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M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M (Eclipse DemoCamp Trondheim)

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M4M or Measure 4 Measure, ever since Shakespeare's play with the same name we know, people can be mistaken for one another. A Duke (like the beloved Java mascot) claims to be a monk, the head of a dead pirate is presented to be that of the young hero. So can important information like Units of Measurement be misinterpreted. While humans reading 10°C, 10 C or 10 Degree Celsius, each of those could be interpreted and understood well enough. For M2M communication, unless a program is provided with a large glossary of alternate terms, only ONE of these would be acceptable.

This is where the Unified Code for Units of Measurement (UCUM) among similar approaches like UnitsML, SensorML or a few others are vital for error-free M2M transactions, not just between sensors or measurement devices, but also and especially vehicles or distributed devices.

OSGi Measurement has been around for some time (R3) but never gained as much momentum, as many other bundles of OSGi did. Except for very few use cases in the Embedded or Automotive sector it is practically unused and based on statements by its contributors in the OSGi Alliance to be considered legacy with no plans continue development.

After a brief overview of common M2M errors from Gimli to Mars, This session provides an overview of OSGi Measurement, Eclipse OUMo, what they have in common and where the differences lie. Although most of today's OSGi containers are capable of dealing with units or measurement better and more reliable with UOMo, both can where necessary also exchange information and collaborate. E.g. if legacy devices and code cannot be easily replaced. For this We'll take a look at interoperability between different systems or with other unit technologies and languages like F#, Fantom, Python or Lua.

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M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M (Eclipse DemoCamp Trondheim)

