriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries
Barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in Developing Countries
 
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schools
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schoolsExploring the use of i pads in danish schools
Exploring the use of i pads in danish schools
 
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...
A Belief Rule Based (BRB) Decision Support System to Assess Clinical Asthma S...
 
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...
Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and Project Based Learning Act...
 
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural Bangladesh
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural BangladeshSchool-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural Bangladesh
School-Centered Diffusion of Learning Media and Technologies in Rural Bangladesh
 
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, Greece
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, GreecePecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, Greece
Pecha Kucha Made for JTEL Summer School 2011 Chania, Greece
 
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...
ICT in Education-Secondary Technical Vocational Education and Training Instit...
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...HetalPathak10
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 

Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs

  • 1. CARTOGRAPHY OF CONTROVERSIES ABOUT MOOCS MD. SAIFUDDIN KHALID AND ELSEBETH K. SORENSEN KHALID@LEARNING.AAU.DK & ELSEBETH@LEARNING.AAU.DK AALBORG UNIVERSITY, DENMARK Global Learn Berlin 2015: Global Conference on Learning and Technology "The Local Global Conference" 16-17 April, 2015
  • 2. Outline • Introduction • Motivation and Scope • Objectives • What Comprises a Controversy • ANT and Cartography of Controversies Method • Digital Techniques: Constraints and Facts • From a Framework of Controversy-website to Framework of Research Paper • Mapping controversies about MOOCs • Conclusion and Future works
  • 3. Introduction • MOOCs (e.g. Edx, Coursera, Udacity, Udemy, FutureLearn, P2PU, Moodle, MIT’s OCW, etc.) are educational technologies: highly debated issue, polarized among proponents, boosters, skeptics, and opponents. • “Cartography of controversies” is a method that guides the application of actor network theory (ANT) and originated from science and technology studies (STS) discipline. • “Adopted and developed in several universities in Europe and the US, the cartography of controversies is today a full research method, though, unfortunately, not a much documented one” (Venturini, 2010, p. 258). • The method is documented for website production as the medium of communication but not as a research paper (see, fx, Venturini, 2010).
  • 4. Objectives • To adopt the cartography of controversies method in the fields of education and educational technology. • This paper documents and demonstrates how controversial issues can be documented by using the method cartography of controversies and proposes that such investigations can be reported as a genre of the scholarly article. • It includes observations and explorations of the contents in the online digital media and analyzes of the nature of controversies about MOOCs. • It demonstrates the application of some of the digital tools for the data collection and analyzes.
  • 5. What Comprises a Controversy • MACOSPOL: Controversy is every aspect of a science and technology concept or product that has not yet stabilized. • Simply put, “controversies are situations where actors disagree (or better, agree on their disagreement)” • “[I]n the widest sense: controversies begin when actors discover that they cannot ignore each other and controversies end when actors manage to work out a solid compromise to live together.” (Venturini, 2010, p. 261).
  • 6. What Comprises a Controversy (Cont.) • Five features of social controversies (Venturini, 2010): 1. “Controversies involve all kind of actors, human groups/beings and non-human actors” (e.g. technical and scientific artefacts, biological and natural elements and etc.), 2. “Controversies display the social in its most dynamic form” (i.e. an actor can break into a network and a heterogeneous network can coalesce to function as an actor), 3. “Controversies are reduction-resistant” (i.e. context dependent and non-generalizable) and “the difficulty of controversy is not that actors disagree on answers, but that they cannot even agree on questions”, 4. “Controversies are debated” (i.e. taken-for-granted ideas are questioned and discussed), 5. “Controversies are conflicts”, not necessarily involving fights (i.e. actors with different levels of power struggle to reverse or conserve social values and opinions. • A good controversy is not (1) cold, (2), past, (3) boundless, or (4) underground, that is, open to public debate.
  • 7. ANT and Cartography of Controversies Method • Latour et al. “attempts to create a new research tool, to follow the dynamics of science and technology. ‘Socio- Technical Analysis’ develops new quantitative indicators and graphic representations with which to map the development of a scientific controversy or a technical innovation.”(1992, p. 33) • Venturini (2010), a student of Latour, elaborates • how to explore controversies with actor-network theory • how to represent controversies with digital methods
