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© Ken O’Connor, 2004
1
Which Fixes Work for You?
Presented by
Ken O’Connor
Assess for Success Consulting
kenoc@aol.com
416...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
2
• consistent
• accurate
• meaningful, and
• supportive of learning?
The Essential Question(s)
How c...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
3
“The grading box is alive and well,
and in some schools and classrooms,
it is impenetrable. Fair do...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
4
“Those who experience . . . success gain the
confidence needed to risk trying. . .
Students who exp...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
5
“the primary purpose of . . grades . . . (is) to
communicate student achievement
to students, paren...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
6
Professional Judgment
“decisions made by educators, in light of
experience, and with reference to s...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
7
Grades are broken when they -
• include ingredients that distort achievement
• arise from low quali...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
8
Fixes for ingredients that distort achievement
1. Don’t include student behaviors (effort, particip...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
9
Fixes for low quality or poorly organized evidence
7. Don’t organize information in grading records...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
10
Fixes for inappropriate number
crunching
11. Don’t rely only on the mean; consider
other measures ...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
11
Fixes to support the learning process
13. Don’t use information from formative
assessments and pra...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
12
For each Fix
•What do you think? - PMI
• Where are you/school/district now?
• Where do you want to...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
13
#1
Don’t include student behaviors
(effort, participation, adherence to
class rules, etc) in grade...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
14
#2
Don’t reduce marks on ‘work’
submitted late; provide support
for the learner.
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
15
Fix #3
Don’t give points for extra credit or
use bonus points; seek only evidence
that more work h...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
16
Fix #4
Don’t punish academic dishonesty
with reduced grades; apply other
consequences and reassess...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
17
Fix #5
Don’t consider attendance in grade
determination; report absences
separately.
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
18
#6
Don’t include group scores in grades;
use only individual achievement
evidence.
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
19
Fix #7
Don’t organize information in
grading records by assessment
methods or simply summarize int...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
20
Fix #8
Don’t assign grades using
inappropriate or unclear performance
standards; provide clear des...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
21
Fix #9
Don’t assign grades based on student’s
achievement compared to other
students; compare each...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
22
Fix #10
Don’t rely on evidence from
assessments that fail to meet standards
of quality; rely only ...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
23
Fix # 11
Don’t rely on the mean; consider other
measures of central tendency and use
professional ...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
24
Fix #12
Don’t include zeros in grade
determination when evidence is
missing or as punishment; use
...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
25
#13
Don’t use information from formative
assessments and practice to determine
grades; use only su...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
26
Fix #14
Don’t summarize evidence accumulated
over time when learning is
developmental and will gro...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
27
Fix #15
Don’t leave students out of the
grading process. Involve students;
they can - and should -...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
28
Grades
should come from
body + performance + guidelines
of standards
evidence
i.e., professional j...
© Ken O’Connor, 2004
29
For grades that are:
Consistent fix 8
Accurate fixes 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10
11 12 14
Meaningful fix 7
Su...
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Pearson/ATI Which Fixes Work for You

ATI/Pearson 20th Annual Summer Conference breakout session to be presented on July 8 and 9, 2013. This is discussion session with minimal presentation for those already involved in implementing standards/proficiency-based grading.

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Pearson/ATI Which Fixes Work for You

  1. 1. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 1 Which Fixes Work for You? Presented by Ken O’Connor Assess for Success Consulting kenoc@aol.com 416 267 4234
  2. 2. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 2 • consistent • accurate • meaningful, and • supportive of learning? The Essential Question(s) How confident are you that the grades students get in your school are:
  3. 3. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 3 “The grading box is alive and well, and in some schools and classrooms, it is impenetrable. Fair does not mean equal; yet, when it comes to grading, we insist that it does.” Patterson, William “Breaking Out of Our Boxes,” Kappan, April 2003, 572
  4. 4. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 4 “Those who experience . . . success gain the confidence needed to risk trying. . . Students who experience failure lose confidence in themselves, stop trying, and . . . fail even more frequently. As it turns out, confidence is the key to student success in all learning situations.” Stiggins, R., Student-Involved Classroom Assessment, Merrill Prentice Hall, 2001, 43
  5. 5. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 5 “the primary purpose of . . grades . . . (is) to communicate student achievement to students, parents, school administrators, post-secondary institutions and employers.” Bailey, J. and McTighe, J., “Reporting Achievement at the Secondary School Level: What and How?”, in Thomas R. Guskey, (Ed.) Communicating Student Learning: ASCD Yearbook 1996, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 120
  6. 6. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 6 Professional Judgment “decisions made by educators, in light of experience, and with reference to shared public standards and established policies and guidelines.” (Cooper)
  7. 7. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 7 Grades are broken when they - • include ingredients that distort achievement • arise from low quality or poorly organized evidence • are derived from inappropriate number crunching, and when they • do not support the learning process.
  8. 8. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 8 Fixes for ingredients that distort achievement 1. Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc) in grades; include only achievement. 2. Don’t reduce marks on “work” submitted late; provide support for the learner. 3. Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement. 4. Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement. 5. Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately. 6. Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence.
  9. 9. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 9 Fixes for low quality or poorly organized evidence 7. Don’t organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/ learning goals. 8. Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations. 9. Don’t assign grades based on student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to preset standards. 10. Don’t rely on evidence from assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments.
  10. 10. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 10 Fixes for inappropriate number crunching 11. Don’t rely only on the mean; consider other measures of central tendency and use professional judgment. 12. Don’t include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing or as punishment; use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real achievement or use “I” for Incomplete or Insufficient Evidence.
  11. 11. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 11 Fixes to support the learning process 13. Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence. 14. Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances, emphasize more recent achievement. 15. Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can - and should - play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement.
  12. 12. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 12 For each Fix •What do you think? - PMI • Where are you/school/district now? • Where do you want to go - you/school /district?
  13. 13. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 13 #1 Don’t include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc) in grades; include only achievement.
  14. 14. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 14 #2 Don’t reduce marks on ‘work’ submitted late; provide support for the learner.
  15. 15. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 15 Fix #3 Don’t give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement.
  16. 16. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 16 Fix #4 Don’t punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement.
  17. 17. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 17 Fix #5 Don’t consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately.
  18. 18. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 18 #6 Don’t include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence.
  19. 19. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 19 Fix #7 Don’t organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals.
  20. 20. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 20 Fix #8 Don’t assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations.
  21. 21. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 21 Fix #9 Don’t assign grades based on student’s achievement compared to other students; compare each student’s performance to preset standards.
  22. 22. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 22 Fix #10 Don’t rely on evidence from assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments.
  23. 23. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 23 Fix # 11 Don’t rely on the mean; consider other measures of central tendency and use professional judgment.
  24. 24. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 24 Fix #12 Don’t include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing or as punishment; use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real level of achievement or use “I” for Incomplete or Insufficient evidence.
  25. 25. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 25 #13 Don’t use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence.
  26. 26. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 26 Fix #14 Don’t summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances emphasize more recent achievement.
  27. 27. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 27 Fix #15 Don’t leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can - and should - play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement.
  28. 28. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 28 Grades should come from body + performance + guidelines of standards evidence i.e., professional judgment NOT just number crunching a
  29. 29. © Ken O’Connor, 2004 29 For grades that are: Consistent fix 8 Accurate fixes 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 14 Meaningful fix 7 Supportive of learning fixes 13 14 15

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ATI/Pearson 20th Annual Summer Conference breakout session to be presented on July 8 and 9, 2013. This is discussion session with minimal presentation for those already involved in implementing standards/proficiency-based grading.

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