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# Wild life census and its role in conservation

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census of wildlife

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### Wild life census and its role in conservation

1. 1. By conservation census is defined as the counting of all individuals belonging to the group of interest within a defines area and a survey when only a proportion are counted. It is originated from the Latin word censere which means to estimate.
2. 2.  GENERAL  QUADRATE  MARK RECAPTURE  DISTANCE SAMPLING  CAMERA TRAPPING  OTHER METHODS
3. 3. Count directly the number of individuals  Sampling the habitat  Attempted complete enumeration  Plotless sampling
4. 4.  Sampling area is divided into small squares called quadrate.  Suitable for sampling plants, slow moving animals and some aquatic organisms.
5. 5. Sample animals are catched up marked them and releases them to mixed thoroughly with the rest of the population and recaptured to estimate the size of the population mathematically.
6. 6. It is a widely-used group of closely related methods for estimating the density and/or abundance of biological populations. The main methods are  Line transect A series of straight lines(track lines) is traversed by an observer. This may be achieved in various ways, depending on the study species  Point transect In this method points are selected randomly and count number of organism present at each point from this number the population size is estimated.
7. 7. Line transect Point transect
8. 8. The use of automatic cameras triggered by passing animals, record medium to large mammals and terrestrial birds in the field. Photographs provide objective records or evidence of an animal’s presence and identity. TYPES  Active camera trap Noted only motion of animal.  Passive camera trap Noted motion as well as stripes.
9. 9.  Infra red camera Animal friendly, take continuous shoot and produce black and white image.  Digital flash camera Provide colour images,not animal friendly(Animals are terrified by flash)
10. 10.  Netting  Trapping  Removal methods  Using multiple studies Handnet
11. 11.  Hand capturing  Noosing  Trapping  Marking individuals noose
12. 12.  Total counts  Nesting or resting structre  Line transects  Aerial survey  Individual recognition  Trapping  Counting dung  Counting foot prints
13. 13. Pug MARKOFSAMBaRDEER PUg MARKOFTIGER
14. 14. By virtue of being the top predator, the tiger functions as an umbrella species for the conservation of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, goods, and services in forest systems of Asia. double sampling approach is used First component  Ground surveys of all potential tiger. Second component  Camera trapping and recapture techniques  Line transects based distance sampling
15. 15.  Status of particular species.  Ratio of male and female.  Age of the species.  Number of individuals belonging to different species.
16. 16.  Extinct No individuals remaining.  Extinct in the wild survive on in captivity out side its historic range.  Critically endangered Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. Estimated number of population is less than 50.  Endangered High risk of extinction in the wild in near future. Estimated number of population is less than 250
17. 17.  Vulnarable High risk of endangeredment in the wild in medium term future. future. Estimated number of population is less than 1000  Near threatened Likely to be endangered in the near future.  Least concern Wide spread and abundant taxa ,does not qualify for more at Risk.  Data deficient Not enough data to make an assessment of risk of extinction.  Not evaluated Has not been evaluated against the criteria.
18. 18. Critically Endangered mammals I. Himalayan Brown or Red Bear(Urcus arctos isobellinus). II. Pygmy Hog (Parcula salvania). III. Andaman White Toothed Shrew (Crocidura andamansis). IV. Kandana Rat (Millardia Kandana). V. Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat (Cremnomys elvira). VI. Namdapha Flying Squirrel(Biswanoyepterus biswasi). VII. Malavar civet (Viverra civenttina). VIII. Sumatran Rinocerous (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). IX. Kasmir stag/hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu).
19. 19. Endangered mammals I. Red Panda. II. Wild Ass/Khur (Equus hemionus khur.) III. Dhole / Asiatic Wild dog or Indian wild dog (Coun alpinus). IV. Elds’s deer/thamin or brown antlered deer (Panolia eldii). V. Golden langur (Trachypithecus geei). VI. Himalayan / White bellied Musk Deer. VII. Hispid hare/Assam rabbit (Caprolagus hispidus). VIII. Hog deer IX. Lion tailed macaque/Wanderoo (Macaca silensis). X. Chital/ Tibetian Antelope. XI. Nilgiri tahr. Endangered marine mammals freshwater / river dolphin.
20. 20. By census we can able to know the status of an organism, habitat distribution, reproductive behaviour and number. Based on the status different conservation strategies are used.
21. 21. I. Sutterland W.J,Ecological Census Techniques A Hand Book,second edition,2006,Pp(90- 141) (278-365). II. Verma A,Fischer A, Wal R.V.D,Imagining Wildlife New Techniques And Animal Census,Maps and Museum,2016. Pp (75-77). III. Silveria L,Jacomo A.T.A, Alexandre J, Diniz-Felho, Camera Trap, Line Transact Census and Track Surveys-A Complete evaluation 2003, Pp (352-353.) IV. Paul Meek,Guy Ballard, Peter Flaming, An Introduction to Camera Trapping for Wildlife Surveys in Australia,2012, Pp(16-17). V. Rosemary k.Baraclough,Distance Sampling- A discussion Documents Produced for the Development of Conservation,2000, Pp(15-16). VI. Y. V. Jahala,Q.Quershi,R. Gopal,2015,The Status of Tiger India 2014,Pp(1-24). VII. IUCN Red List India – Red data List – Red Book-1