  • 8. ANT and Cartography of Controversies Method (Cont.) Venturini’s five layers of controversy and observation lenses: • From statements to literatures • From literatures to actors • From actors to networks • From networks to cosmoses • From cosmoses to cosmopolitics
  • 9. Digital Techniques: Constraints and Facts • A search engine does not search the whole web; • the content on the web does not include all the content on the Internet; • the content on the Internet only a subset of the content in the digital media; • the digital content is a subset of the data in the World.
  • 10. From a Framework of Controversy- website to Framework of Research Paper Framework for controversy website comprising 9+1 layers as a pedagogical tool to facilitate university students as a deliverable alternative to project report (Venturini, 2012): 1. The glossary of terms and non-controversial elements. 2. The document repository. 3. The analysis of scientific literature or Scientometrics. 4. The review of media and public opinion 5. The tree of disagreement 6. The scale of controversies 7. The diagram of actor-networks. 8. The chronology of the dispute. 9. The table of cosmoses 10.Perform public debate
  • 11. Mapping controversies about MOOCs Layer 1. The glossary of terms and non-controversial elements. • xMOOCs: e.g. Udacity, Coursera, edX • cMOOCs: constructivist pedagogical model, learner autonomy, includes – LMSs, wiki and web pages. • quasi-MOOCs: e.g. Khan Academy and MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) Layer 2. The document repository. • Public access: http://tinyurl.com/nh6qy58 Layer 3. Scientometrics Analysis on 340 documents; Scopus search result from query using ”MOOC AND massive open online course”
  • 12. Layer 3. Scientometrics Figure 1. MOOC documents in Scopus by subject area Figure 2. MOOC documents in Scopus by type
  • 13. Layer 3. Scientometrics (Cont.) Figure 3. MOOC papers by authors from developed countries (affiliation inst.) Figure 4. MOOC papers by authors from developing countries (affiliation institution)
  • 14. Figure 5. Main authors, keywords and sources (actor-networks) in relation to MOOC documents in Scopus Layer 3. Scientometrics (Cont.)
  • 15. Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion Figure 6 Interest over time on “MOOC” and “MOOCs”, including news headlines linked to alphabets
  • 16. Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion (Cont.) Figure 7. Regional interest using the term ”MOOCs” Figure 8. Regional interest using the term ”MOOC”
  • 17. Layer 4. The review of media and public opinion (Cont.) Figure 9. Partial view of the actor-network mapping of Twitter hashtag #MOOC
  • 18. Layer 5-9: Work-in-progress Example of analysis approach, considering one of the news articles from Google trends graph Layer 5: The tree of disagreement • 1. Can MOOCs fill gaps for high schools students in relation to their needs? 2. Should high schools students gain credits for participation in MOOCs? Layer 7: The diagram of actor networks • Actors: EdX, Coursera, secondary education students, and St. Margaret’s Episcopal School. Layer 9: Actor-ideology representation by the table of cosmoses: • Education sectors, under which there can be higher education and Secondary education. Layer 8: The chronology of the dispute. Layer 10: Perform public debate (excluded)
  • 19. Conclusion and Future Work • The paper takes the point of departure from the STS discipline applying the theory of ANT by recently devised cartography of controversies method to explore the Internet-accessible media. • We discuss a 10-layer framework published by Venturini, one of the students of Latour, as a way to adapt the framework suitable for academic publication genre, instead of a making a website. • We covered the first four layers of the mapping in sufficient details but could not include some of the network analysis, and summarized the approach being applied to the rest of the work-in-progress layers (i.e. layer 5-9).
  • 20. Conclusion and Future Work (Cont.) • The controversy of MOOC is considered as a case • Data collected from Scopus, Google Trends, Twitter and the Internet of website (using URL Harvester and Crawler Tools), • Presented the cartographies by using Scientometric analysis tools (i.e. Scopus, ScienceScape and Excel) and network data collection and various visualization tools (NodeXL, Google Trends, Navicrawler, Gephi, OpenHeatMap).
  • 21. Questions and Comments For access to the paper, references, and to raise questions/provide feedback please visit: https://www.researchgate.net/publicati on/275023999_Cartography_of_Contr oversies_about_MOOCs Citation: Khalid, Md. Saifuddin, and Elsebeth Korsgaard Sorensen. “Cartography of Controversies about MOOCs.” In Proceedings of Global Learn 2015, 2015:25–35. FernUniversität in Hagen, Regionalzentrum Berlin: April 16-17, 2015: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2015. http://www.editlib.org/pv/150845/. Access to the Author Version of the Paper, via Researchgate