  1. 1. M4M 2 the Rescue of M2M Werner Keil Eclipse DemoCamp Trondheim 28th August 2013 Standards for The Internet of Things
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Sensors • Historic IT Errors and Bugs • UOMo, Unit-API, UCUM • Sensor Web, SensorML • Demo • M2M • Use Cases, Framework, Protocols, Tools • NFC • Use Cases, Adoption, OpenNFC • Other Trends • Java ME Embedded Standards • Q&A 2 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
  3. 3. Who am I? 3 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Werner Keil • Consultant – Coach • Creative Cosmopolitan • Open Source Evangelist • Software Architect • Java Godfather • UOMo Project Lead • Mærsk DevOps Guy … Email werner@catmedia.us Twitter @wernerkeil
  4. 4. Java Godfather? 4 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  5. 5. Measure for Measure 5 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Mistaking a Pirate… Images © Copyright 2011 Getty Images
  6. 6. Measure for Measure 6 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies For a hero of the story... Images © Copyright 2012 The Old Globe, San Diego CA
  7. 7. Measure for Measure 7 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Mistaking a Duke…
  8. 8. Measure for Measure 8 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies For a friar... Images based on poster created for the Oregon Shakespeare Festival © 2011 by Jeff Rauch
  9. 9. Type-Safety • Java does not have strongly typed base types (like e.g. Ada or Smalltalk). • This could change around Java 10 or 11 (based on Oracle Road Map and statements) • For performance reasons most developer prefer primitive types over objects in their interface. • Primitive type arguments can more easily lead to name clashes (methods with the same signature) or other problems (“Auto-Boxing”,…) 9 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
  10. 10. What do these disasters have in common? • Patriot Missile The cause was an inaccurate calculation of the time since boot due to a computer arithmetic error. • Ariane 5 Explosion Floating point number which a value was converted from had a value greater than what would be represented by a 16 bit signed integer. • Gimli Glider (near disaster) Fuel loading was miscalculated through misunderstanding of the recently adopted Metric System, replacing the Imperial System in Canada 10 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  11. 11. • Mars Orbiter Preliminary findings indicate that one team used US/English units (e.g. inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for a key spacecraft operation. • NASA lost a $125 million Mars orbiter because a Lockheed Martin engineering team used English units of measurement while the agency's team used the more conventional metric system for a key spacecraft operation • A credible source disclosed, there was a manual step with an outsourced person to convert these calculations between the different teams, and NASA budget cuts caused them to fire him and have the wrong, unpatched data transmitted!!! • This also underlines the added risk when 3rd party contractors are involved or projects are developed Offshore What do these disasters have in common? 11 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  12. 12. 23rd March 1983. Ronald Reagan announces SDI (or “Star Wars”): ground- based and space-based systems to protect the US from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. NASA “Star Wars” Initiative, 1983 12 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  13. 13. 13 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies 1985: Why did Shuttle belly-flop?
  14. 14. Unit Tests wouldn‘t find these… • All previous examples illustrate three categories of errors difficult to find through Unit Testing: • Interface Errors (e.g. millisecond/second, radian/degree, meters/feet). • Arithmetic Errors (e.g. overflow). • Conversion Errors. Despite their name 14 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies Images © Copyright, American Shakespeare Center
  15. 15. Causes of Conversion Errors • Ambiguity on the unit • Gallon Dry / Gallon Liquid - Gallon US / Gallon UK • Day Sidereal / Day Calendar • Foot in various regions, at least historically, see: http ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_obsolete_units_of_measurement#Fu.C3.9F_. 28foot.29 • Degree Celsius / Degree Fahrenheit • Did you know that Gabriel Fahrenheit was born in Gdansk (Danzig) in northern Poland? • ... • Wrong conversion factors: static final double PIXEL_TO_INCH = 1 / 72; double pixels = inches * PIXEL_TO_INCH 15 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
  16. 16. All of them happened in Mobile, Real Time or Embedded systems! What else do they have in common? 16 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  17. 17. Measurement Package • Namespace: org.osgi.util.measurement • SI only Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. • Measurement Represents a value with an error, a unit and a time-stamp. • State Groups a state name, value and time-stamp • Little usage, e.g. Automotive; no further support ► by OSGi, dropped in V5 OSGi 17 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  18. 18. • Namespace: javax.microediton.sensor* • Focusing on Sensors, but it got a minimalistic Unit API “in the closet” • Unit Essentially an SI singleton holding relevant unit constants, too. JavaDoc: http://pandora.la/java/javadocs/sensor/javax/microedition/sensor/Unit.html • ChannelInfo Holding name, accuracy, data type,measurement ranges, scale and unit • MeasurementRange Range of possible values from minimum to maximum ► Dead Meat (few actual handsets and no vendors except Nokia still use it, nor does Java ME Embedded) JSR-256 18 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Mobile Sensor API
  19. 19. • Namespace: javax.measure.* • Only one interface and one abstract class • public interface Measurable<Q extends Quantity> • public abstract class Measure<V, Q extends Quantity> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length) • unit (holds the SI and NonSI units) • converter (holds unit converters) JSR-275 19 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies Units Specification
  20. 20. • Namespace: org.unitsofmeasurement.* • Only interfaces (and exception classes) • public interface Quantity<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • public interface Unit<Q extends Quantity<Q>> • Three sub-packages • quantity (holds dimensions mass, length,...) • unit (holds units) • service (holds services) The King is Dead… 20 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies Units of Measurement API
  21. 21. Eclipse UOMo One Small Step…
  22. 22. One Unit Framework to Measure them All • Namespace: org.eclipse.uomo.* • Two main areas • Static Type Safe Units of Measure Support • Based on Units of Measurement API ● On top of ICU4J, the Globalization standard at Eclipse and others (Android, GWT, Google Financial, etc.) ► Next major update to Unicode CLDR will add unit support! • Prime UCUM Implementation • Successor to Eclipse OHF UCUM Bundle Eclipse UOMo 22 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  23. 23. Unified Code for Units of Measure The Unified Code for Units of Measure is inspired by and heavily based on • ISO 2955-1983 • ANSI X3.50-1986 • HL7's extensions called ISO+ UOMo UCUM 23 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  24. 24. JSR 354 Implementation “Sisu” equivalent for 354 if you want • ICU4J based implementation of types like • CurrencyUnit • MonetaryAmount • CurrencyConverter • ExchangeRate • … • Bridge to Unit-API where possible for cross-quantity arithmetic (e.g. “$ per gram CO² per mile”) UOMo Business 24 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
  25. 25. DEMO UOMo Examples
  26. 26. “A coordinated observation infrastructure composed of a distributed collection of resources that can collectively behave as a single, autonomous, task-able, dynamically adaptive and reconfigurable observing system that provides raw and processed data, along with associated meta-data, via a set of standards-based service-oriented interfaces.” (Glenn, 2007) 26 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies Sensor Web | What is it?
  27. 27. OGC O&M Observations & Measurements Approved SensorML Sensor Model Language Approved TransducerML Transducer Model Language Approved OGC SOS Sensor Observations Service Approved OGC SPS Sensor Planning Service Approved OGC SAS Sensor Alert Service In progress OGC WNS Web Notification Services In progress Sensor Web | OpenGIS Standards • SW Enablement working group at OGC have developed a number of standards governing different aspects of Sensor Web 27 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  28. 28. 28 Sensor Web | What is the OGC? • Not-for-profit • International industry consortium • Founded 1994, currently 340+ members • Open Standards development by consensus process OGC Mission To lead in the development, promotion and harmonization of open spatial standards … 28 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies©
  29. 29. Sensor Web | Mozambique floods • The task under study is floods in different parts of the world • Particular test case was flooding of Mozambique 29 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies©
  30. 30. SensorML • Sensor modeling language is the cornerstone of all SW services • It provides comprehensive description of sensor parameters and capabilities • It can be used for describing different kind of sensors: – Stationary or dynamic – Remote or in-situ – Physical measurements or simulations 30 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  31. 31. SensorML | Example .............. <inputs> <InputList> <input name="ambiantTemperature"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature"/> </input> <input name="atmosphericPressure"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure"/> </input> <input name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity definition= "urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed"/> </input> </InputList> </inputs> .............. ............. <outputs> <OutputList> <output name="weatherMeasurements"> <swe:DataGroup> <swe:component name="time"> <swe:Time definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:time“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:iso8601"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="temperature"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:temperature uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:celsius"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="barometricPressure"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:pressure“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:bar" scale="1e-3"/> </swe:component> <swe:component name="windSpeed"> <swe:Quantity definition="urn:ogc:def:phenomenon:windSpeed“ uom="urn:ogc:def:unit:meterPerSecond"/> </swe:component> </swe:DataGroup> </output> </OutputList> </outputs> ............. 31 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  32. 32. Transportation & Logistics Logistics Medical & Healthcare Industrial & Energy Communication Infrastructure Security & Surveillance • Public/Private Cloud Deployment Infrastructures Internet of Things M2M | Integrated Processes 32 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0,
  33. 33. • Barrier-type bolt seal • RFID: ID-number + integrity • Bar code • Battery 1 year transmitting • 50 cycles • Range up to 50 meters • 915 MHz + 2.4 GHz • Data transmission rate 500 kbps • Storage 64 bytes RFID e-Seal Example 33 © 2005-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies, Prof. Jens Froese – TU Hamburg-Harburg M2M | Smart Container
  34. 34. Open ecosystem for M2M Third Party Ecosystem Open M2M application framework and runtimes Open M2M communication protocols Internet of Things Open M2M development tools … 34 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  35. 35. A Publish Subscribe messaging protocol allowing a message to be published once and multiple consumers (applications / devices) to receive the message providing decoupling between the producer and consumer(s) A producer sends (publishes) a message (publication) on a topic (subject) A consumer subscribes (makes a subscription) for messages on a topic (subject) A message server / broker matches publications to subscriptions • If no matches the message is discarded • If one or more matches the message is delivered to each matching subscriber/consumer MQTT - Publish Subscribe Messaging 35 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies, Eclipse Foundation, Inc. Made available under the Eclipse Public License 1.0
  36. 36. M2M | Gemalto – Wireless Modules 36 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies, Gemalto
  37. 37. > Exchange photos > Get your e-ticket > Pay without cash > Redeem coupons > Get your Receipt NFC > Pass the gate > Read a map from interactive billboard NFC NFC 37 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies NFC | Use Cases
  38. 38. Chiuaua Driving License: ISO 15693 Toronto Payment: ISO 14443-B & ISO 15693 Sao Paulo Transport: ISO 14443A Singapore Transport : Felica, ISO 14443B Paris Transport : ISO 14443B Tokyo Transport: FelicaTM London Transport : ISO 14443A San Francisco Transport: ISO 14443B Shenzen Transport : ISO 14443B Hong Kong Transport: FelicaTM Seoul Transport : ISO 14443A Japan ID Card: ISO 14443B US Payment: ISO 14443-B & ISO 14443A US Access Control: ISO 15693 Pakistan Passport: ISO 14443B New Delhi Transport:FelicaTM NFC | Where to use this technology Dubai RTA Denmark (Rejsekort), Sweden, Norway, SAS Smart Pass Moscow, St. Petersburg Metro 38 © 2007-2013 Creative Arts & Technologies
  39. 39. Open NFC interfaces can be classified at different levels, from very high-level interfaces that greatly simplify the usual tasks of NFC applications, to very low-level interfaces that allow fine tuning of NFC hardware parameters for example. High Level Interfaces: • NDEF Messages • Bluetooth and Wi-Fi pairing • Read / Write to any tag • P2P • Virtual Tags NFC | Open NFC™ 39 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies Starting Open NFC 4.3.0, the support for Java porting for JSR-257 devices is discontinued. Older releases of the stack were fully compliant with the JSR-257 standard. ► Android Edition is currently the only one actively maintained with Java Binding!
  40. 40. Xively • Language bindings for Java/Android, Python or Ruby contain support for Units of Measurement • Website: http://www.xively.com OpenXC • Feels quite a bit like a modernized OSGi Measurement bundle. Offering only SI units by default, but a more sophisticated Unit and Quantity concept somewhat similar and clearly inspired by Unit-API / JSR-275 • Website: http://openxcplatform.com/ ► Without proper security, Connected Car hacks like that on Tesla pose a great risk to this and all other critical sectors (Health, Avionics,...) CSS 3 • Mostly UI/rendering, but promises almost UCUM-like arithmetic and quantity-checking See: http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-values/ Other Trends for Sensor | Measurement 40 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  41. 41. 2 current JSRs for Mobile and Embedded JSR-360: CLDC 8 • CLDC 8 is an evolutionary update to CLDC 1.1.1 to bring the VM, Java Language, and libraries up to date with Java SE 8. • More: http://java.net/projects/jsr360/pages/Home JSR-361: Java ME Embedded Profile • Update IMP(-NG) to align with state-of-the-art features and current embedded device market requirements. • More: http://java.net/projects/jsr361/pages/Home Embedded Standards | JSR-360, 361 41 © 2007-2012 Creative Arts & Technologies
  42. 42. Q & A
  43. 43. Eclipse – Project UOMo http://www.eclipse.org/uomo/ Units of Measurement API http://www.unitsofmeasurement.org UCUM http://www.unitsofmeasure.org Links
  44. 44. Open Geospatial Consortium http://www.opengeospatial.org Java Community Process http://www.jcp.org Eclipse – M2M IWG http://m2m.eclipse.org Links (2)
  45. 45. Contact werner@catmedia.us or uomo@catmedia.us Twitter: @wernerkeil Hashtag #EclipseUOMo